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Hot Topics in Nutrition & America’s Favorite Vegetable: 

Hot Topics in Nutrition & America’s Favorite Vegetable Katherine A. Beals, PhD, RD, FACSM University of Utah

HOT Topics In Nutrition: 

HOT Topics In Nutrition Obesity Glycemic Index Satiety Portion Control Government Guidance Nutrient Density The Healthy Potato

HOT Topic 1: Obesity: 

HOT Topic 1: Obesity “The United States may be the land of the free, but it is also the land of the fat” - BBC 2006

Obesity Prevalence: 

Obesity Prevalence Current Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Adults* *NHANES 2003-2004 39.7% 70.8% 31.1% 61.8% 28.6% 33.2% *Ogden et al. JAMA 2006; 295:1549-1555

Obesity- Prevalence: 

Obesity- Prevalence Current Prevalence of Overweight and “At Risk” for Overweight among Children & Adolescents* *NHANES 2003-2004 18.8% 17.4% 37.2% 34.3% 15.1% 27.3%

Obesity- Prevalence: 

Obesity- Prevalence Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

Obesity-Intervention: 

Obesity-Intervention Government Response FDA/CFSAN Obesity Working Group recommendations * Food Labeling: More prominence to calories on the food label More realistic serving sizes within a given package Greater consistency between products * Restaurants More realistic portion sizes Point-of-sale nutrition information

HOT Topic #2: Glycemic Index: 

HOT Topic #2: Glycemic Index

Glycemic Index (GI): 

Glycemic Index (GI)

Glycemic Index (GI): 

Glycemic Index (GI) Limitations of the GI Methodological Considerations * individual response vs. inherent characteristic of the food - 50 gram dose - “available” carbohydrate Variability in the Food - processing/preparation - variety, origin, maturation - addition of other macronutrients (protein, fat, fiber)- mixed meals Variability in the Measurement - time of day - between & within subjects Foster-Powel et al. 2002

Glycemic Index (GI): 

Glycemic Index (GI) Limitations of the GI Nutritional correlates of GI Positive Correlates + Beer + Meats + Cheese + Fried Potatoes + Dried Beans Negative Correlates Fruits - Vegetables low-fat milk - Rice Dark bread - Pasta High fiber cereal Ice cream * Schulz et al. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:397-406

Glycemic Index (GI): 

Glycemic Index (GI) Glycemic Index is NOT supported by US Nutrition and Government Agencies United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) American Dietetics Association (ADA) American Diabetes Association (ADA) American Heart Association (AHA)

HOT Topic #3: Satiety: 

HOT Topic #3: Satiety

Satiety: 

Satiety Satiety - The satisfied feeling of being full after eating - Can consuming more satiating foods lead to… …decreased energy (calorie) intake? …weight loss? - Are some foods more “satiating” than others?

Satiety: 

Holt et al. EJCN;1995:675-690. Purpose: To examine the satiety value of different foods. Methods: Subjects consumed 240 kcal portions of 38 common foods grouped into 6 categories: Fruits  Bakery products Snack foods  Protein-rich foods CHO-rich foods  Breakfast cereals Subjective experience of satiety collected every 15 minutes over 120 minutes + ad libitum intake at a subsequent meal. Satiety

Satiety: 

Results: As a category, fruits had the greatest SI score, followed by vegetables and protein-rich foods BUT…significant differences in SI scores within food categories Holt et al. EJCN;1995:675-690 Satiety

Satiety: 

Results Potatoes produced greatest satiety SI scores positively related to: + serving size + protein content + fiber content + water content SI scores negatively related to: fat content simple sugar content Holt et al. EJCN;1995:675-690 Satiety

Satiety: 

Will food manufacturers really market foods that fill people up? * Absolutely! Satiety

HOT Topic #4: Portion Control: 

HOT Topic #4: Portion Control

Portion Control: 

Portion Control Portion distortion that was then this is now… 500 kcal 1205 kcal 20 yr ago Today

Portion Control: 

Portion Control Portion Sizes, Energy Intake & Obesity Larger portion sizes lead to increased energy intake Single meals Meals served over a single day, two days, and eleven days Effect is observed in both overweight and normal weight individuals Effect is observed in meals served at home and at restaurants, under cafeteria-style and single serve conditions. Dr. Barbara J Rolls, PhD Helen A. Guthrie Chair and Professor Penn State University

Portion Control: 

Portion Control Energy Density Calories contained within a given portion (weight) of food Water & fiber:  energy density Fat:  energy density Energy Density and Portion Size have independent and additive effects VS Energy Portion Density Size 100% 100% 100% 75% (10%  EI) 75% 100% (24%  EI) 75% 75% (30%  EI)

Portion Control: 

Portion Control Volumetrics Dr Barbara Rolls (Penn State University) Satiety is a function of the volume of food consumed Satiety promoting foods are: High in water content High in fiber Examples: fruits, vegetables, broth-based soups, whole grains

Portion Control: 

Portion Control Industry Response

HOT Topic #5: Government Nutrition Guidance: 

HOT Topic #5: Government Nutrition Guidance Small Steps to a Healthier You www.MyPyramid.gov Eat Right, Exercise, Have Fun

Government Nutrition Guidance: 

Government Nutrition Guidance Nutrients most likely to be consumed by general public in amounts low enough to be of concern: vitamin E calcium magnesium, potassium fiber 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Government Nutrition Guidance: 

Government Nutrition Guidance Individuals should consume a variety of fruits and vegetables daily Focus on dark green, yellow and orange vegetables My Pyramid

Government Nutrition Guidance: 

Government Nutrition Guidance 2010 Dietary Guidelines Tufts Friedman School Symposium (September 19–21, 200 Boston, MA) Topics predicted to be included in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines: Fortified foods  Energy Density Fiber  Vitamin D N-3 fatty acids  Sugar-sweetened beverages Topics likely to be considered in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines: Supplements  Glycemic Index Topics unlikely to be included in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines: Herbals  Phenolics  Probioticcs

HOT Topic #6: Nutrient Density: 

HOT Topic #6: Nutrient Density

Nutrient Density: 

Nutrient Density Described in the most recent version of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Nutrient Density= nutrients per calorie High nutrient content relative to calorie content Opposite of “empty calories”

Nutrient Density: 

Nutrient Density Naturally Nutrient Rich (NNR) Coalition Group of commodity boards headed by National Cattlemen’s Beef Association The NNR coalition was recently chosen as one of three groups to communicate the current Guidelines and MYpyramid to consumers.  USPB is a member of the NNR coalition

The Healthy Potato: 

The Healthy Potato Only 100 Calories Good Source of-fiber** No fat An excellent source of potassium** Rich in vitamin C Naturally Nutritious, Always Delicious **With skin on

Potatoes DO NOT Cause Obesity: 

Source: Center for Disease Control, Economic Research Service, USDA, Vegetables and Specialties Situation and Outlook Yearbook, July 2003 Potatoes DO NOT Cause Obesity % Obese Potato Consumption (lbs) No Association Between Potato Consumption & Obesity

Potatoes DO NOT Cause Obesity: 

Potatoes DO NOT Cause Obesity Source: www.ers.usda./gov/data/foodsconsumption/

Potatoes are Satiating: 

Potatoes are Satiating Potatoes fill you up… NOT out! Holt et al. 1995 study Potatoes ranked highest in satiety among 38 foods representing all food groups 1 medium potato contains just 100 calories and no fat

Potato Portions: 

Potato Portions Potatoes are perfect for portion control Only 100 calories in a medium-sized potato (5.3 oz) No fat

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense: 

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense Potatoes contain complex carbohydrates Carbohydrates are vital to health Carbohydrates are required fuel for the brain Carbohydrates are the preferred fuel for the muscles

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense: 

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense Potatoes contain more protein than many vegetables 4.3 grams of protein in a medium potato

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense: 

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense Potatoes contain 45% of the Daily Value for vitamin C* * With the skin Potatoes contain 21% of the Daily Value for Potassium*

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense: 

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense Potatoes rank highest in potassium content (among the top 20-selling fruits and vegetables in the US) * With the skin “Foods, such as potatoes, that are good sources of potassium and low in sodium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure and stroke.” - Source: FDA

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense: 

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense Potatoes are a good source of fiber Potatoes with the skin have 3g fiber Equal to that of other vegetables Health benefits of fiber are numerous: May aid in weight loss Lowers blood cholesterol levels and may decrease risk of heart disease Maintains bowel regularity May decrease risk of colon cancer

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense: 

Potatoes are Nutrient Dense Potato Nutrition- Not Just Skin Deep Only nutrient significantly lost when the skin is removed… * Fiber 3 g (with skin) 1.5 g (w/o skin) Potassium and vitamin C are found predominantly in the flesh

Potato Nutrition- Not Just Skin Deep: 

Potato Nutrition- Not Just Skin Deep Only nutrient significantly lost when skin is removed… * Fiber 3 g (with skin) 1.5 g (w/o skin) Potassium and vitamin C found predominantly in the flesh

Potatoes ARE Vegetables : 

Potatoes ARE Vegetables Help meet the recommended 2-4 servings/day Great for combining with other vegetables

Potatoes are Versatile: 

Potatoes are Versatile Endless possibilities…

Thank You!: 

Thank You! More information are available at: www.healthypotato.com Contact me at: katherine.beals@hsc.utah.edu

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