The Barriadas of Lima GA

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Lima’s Slums: Problems or Solutions?: 

Lima’s Slums: Problems or Solutions? Professor Bill Chambers Liverpool Hope University President Geographical Association Annual Conference 30th March 2005 University of Derby

Lecture Structure: 

Lecture Structure Peru Migration Housing in Lima Growth of Lima Progressive Development Employment Government Policies Hope or Despair?

Slide3: 

1. Peru

Slide4: 

Source: www.politicalresources.net

Slide5: 

Costa: The Atacama Desert

Peru and UK (World Bank 2004): 

Peru and UK (World Bank 2004)

Slide7: 

Peru Three Zones Costa Atacama Desert (driest in the world) Sierra Andes (2nd highest mountains in world) Selva Amazon (largest tropical rainforest in world) Source: Coleccion Huascaran, Lima

Slide8: 

Sierra: The Andes

Slide9: 

Selva: The Amazon Basin

Peru: Population by Region: 

Peru: Population by Region

Slide11: 

2. Migration

Primacy of Lima: ‘the head of a giant on the body of a dwarf’: 

Primacy of Lima: ‘the head of a giant on the body of a dwarf’ 29

Reasons for Primacy: 

Reasons for Primacy capital city (work, culture, civilisation) largest port (Callao) traditional home of Vice-Roy in Colonial

Migration: 

Migration City centre v Paisanos 40% Costa 50% Andes mainly central-southern Andes young/ambitious earthquakes rural poverty land tenure in Andes infant mortality guerrillas cocaine El Nino modernisation of coast

Slide15: 

Source: Children in Peru, Peru Support Unit 1991

Slide18: 

3. Housing in Lima

Slide19: 

Callejon

Housing for Lima Poor: 

Housing for Lima Poor Slums/turgurios and Squatter settlements alleys & tenements (callejones) 64% workers’ housing 20% decaying mansions 11% city plots (corralones) 5% government projects private sector squatter settlements (barriadas)

Squatter Settlements: 

Squatter Settlements Barriadas Urbanizaciones Populares Urbanisationes Marginales Pueblos Jovenes Asentiamentos Humanos

Barriadas: 

Barriadas A residential community formed by low income families in which the houses are constructed in large measure by the residents themselves and which are generally but not exclusively formed illegally. (Collins 1975)

Slide24: 

4. Growth of Lima

Lima Population Growth: 

Lima Population Growth

Slide26: 

Source: J. Matos Mar 1977 Las Barriadas de Lima 1957

Slide27: 

Source: J. Matos Mar 1977 Las Barriadas de Lima 1967

Slide28: 

Source: J. Matos Mar 1977 Las Barriadas de Lima 1977

Slide30: 

San Cristobal Centro cerro

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Rio Rimac floodplain : Carmen de la Legua and San Martin de Porres 1965 my house

Slide32: 

Comas 16-3-1945 Andes foothills

Slide33: 

Comas 1965 my house

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Southern Atacama desert: Tupac Amaru

Geographical distribution unoccupied, state or church or absentee landlord owned: 

Geographical distribution unoccupied, state or church or absentee landlord owned

The Invasion: 

The Invasion After several years residence Pay to join invasion committee Planned by architects Holy Days, National Holidays, Public Holidays, weekends, government crisis Appeal to patriotism or religiosity of nation or landlords

Slide38: 

5. Progressive Development (Consolidation) (Positive Adaptation)

Progressive Development : 

Progressive Development The gradual development of housing community utilities employment. Depends on finance health motivation priorities government policy

Progressive Development of Homes: 

Progressive Development of Homes chosa (matting hut) peripheral wall internal walls concrete roof second floor more

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chosas

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Chosa, foundations and peripheral wall

Slide43: 

Chosa, shop and peripheral wall

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Chosa, peripheral wall from casa noble

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Wood Water cylinder cement bag

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Roofing: tiles, iron, electricity tubes

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Roofing concreting

Slide48: 

Casa noble Carmen de la Legua 1965

Progressive Development (after Turner 1967): 

Progressive Development (after Turner 1967)

Moving from Carmen de la Legua to Comas: 

Moving from Carmen de la Legua to Comas Carmen de la Legua 1965 view of my house

Slide51: 

Carmen de la Legua 1982 view of my house

Slide52: 

Carmen de la Legua 2003 view of home

Slide53: 

Carmen de la Legua 1965

Slide54: 

Carmen de la Legua 1982

Slide55: 

Carmen de la Legua 2003 By 1974 its transformation into an urban barrio was almost complete – paved roads, uniform lotes, water and electrical services, urban style houses constructed with permanent materials, and a central plaza around which stood municipal buildings, a movie theatre, and a church all were established.’ (Lobo 1982 p 42)

Slide56: 

Town Hall Carmen de la Legua 2003

Slide57: 

Comas 1965 view left from front door

Slide58: 

Comas 1982 view left from front door

Slide59: 

Comas 2003 view left from front door

Slide60: 

Comas Avenida Tupac Amaru 1965

Slide61: 

Comas Avenida Tupac Amaru 1982

Slide62: 

Comas Avenida Tupac Amaru 2003

Slide63: 

Maria: Restaurante El Once 1965 and Salon de Belleza 1983 Comas

Slide64: 

Comas private sector housing 2003

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6. Employment

Slide67: 

Ambulante selling tobacco, chewing gum, sweets

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Open air office

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domestica

Slide70: 

Mobile furniture store

Julio and Helsomina (Susan Lobo 1982): 

Julio and Helsomina (Susan Lobo 1982) 1969 Belt factory (J) Tailor (J) Kerosene Metal recycling Vegetables at market Wool balls Brick recycling Guinea pigs Chickens Chicha TV 1974 Belt factory Front of house store Beer Zappo Ducks Chicken Goats Sheep Wool Refrigerator Typewriter (daughter) Electric repair (son)

INCOME = : 

Job + Overtime + Fringe benefits + Part time jobs (cachuelas) + Reciprocity: exchange labour for goods + Reciprocity: exchange labour for labour Varied and flexible repertoire INCOME =

Employment: informal & formal: 

Employment: informal & formal Informal housefront stores car cleaning domestics ambulantes bootblacks seamstresses artisans repair and creation Formal wages social security drivers Builders waiters clerks shop assistants factory workers

Slide77: 

7. Government Policies

Government Policies: 

Government Policies Do nothing Eradicate: bulldoze, burn Contain: Law Prevent: planning, municipal housing Facilitate: site & service, credit, technical, improve & incorporate Correct: remodel, relocate

Slide79: 

8. Hope or Despair? Problem or Solution?

The Informal Approach: 

The Informal Approach Advantages Cheaper Non-monetary input Early escape from slums Added value to land Stimulated construction and service industries Disadvantages Slow Poor conditions Low quality Uneconomic use of space & resources

Lima’s barriadas Why so successful? (John Turner 2004) : 

Lima’s barriadas Why so successful? (John Turner 2004) When dwellers control the major decisions and are free to make use of their own contributions in the design, construction or management of their housing, both this process and the environment produced stimulate individual and social well-being.

Lima’s barriadas Why so successful? (Susan Lobo 1992): 

Lima’s barriadas Why so successful? (Susan Lobo 1992) Positive adaptation Build a community (material and spiritual) Accomplish goals View themselves and their future positively Through Kinship and paisanos Alliances and compadrazgo Control: migration & house construction Flexibility

References: 

References http://comasweb.com Dietz, H. 1998 Urban Poverty, Political Participation and the State: Lima 1970-1990. University of Pittsburgh Press Gilbert, A. 1994 The Latin American City. Latin America Bureau. Lloyd, P. 1979 Slums of Hope? Pelican. Lloyd, P. 1980 The ‘Young Towns’ of Lima. Cambridge University Press. Lobo, S. 1982 A House of My Own. University of Arizona Press. Morrish, M. 1984 Squatter Settlement in the Third World. Geography 16-19. Longman. Smith, C.T. 1988 Population and Development in Peru. John Murray.

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