HVAC - The Ultimate Guide to HVAC and Its Components


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The Ultimate Guide to HVAC and Its Components


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Heating, Ventilation and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) Part 3: HVAC systems and components Supplementary Training Modules on Good Manufacturing Practice


Objectives In the following slides, we will study the components of air - handling systems in order to: Become familiar with the components Know their functions Become aware of possible problems HVAC


+ Production Room Exhaust air treatment Central air handling unit Terminal air treatment at production room level Fresh air treatment (make-up air) HVAC Main subsystems


HVAC Components Components in HVAC may include, depending on need: Filters Fans no fan failure; including supply air fans, return air fans, exhaust air fan, dust extract system fans Driers Drying of air with chemical driers, e.g. rotating desiccant wheel Frost coils for preheating air


HVAC General Pharmaceutical products should be manufactured in areas of appropriate cleanliness Prevent contamination and cross-contamination Design of HVAC dependent on various factors e.g. Outside air quality Recirculation of air (or not) Products and range of products Risk assessment to determine clean room conditions.


HVAC General Two basic concepts of air delivery a re-circulation system, and a full fresh air system (100% outside air supply). Recirculation – determine the amount of fresh air based on criteria: to compensate for leakage and loss to comply with national building regulations; and for odour control.


HVAC General Validated automated monitoring systems (e.g. Building management systems (BMS), building automation system (BAS) or system control and data acquisition (SCADA) system) - capable of indicating any out-of-specification condition without delay e.g. by means of an alarm Also helps with preventive maintenance and trend logging Critical alarms easily identifiable, visible and/or audible Fan interlock failure matrix Fan failures can cause a system imbalance, resulting in a pressure cascade malfunction with a resultant airflow reversal.


HVAC Air distribution Positioning of supply and extract grilles to provide effective room flushing. Low-level return or exhaust air grilles preferred. If not possible, a higher air change rate may be needed to achieve a specified clean area condition, e.g. where ceiling return air grilles are used. There may be alternative locations for return air 7.2.1 – 7.2.2




+ Production Room Exhaust air Return air (recirculated) Fresh air (make-up air) Supply air Air types HVAC


HVAC Recirculation systems Increased risk of contamination and cross-contamination. Need HEPA filters (EN1822 classification of H13) HEPA filters may not be required: a single product facility and there is evidence that cross-contamination would not be possible. No dust generated e.g. secondary packing HEPA filters installed in the air-handling unit or terminally placed If terminally mounted - not with flexible ducting If highly toxic processes – never recirculate


Ventilation with recirculated air + make-up air Central Air-Handling Unit Return air Exhaust Unit HVAC


HVAC Full fresh-air systems   100% fresh air normally used in a facility dealing with toxic products or solvents, where recirculation of air with contaminants should be avoided  Degree of filtration of the exhaust air depends on the exhaust air contaminants and local environmental regulations HEPA filters in the exhaust system normally when handling hazardous materials




Ventilation with 100% fresh air (no air recirculation) W Washer (optional) Central Air-Handling Unit Production Rooms Exhaust Unit HVAC


HVAC Energy-recovery wheels Risk assessment to determine cross-contamination risks Should not become a source of possible contamination Alternatives include crossover plate heat exchangers and water-coil heat exchangers Prevent air leakage between the supply air and exhaust air exhaust air system operates at a lower pressure than the supply system.






HVAC Components Components in HVAC may include, depending on need: frost coils to preheat the air reheaters for humidity control, moisture eliminators automatic air volume control devices sound attenuators snow eliminators, dust eliminators, fresh air precooling coils


Filter Silencer Terminal filter Weather louvre Control damper Fan Flow rate controller Humidifier Heating coil Cooling coil with droplet separator Production Room Overview components + Prefilter Exhaust Air Grille Heater Secondary Filter Recirculated air HVAC


Weather louvre Silencer Flow rate controller Control damper To prevent insects, leaves, dirt and rain from entering To reduce noise caused by air circulation Automated adjustment of volume of air (night and day, pressure control) Fixed adjustment of volume of air Components (1) HVAC


Heating unit Cooling unit / dehumidifier Humidifier Filters Ducts To heat the air to the proper temperature To cool the air to the required temperature or to remove moisture from the air To bring the air to the proper humidity, if too low To eliminate particles of predetermined dimensions and/or microorganisms To transport the air Components (2) HVAC

Control damper for airflow:

Control damper for airflow De-humidification Filter Pressure Gauges AHU with fan Variable Speed Controller Humid room air Air heater Regeneration air Humid room air Adsorber wheel Dry air Air-handling unit HVAC

Humidifier Silencer Heating and cooling units:

Humidifier Silencer Heating and cooling units HVAC


Primary panel filter Secondary filter HEPA or tertiary filter HVAC

Swirl Type air diffusors with terminal filters:

Swirl Type air diffusors with terminal filters 1 Filter 2 Tightening frame 3 Register outlet 4 Screw fixation for register 1 2 3 4 HVAC


Flow rate controller Control damper Humidifier Cooling battery Filters Ducts Blocked Poorly adjusted, bad pressure differential system Bad water/steam quality/ poor drainage No elimination of condensed water/ poor drainage Incorrect retention rate/damaged/badly installed Inappropriate material/internal insulator leaking Problems with components HVAC

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