HRMCh12

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THE EVOLUTION OF LABOR UNIONS: 

THE EVOLUTION OF LABOR UNIONS

The Labor Movement Before 1930: 

The Labor Movement Before 1930 Has been neither simple nor straightforward Trend favored management Conspiracy – two or more people banded together to prejudice rights of others or society

The Labor Movement Before 1930 (Continued): 

The Labor Movement Before 1930 (Continued) Injunction – legal procedures used by employers to prevent union activities, such as strikes and unionization activities Yellow-dog contract – written agreement between employee and company prohibiting worker from joining a union or union activities

The Labor Movement Before 1930 (Continued): 

The Labor Movement Before 1930 (Continued) Noble Order of the Knights of Labor – founded in 1869; nucleus became American Federation of Labor (AFL) Sherman Anti-Trust Act – entrance of federal government into statutory regulation of labor organizations

The Labor Movement After 1930: 

The Labor Movement After 1930 Swing from management toward labor Anti-Injunction Act (Norris-Laguardia Act) of 1932 National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) of 1935 Labor Management Act (Taft-Hartley Act) of 1947 Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (Landrum-Griffin Act) – 1959 Homeland Security Act of 2002

Anti-Injunction Act (Norris-Laguardia Act) of 1932: 

Anti-Injunction Act (Norris-Laguardia Act) of 1932 Sanctions collective bargaining Approves formation and operation of labor unions Severely restricted federal courts’ authority regarding labor disputes Made yellow-dog contracts unenforceable

National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) of 1935: 

National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) of 1935 National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) created Establish procedures for and monitor elections Investigate complaints and prevent unlawful acts involving unfair labor practices

Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley Act) of 1947: 

Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley Act) of 1947 Extended concept of unfair labor practices to unions Permitted states to enact right-to-work laws Government intervention in national emergency strikes

Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (Landrum-Griffin Act) -- 1959: 

Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (Landrum-Griffin Act) -- 1959 Bill of rights for union members Requires extensive reporting on internal union activities Severe penalties for violations

Homeland Security Act of 2002: 

Homeland Security Act of 2002 New cabinet-level agency responsible for border security, emergency preparedness, biological warfare, intelligence analysis, and protection of President

The Public Sector: 

The Public Sector Executive Order 10988 in 1962 Established collective bargaining in federal government

Employee Associations: 

Employee Associations Many employee associations pursuing collective bargaining relationships

Union Objectives: 

Union Objectives Growth – to maximize effectiveness, union needs continual growth Power – influenced by size of membership and possibility of future growth

Union Growth Strategies: 

Union Growth Strategies Pulling the union through Political involvement Union salting Flooding communities with organizers Political awareness campaigns Building organizing funds Cyberunion Befriending laid-off workers

Why Employees Join Unions: 

Why Employees Join Unions Dissatisfaction with management Social outlet Opportunity for leadership Forced unionization Peer pressure

Dissatisfaction with Management: 

Dissatisfaction with Management Compensation Job Security Management Attitude

Union Structure: 

Union Structure Local union National (or international) union American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)

Local Union: 

Local Union Basic unit in American labor movement Deals with employer on day-to-day basis Craft union Industrial union

National (or International) Union: 

National (or International) Union Most powerful level in union structure Composed of local unions Holds membership in national union Governed by national constitution Meets every two to five years Active in organizing workers Engaged in collective bargaining at national level Assists locals in their negotiations

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO): 

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) Federation of 68 national and international labor unions Represents 13 million members Represents labor interests at highest level Does not engage in collective bargaining Financed by member national unions Governed by national convention

The Structure of the AFL-CIO: 

The Structure of the AFL-CIO Convention Meets biennially Executive Council President, Secretary-Treasurer, and 33 Vice Presidents Meets at least three times a year General Board Executive Council members and principal officer of each international union affiliate Meets on call of Federation President or Executive Council Executive Officers President and Secretary-Treasurer National Headquarters Standing Committees Staff Departments Department or Organization and Field Services Regional Directors Trade and Industrial Departments Building, Food, Metal, and Maritime Trades, Industrial Union, Public and Railway Employees, Union Label Local Dept. Councils Affiliated National and International Unions Affiliated State Bodies Local Bodies Local unions affiliated directly with AFL-CIO Local Unions of National and International Unions

Establishing the Collective Bargaining Relationship: Union Certification: 

Establishing the Collective Bargaining Relationship: Union Certification Bargaining unit consists of employees (not necessarily union members) recognized by employer or certified by administrative agency as appropriate for representation by labor organization for purposes of collective bargaining

The Steps That Lead to Forming a Bargaining Unit External Environment Internal Environment: 

The Steps That Lead to Forming a Bargaining Unit External Environment Internal Environment Signing of Authorization Cards Petition for Election Election Campaign Election and Certification

Signing Authorization Cards: 

Signing Authorization Cards A document indicating employee wants to be represented by labor organization in collective bargaining Is there sufficient interest on the part of employees to justify the unit? Evidence of interest when at least 30% of employees in workgroup sign authorization cards Usually need 50% to proceed

Petition for Election: 

Petition for Election After authorization cards have been signed, petition for election made to regional NLRB office NLRB will ordinarily direct that an election be held within 30 days

Election Campaign : 

Election Campaign Both union and management usually promote their causes actively Threaten loss of jobs or benefits Misstate important facts Incite racial or religious prejudice

Election and Certification: 

Election and Certification NLRB monitors secret-ballot election on date set Board will issue certification of results to participants If majority of employees vote for union, NLRB will certify Process does not require either party to make concessions; it only compels them to bargain in good faith

Union Strategies in Obtaining Bargaining Unit Recognition: 

Union Strategies in Obtaining Bargaining Unit Recognition Try to make first move Search for groups of employees to organize Attempts to locate general patterns of dissatisfaction Must, ultimately, abandon secret activities Utilize peer pressure to encourage and expand unionization

Union Decertification: 

Union Decertification Essentially the reverse of the process that employees must follow to be recognized as an official bargaining unit Employees have used decertification petitions with increasing frequency and success

Decertification Procedure: 

Decertification Procedure Rules established by NLRB At least 30% must petition for election Petition submitted 60-90 days prior to expiration of current contract Schedule decertification election If majority of votes against union, employees will be union free

Management and Decertification: 

Management and Decertification If management wants union decertified, must be active rather than passive Effective first-line supervisors Effective communication Trust and openness Effective compensation programs Effective employee and labor relations

Unions Today: 

Unions Today Fall of Big Labor since 1970s has been dramatic Unionized share of private sector workforce is 9 percent

Percentage of the Private Workforce That is Unionized: 

Percentage of the Private Workforce That is Unionized 0 10 20 30 40 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1994 1996 2002 Year Percentage of Workforce 40 30 20 10 0 9

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