ireland IlvaLasmane Satini

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Capital city: Dublin Bordering countries: United Kingdom Area: 7o 273 km2 Population: 3 797 000 Government: parlamentary republic Oficial language: irish Nationality: the irish (98%) Religion: Chatolic(88%), Anglican (3%), other (9%) Currency unit: irish pound (IEP)

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Other cities: Slaigo, Kaslbar, Golvej, Shenon, Tinaga, Kork, Vaitgeit, Voterford, Veksford, Portdaur, Dandolk...

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Ireland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many other traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. In spite of emigration and a well-developed connection to music imported from Britain and the United States, Irish music has kept many of its traditional aspects; indeed, it has itself influenced many forms of music, such as country and roots music in the USA, which in turn have greatly influenced rock music in the 20th century. It has occasionally also been modernised, however, and fused with rock and roll, punk rock and other genres. Some of these fusion artists have attained mainstream success, at home and abroad. (One example of a traditional song that has received exposure as the result of being recorded by pop and rock artists is "She Moved Through the Fair".)

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During the 1970s and 1980s, the distinction between traditional and rock musicians became blurred, with many individuals regularly crossing over between these styles of playing as a matter of course. This trend can be seen more recently in the work of bands and individuals like U2, Horslips, Clannad, The Cranberries, The Corrs, Van Morrison, Thin Lizzy, Ciarán Farrell, Sinéad O'Connor, My Bloody Valentine, Rory Gallagher, Republic of Loose ,The Pogues and Westlife

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Nevertheless, Irish music has shown an immense inflation of popularity with many attempting to return to their roots. There are also contemporary music groups that stick closer to a traditional sound, including Altan, Danú, Déanta, Lúnasa, Kíla,Noel Shine and Mary Greene, and Border Collies. Others incorporate multiple cultures in a fusion of style, such as Afro Celt Sound System and Loreena McKennitt. In addition to folk music, Ireland also has a rich store of contemporary classical music. However, contemporary classical music has no impact, and very little exposure in Ireland itself, and therefore abroad.

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. Anúna is an Irish choral group that came to world prominence through its involvement with the Riverdance phenomenon in the mid 1990s. In 1987 Dublin composer Michael McGlynn founded An Uaithne, a name which describes the three ancient types of Celtic music, Suantraí (lullaby), Geantraí (happy song) and Goltraí (lament). One of the group's primary aims was to explore and redefine this music, and also to perform McGlynn's own original works and his arrangements of medieval and traditional Irish music.

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Think Irish food is all about overcooked meats and mounds of potatoes? Don't believe such blarney. In the last decade, the Emerald Isle has made a giant gastronomic leap. A new crop of young chefs are turning high-quality, homegrown ingredients into sophisticated and unique meals, and new restaurants are popping up all the time. See for yourself what's brewing in the modern Irish kitchen--it's a lot more than corned beef and cabbage.

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Battle of Clontarf - In 1014, the greatest battle of early Irish history. one of Brian Boru's last victories. Saints and Scholars - An introduction to the history of Ireland, from the pagan Celtic age to the fifth century when St Patrick converted Ireland to Christianity. The Normans - Invasion of Normans, Welshmen and Flemings in 1169 to colonise unconquered Ireland. Flight of the Earls- Departure in 1607 of Irish Catholic aristocracy unwilling to accept sovereignty of English Queen. Oliver Cromwell - The arrival of fanatical English Protestant Cromwell in 1649. The Battle of the Boyne - William of Orange defeated King James II at the Boyne in 1690. The date is still commemorated throughout Northern Ireland today by marches, murals and graffiti. Grattan's Parliament - Irish parliament which sat in Dublin from 1782-1800 and looked after economic and political interests of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy. The 1798 Rebellion - The Society of United Irishmen was founded in Belfast in 1791. Catholic Emancipation - Early nineteenth century campaign championed by Daniel O'Connell and members of parliament to end penal laws and legislative discrimination against Catholics.

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The Great Famine - The famine began in 1845 and transformed Irish social history as millions of impoverished peasants starved or were forced to emigrate. The Fenian Movement - In 1848, a small group of revolutionaries known as Young Ireland launched an ill-prepared uprising which was quickly quelled. Home Rule - William Ewart Gladstone became British prime minister in 1868. "My mission is to pacify Ireland", he immediately affirmed. Ulster Will Fight - Within Ireland, the strongest opposition to home rule came from the Protestants of Ulster. They formed a majority in the northern province, but a minority within the island. The 1641 rebellion had induced a siege mentality which was reinforced during the struggle between William of Orange and James II. The Easter Rising - Easter is a significant time in Ireland, both for religious and political reasons. We present an account of the 1916 Rising, from A Little History of Ireland. Independence - The principal beneficiary of the 1916 rising was Sinn Fein (Ourselves Alone), a political movement founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith.

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