Unit 19

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Unit Nineteen The Architecture Feature

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The Architecture Feature Passage one Passage two Passage three

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The area of Three Gorges with waters and mountains is one of birthplaces of Chinese nations. During a long history, the traditional cultures and geographical features invest(赋予) its architecture(建筑) with particular glamour(迷人的魅力): So ancient and numerous(极多的), so mysterious(神秘的) and prime(最好的). In addition to over 50 ruins(废墟 )of the Old Stone Age, above 80 ruins of the New Stone Age, more than 100 ruins of the ancient natives (当地人 ) of Ba Country,

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about 470 ruins from Han Dynasty to another 6 dynasties as well as numerous ancient grave groups, now there are 453 places of history relics (文物) on the ground, dealt with or saved only in the submerged (淹没的 )district due to (由于) the Three Gorges Project. The architectural relics contain the classifications such as ancient buildings, stone inscriptions, trails (崎岖小径) on the cliff ( 悬崖 ), roads for drawing boats, bridges, towers and memorial archways( 纪念的拱门 ), etc.

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For instance, the earliest Chinese building on the ground—Hanque built in Han Dynasty in Zhong County, Shibaozhai constructed in Ming Dynasty in Zhongzhou Town, Zhang Fei Temple rebuilt in Qing Dynasty, an ancient town Dachang in Wu Mountain, Qu Yuan Temple and Jiangdu Temple in Zigui County, more than 300 buildings including residence complexes and so on created in Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, etc.

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In Three Gorges area, there is the horrifying( 令人恐怖的 ) Guimenguan in Fengdu Town, the hydrographic(水文的)wonder Baihe Ridge( 梁 ), mysterious(神秘的)trails (崎岖的小径 )on cliffs, surprising military strongholds (军寨 )like the Great Wall, Baidicheng in a fairyland, Zhixi Pavilion (亭) in a poetic environment, the resident(居住的 )Diaojiao houses unique (独有的) to the Tujia nationality, the solemn(庄严的 )Huangling Temple and so on.

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Only in Yichang City, there is the immutable( 岿然 )Zhengjiangge Pavilion, the grand Tianran Tower, the 5 great bridges on the Yangtze River like rainbows, the dragon fossils(化石)museum like magic(魔力的)box, the Bingjing Park well-known as the First Garden on the Banks of Yangtze River, the famous Gezhouba Hydropower Project with the First Gate in the World then, the biggest extant(现存的 )iron tower preserved best in Yuquan Temple,

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the biggest and most advanced(先进的 )ship lift(升船机 )of the ship lock(船闸)in the world, the Qingjiang hydroelectric stations like terraces(阶地)and the Three Gorges Project with worldwide fame(名誉). It is in Three Gorges district that Chinese civilizations(文明)are reflected(反映 )from the visible(可见的 )constructions(建筑 )as national treasures!

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依山傍水的三峡地区是中华民族的发祥地之一,历史悠久,而人文地理更赋予其建筑独特魅力:古而多,奇而最。 且不论50多处旧石器时代的遗址、80多处新石器时代的遗址、100多处古代巴人的遗址、470多处汉至六朝的遗址和众多古墓葬群等,仅在三峡工程淹没区抢救中的地面文物点,就有453处,含古建筑、石刻、栈道、纤道、桥梁、塔、牌坊等类别。例如我国最早地面建筑物忠县的汉阙,忠州明代的石宝寨,云阳清代的张飞庙, 巫山大昌古镇, 建 筑 特 色

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秭归的屈原祠及江渎庙,300多处明清民居群等建筑。三峡,有恐怖丰都鬼门关,有水文奇观白鹤梁;有神秘峭壁古栈道,有形似长城古兵寨;有画域仙岛白帝城,有诗境飘然至喜亭;有巴人风情吊脚楼, 有庄严古朴黄陵庙。 仅在宜昌市就有:巍峨镇江阁,雄伟天然塔;彩虹般五座长江大桥、魔盒样龙化石博物馆;桂冠“万里长江第一园”的滨江画廊,镶嵌“天下第一门”的葛洲坝船闸;我国现存最大和保存最好的玉泉古铁塔,世界规模最大和难度最高的三峡升船机;梯级开发的清江水电站,举世无双的三峡水利枢纽工程。 正是:数华夏文明还看三峡国宝建筑!

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Passage 1 An Architectural Miracle in the World--- Shibaozhai

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Forty-five kilometers away from Zhong County, in Chongqing City , Shibaozhai ( Stone Treasure Village )is on the peak of isolated Yuying Hill ( Jade Signet Hill ) rising steeply on the north bank of the Yangtze River. Shibaozhai is a red, wooden tower with 12 floors, leaning against the cliff and facing the water. It is 56 meters high, and each floor retracts a little having 3 sides with 4 eaves. The splendid structure, whose design is exquisite, takes its tendency along the hills and looks like a fairyland. Shibaozhai is regarded as one of the 8 architectural miracles in the world.

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Shibaozhai was named and built firstly in Wanli Age, Ming Dynasty, because of Tan Hong’s uprising and occupation of the village. An antique street called Shibaojie is under the tower and the traditional building consists of a tower door, tower floors and a stone temple on the top. The colorful tower door with the words “Xiao Penglai ( Small Paradise )” and “Ti Yun Zhishang ( Go Straight Up With Ladders) ”on it, is made of bricks and stones, which is 6 meters high.

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People can reach the summit by stepping on the winding stairs in the building. On each floor there are a lot of ancient stone inscriptions, portraits or poems on display, and through the windows of each floor, the variable scenic Yangtze River appears in full view. Visitors spiral up and get in the ancient stone temple “Lan Ruo Dian ( Orchidlike Temple )” on the top. In the main hall of the temple, a figure of the general called Ba Manzi in ancient Ba Country is consecrated. The peak of the hill,

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230 meters above sea level, is a stone yard covering an area of 1200 square meters. Appreciating the misty scenery, you would feel really refreshed and open-minded immediately. Shibaozhai is a unique tower made by means of Chuandou Skills with its special structural style in China, among the rare precious high buildings of wooden structures in existence. It is a typical local building, a symbol of folk architectural technology in South China, and a priceless treasure in the world.

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Notes: 1. 屋顶是中国古代建筑造型中最主要的部分,重要的建筑都以斗拱挑出檐口,在屋檐转角处形成翼角起翘。 eaves n.: overhanging edges of a roof The pavilion is an ancient building with six eaves and twelve pillars. 这个亭子是一个六角十二柱的古典建筑。 Icicles were hanging from the eaves. 屋檐上下垂的冰柱

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2. The smoke spiralled up.烟雾盘旋而上。 Prices are still spiraling. 物价仍然盘旋上涨。 The rocket went up in a spiral. 火箭盘旋着上升。 3 We can’t exist without food and water. 没有食物和水我们不能生存。 Does life exist on Mars? 火星上有生命吗? Do you believe in the existence of ghosts? 你相信有鬼吗? This is the oldest Hebrew manuscript in existence. 这是现存最早的希伯来文手抄本。

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4. 石宝寨是我国惟一的一座穿斗式木结构高层建筑,为了保护好这个“国宝”,文物工作者费尽周折,几次修改保护方案。根据玉印山地形地质条件和三峡库区蓄水后江水水位将比石宝寨寨门高的情况,决定沿着石宝寨四周筑一道巨型围堤,使其形成一个巨大的石盆,围住整个石宝寨。设计者特意在寨门前的仰墙上,留下一道长达50米的豁口,在豁口处安装一道可以升降的钢闸门。高水位时,就关闭钢闸门保护寨门;低水位时,则可以打开钢闸门,方便游客在江上通过豁口观看石宝寨全景。水库正常蓄水后,水将淹至石宝寨山腰,形成水雾缭绕,仙山琼阁般的胜境。

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New Words: antique a. 古风的 architectural a. 建筑上的 brick n. 砖 cliff n. 悬崖 consecrate v. 供奉 display n.&v. 展览 eaves n. 屋檐 exquisite a. 绝妙的 existence n. 存在,现存 fairyland n. 仙境 figure n. 塑像 peak n. 山顶,高峰 portrait n. 画像 precious a. 珍贵的 rare a.  稀罕的 refreshed a. 心旷神怡的 retract v. 收缩 scenic a. 风景优美的 signet n. 图章 splendid a. 华丽的,辉煌的 spiral n.&v. 盘旋 steeply ad. 陡峭地

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General n. 将军 inscription n. 铭刻,碑文 isolated a. 孤立的 jade n. 玉石 means n. 方法,手段 miracle n. 奇迹 misty a. 有雾的,朦胧 occupation n. 占领 orchid n. 兰草 open-minded a. 开朗的 paradise n. 天堂 summit n. 山顶,高峰 symbol n. 象征 technology n. 技术 temple n. 神殿,庙宇 tendency n. 趋势 typical a. 典型的 unique a. 独一无二的 uprising n. 起义 variable a. 可变的 winding a. 盘曲的

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Exercises: 1. Where is Shibaozhai? 2. What do the names of Shibaozhai and Yuyingshan mean? 3. How important is Shibaozhai? 4. How can people reach the summit in the building? 5. What is the appearance of the tower? I. Answer the questions: key key key

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1. Shibaozhai was named and built firstly in Wanli Age, Ming Dynasty, because of Tan Hong’s uprising and occupation of the village. ( ) 2. Under the tower is a modern street called Shibaojie. ( ) 3. The building consists of a tower door, tower floors and a stone temple on the top. ( ) 4. On the tower door the words “Xiao Penglai” means Small Paradise and “Ti Yun Zhishang” means Go Straight Up With Ladders. ( ) 5. The tower door is made of bricks and stones, which is 5 meters high. ( ) II. Decide the statements true or false: key

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III. Multiple choices: 1. On each floor of the tower there are a lot of ancient _______ on display A. stone inscriptions B. portraits or poems C. stone inscriptions, portraits or poems D. photographs 2. Through _______ of each floor of the tower, the variable scenic Yangtze River appears in full view. A. the windows B. the doors C. the eaves D. the roofs 3. In the main hall of the stone temple, _______ called Ba Manzi in ancient Ba Country is consecrated. A. a statue of the general B. a figure of the general C. a picture of the general D. a figure of the president key

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4. The peak of the hill, _______ above sea level, is a stone yard covering an area of _______. A. 230 meters, 1300 square meters B. 220 meters, 1200 square meters C. 230 kilometers, 1200 square meters D. 230 meters, 1200 square meters 5. Appreciating the misty scenery on the peak, you would feel really refreshed and ______ immediately. A. unhappy B. open-minded C. worried D. dangerous key

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Translation: 世界建筑奇观 石宝寨位于重庆忠县城东45公里长江北岸,在四周如削的孤峰玉印山上。其为依崖濒水的12层红色塔形楼阁,高56米,全系木质结构。每层三方四角,逐层内收,依山取势,设计精巧,宛若仙山琼阁,被誉为世界八大建筑奇迹之一。 石宝寨始建于明万历年间,明末谭宏起义,据此为寨,“石宝寨”名由此而来。寨下有古朴雅致的石宝街;寨上建筑由寨门、寨身层楼和寨顶石刹三部分组成。6米多高的砖石桔构寨门上题有“小蓬莱”和“梯云直上”字样。 --- 石 宝 寨

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人们可以从寨楼迂回而上,各层之间都有一条曲折的转梯相通,每层都有石刻、画像和题诗;每层凭窗都能远眺气象万千的长江。游人盘旋而上,登临古刹“兰若殿”;古刹正殿供奉着古代巴国将军巴曼子塑像。寨顶,是一个1200平方米的石坝,海拔230 米,举目四顾,水天茫茫,心胸顿时为之开阔。 石宝寨在我国仅存的几座高层木结构建筑中,以其建筑风格和技巧独树一帜。是惟一的一座穿斗式木结构建筑,是我国南方民间建筑技术的一座标志性建筑,具有不可替代的价值。

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Passage 2 Works of Art, Xintan Ancient Residence Complexes

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Xintan Ancient Residence Complexes in Zigui County, Yichang City are most typical residences with their characteristics in the area of the Three Gorges. The complexes, which were joined together taking their trends along the mountain, are located on the two banks of the Yangtze River in Xiling Gorge. The ancient houses were firstly built over 1600 years ago, and most ones were made in Ming Dynasty or Qing Dynasty. The old houses with white walls and dark gray tiles face the south leaning upon the mountain.

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A set of the old house is on three or four different levels at least. Usually, if you want to enter the formal room of an ordinary house, you would pass stone stairs firstly, an archway and a yard, then step on stone stairs again, go through a gateway, move in a hall, get in a courtyard, and walk on stone steps thirdly. If you want to visit a rich family, you would lose your way in the house, because there are about three or four courtyards, and everywhere are stone steps, winding corridors.

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The characteristics of the old house still embody in using materials for the building. The timber for a supporting pillar or a column always has a diameter of over 33 or 66 centimeters. And the wooden doors, windows and fences are completely of first-rate quality, most of which are decorated with various sculptures.

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The bricks of outside wall are called “Line Brick” by local people. It is only 2 centimeters thick, made by the yellow mud on the beach and burnt by firewood, whose color is light gray. When building walls, people often put some bricks together to form empty boxes, then fill them with some small stones and mud. The house made of the Line Bricks is solid and not easy to absorb heat, so it is very cool in summer.

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The tiles on the old house are called “Cun Tile”( 1 cun means 3.3centimeters in China) by local people. The tiles covering each other are placed one cun (3.3centimeters) away from other ones’ edges like stairs, and they look like standing on the roof. The “Cun Tile” is so strong that the roof never leak rain even throughout decades and hundreds years.

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It is such over 1000 houses row upon row that form an ancient town, one of the several traditional residence crowds. Xintan Ancient Residence Complexes in Zigui County are regarded as works of stones, bricks, woods and tiles art. The ancient people adapted the working method to local conditions, took flexible measures, and obtained raw materials locally, which fully shows the harmonious relation between human beings and architecture, and the pleasing connection between buildings and nature.

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Notes: 1. 秭归县新滩古民居极富工艺色彩。在墙基、台阶、天井、门框、门楣、柱石等石头上,在门扇、窗棂、栏杆等木头上,大都有雕刻文饰。图中人物走兽、花草虫鱼,几乎无所不有,多取材于神话传说或生活故事。门楼也造型精巧, 彩饰纷呈。屋面为朝天龙屋脊,翘檐,马头墙,小青瓦,瓦头和山花上堆塑有花草和游龙。屋顶大都有堆塑,用瓦和砖做成变形而抽象的理纹,层层叠叠,古意盎然。从远处看,仿佛这里是一大片佛家庙宇。

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2. 1985年6月,新滩北岸发生巨大滑坡,近千间老屋被推到江中,现仅存南岸几十间老屋。虽说只是残留,但风韵尤存,它们常常成为电影、电视的外景摄制地,以其独特魅力吸引着游客。 3. 兴建三峡工程,新滩将是第一个被淹没的古镇,文物保护工作者正对一些具有代表性的古民宅进行整体搬迁,在秭归县凤凰山上复建。

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New Words: residence n. 居住,住宅 characteristic n. 特点 trend n. 趋势 tile n. 瓦 lean vi. 依靠 archway n. 门楼 gateway n. 大门 courtyard n. 天井 embody n. 体现 pillar n. 柱子 column n. 柱子 diameter n. 直径 sculpture n. 雕刻 absorb vt. 吸收 edge n. 边缘 leak vt. 漏 harmonious a. 和谐的

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Exercises: I. Answer the questions: 1. Where are Xintan Ancient Residence Complexes? 2. When were the ancient houses firstly built and when were most ones made? 3. How many levels at least is a set of the old house on? 4. How do you do usually, if you want to enter the formal room of an ordinary house? 5. Why is it said that you would lose your way in the house if you want to visit a richer family? key key

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II. Decide the statements true or false: 1. The complexes, which were joined together taking their trends along the mountain. ( ) 2. The old houses with white walls and dark gray tiles face the north leaning upon the mountain. ( ) 3. The characteristics of the old house still embody in using materials for the building. ( ) 4. The timber for a supporting pillar or a column always has a diameter of over 33 or 66 centimeters. ( ) 5. And the wooden doors, windows and fences are partly of first-rate quality, most of which are decorated with various sculptures. ( ) key

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III. Multiple choices: 1. The ______ of outside wall are called “Line Brick” by local people. It is only 2 centimeters ______, made by the yellow mud on the beach and burnt by ______, whose color is light gray. A. bricks, thick, firewood B. bricks, long, coal C. firewood, wide, bricks D. bricks, thick, coal 2. The house made of the Line Bricks is ______ and not easy to ______ heat, so it is very ______ in summer. A. solid, absorb, cool B. solid, send out, warm C. weak, absorb, cool D. weak, get in, solid, cold key

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3. The tiles on the old house are called “Cun Tile”( 1 cun means ______ in China) by local people. “Cun Tile” is so ______ that the roof never leak rain even throughout decades and hundreds years. A. 33 centimeters, soft B. 3.3 centimeters, strong C. 3.3 meters, smooth D. 0.3 meters, hard 4. It is such over ______ houses row upon row that form an ancient town, one of the few ______ residence crowds. A. 100, traditional B. 1000, traditional C. 1000, modern D. 100, ancient key

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5. The people adapted the working method to local ______, took flexible measures, and obtained raw materials locally, which fully shows the ______ relationships between human beings and architecture, or between buildings and nature. A. harmonious, conditions, B. scenery, poor C. conditions, harmonious D. beautiful, scenery key

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Translation: 工艺杰作-秭归新滩古民居群 宜昌市秭归县的新滩古民居群是三峡地区最典型最有特点的民居。它位于长江西陵峡新滩南北两岸,层层叠叠,依山而建。它始建于1600多年前,多为明清宅院。古屋坐南朝北,粉墙黛瓦。 一套老房子,至少有三四个高低层次。每每要踏石阶、穿门楼,过院子,再上石阶、经大门、进大厅、见天井,又登石阶,才能入正屋。如果是大户人家,往往有三四个天井,台阶遍布,回廊曲折。 新滩老屋的特点还体现在建房用料上。

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穿架或柱子大都是一两尺直径粗细的木料。各种门扇、窗棂、栏杆则全是用上好的木料制成,其上多有雕刻装饰。 做外墙的青砖,新滩人叫它“线砖”。其厚度只有2厘米,由江边的黄泥经柴火烧制而成,颜色纯青。砌墙的时候,经常是几块砖码成一个空斗,再用石头和泥巴浇筑灌斗。由“线砖”砌成的房子坚实且不吸热,夏天极为凉爽。 老屋上的瓦,新滩人叫它“寸瓦”。一寸远盖一瓦,瓦盖得像一片片立在屋上。这种“寸瓦”十分结实,用过百十年,房子也不会漏雨。

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就是这样的屋子,1000余栋,鳞次栉比,组成了一个新滩古镇,是三峡库区为数不多的传统聚居群落。新滩古民居是石头、青砖、木头和寸瓦的艺术。其建筑因地制宜,灵活多变,且就地取材,充分体现了人与建筑、建筑与自然的和谐。

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Passage 3 A Mystery,How to Build the Military Stronghold Then

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In March, 2004, the defence works 5 kilometers in length built in Ming Dynasty, was discovered in Yunyang County, Chongqing City, whose appearance similar to the Great Wall. The grand ancient military stronghold was constructed along the peaks of Jincheng Mountain in Licao Village.

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In the military stronghold there are some structures like forts at beginning, ending and middle defence walls. The distance between the forts is about 1.5 kilometers, while the walls are 5-7 meters high and 1.2 meters wide. On an upper place of the middle wall, the words Guchengzhai ( Solid Town Stronghold )can be read distinctly now. There are 3 doors in the ancient stronghold, and near a door some words on a stele show that the military stronghold was constructed in Ming Dynasty.

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The towering Jincheng Mountain, over 1400 meters above sea level, is very steep. But many parts of the military stronghold are located on the steep cliffs, and most stones, materials used for the building, are about 500 kilogrames heavy. Moreover, it is introduced by the local people that there are not any such huge stones on Jincheng Mountain at all. Therefore there are some mysteries up to now. For example, how the huge stones were moved to the peak, or how the grand stronghold was built by the ancients and so on. In short, the stronghold is one of architectural miracles in the Three Gorges district.

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Notes: 1. 星罗棋布的三峡古兵寨是庞大的古代军事防御体系,它们古老而神秘,展现着2000多年前人们的军事知识、建筑工艺和指挥才华。例如,在宜昌市晓峰景区内的惊世新发现。大巴山脉的崇山峻岭中保存着一条规模巨大的兵寨长城。一百多座古兵寨全部用巨石垒建于孤峰危岩之顶,凌空高耸,势如悬寨。关卡、塞门、战壕、兵居、箭垛、烽火台齐全,结构厚重而精巧。

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2. 三峡古兵寨是绝对的易守难攻。各兵寨的大小、形状不同,但都是利用险峻山势,自成一体。每座兵寨寨前有卡门,寨上有寨门,寨内有石房,寨周有射击孔、瞭望孔、箭楼、通道。寨与寨之间有兵道相联,有瞭望孔互相联络,形成完整的防御体系,坚不可摧。

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New Words: ancients n. 古人 defence n. 防御 distance n. 距离 distinctly ad. 明显地 fort n. 堡垒 introduce v. 介绍 military a. 军事的 moreover ad. 而且 mystery n. 神秘的事物 similar a. 相似的 solid a. 坚固的 stele n. 石碑 Stronghold n. 要塞, 堡垒

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Exercises: I. Answer the questions: 1. How long is the defence works? 2. How high and how wide are the defence walls? 3. How does the stronghold look like? 4. What is the exact position of the stronghold? 5. When was the military structure built? key

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II. Decide the statements true or false: 1. The distance between the forts is about 1.5 kilometers. ( ) 2. The name of the works on the upper place of the middle wall is distinct. ( ) 3. Some words on a stele near a door show that the military stronghold was constructed in Ming Dynasty. ( ) 4. People can explain everything about the building. ( ) 5. Guchengzhai means Soft Town Stronghold. ( ) key

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III. Multiple choices: 1. The towering Jincheng Mountain _______ over 1400 meters above sea level A. in B. on C. by D. at 2. People wonder how the _______ stones were moved to the peak, or how the grand stronghold was built by the _______. A. ancients, huge B. huge, heavy C. ancients, machine D. huge, ancients key

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3. The most stones, _______ used for the building, are about 500 kilograms _______. A. heavy, materials B. huge, heavy C. materials, huge D. materials, heavy 4. ________ there are some _______ up to now about the works. A. Mysteries, therefore, B. Thus, so that C. Therefore, hence D. Therefore, mysteries 5. ________, it is ________ by the local people that there are not any such huge stones on Jincheng Mountain at all. A. Introduced, moreover B. Moreover, introduced C. Introduced, besides D. Moreover, furthermore key

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Translation: 未解之迷--明代古军寨 考古工作者于2004年3月,在重庆市云阳县发现一座外形似长城的明代军寨。这座“古军寨”位于云阳县蔈草乡缙城山的山峰上,依山而建,绵延起伏达5公里, 气势雄伟。 在此古军寨的首尾和中间部分,各有一处“堡垒”状的城墙。此城墙堡垒间距约1.5公里,城墙高约5至7米,宽约1.2米。在中间一处城墙上方至今仍然可以清晰地看见“固城寨”的字样。古军寨共有3个寨门,其中一个寨门附近的一块石碑上的文字表明,军寨始建于明朝。

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缙城山海拔1400多米,山势十分陡峭。但是军寨很多地方都建筑在悬崖峭壁上,修寨用的石材大多有上千斤重。椐当地人介绍,缙城山上根本没有那么大的石头。因此,古人究竟是怎样将这些巨石运到山顶,并且筑成了如此雄伟的山寨,还是一个未解之谜。显然,明代古军寨是三峡地区建筑奇迹之一。

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Passage 1 Key to Unit 19 I. 1. Forty-five kilometers away from Zhong County, in Chongqing City, Shibaozhai is on the peak of isolated Yuying Hill rising steeply on the north bank of the Yangtze River. 2. Shibaozhai means Stone Treasure Village and Yuying Hill means Jade Signet Hill.

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3. Shibaozhai is regarded as one of the 8 architectural miracles in the world. It is a unique tower with its special structural style and skills in China, among the rare precious high buildings of wooden structures in existence. It is a typical local building, a symbol of folk architectural technology in South China, and a priceless treasure in the world.

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4. People can reach the summit by stepping on the winding stairs in the building. 5. Shibaozhai is a red, wooden tower with 12 floors, leaning against the cliff and facing the water. It is 56 meters high, and each floor retracts a little having 3 sides with 4 eaves. It takes its tendency along the hill’s shape. II. 1.T 2.F 3.T 4.T 5.F III. 1.C 2.A 3.B 4.D 5.B

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Passage 2 I. 1. Xintan Ancient Residence Complexes in Zigui County are located on the two banks of the Yangtze River in Xiling Gorge. 2. The ancient houses were firstly built over 1600 years ago, and most ones were made in Ming Dynasty or Qing Dynasty. 3. A set of the old house is on three or four different levels at least. 4. Usually, you would pass stone stairs firstly, an archway and a yard, then step on stone stairs again, go through a gateway, move in a hall, get in a courtyard, and walk on stone steps thirdly.

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5. Because there are about three or four courtyards, and everywhere are stone steps, winding corridors. II. 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. T III. 1. A 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. C

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Passage 3 I. 1. The defence works is 5 kilometers long. 2. The walls are 5--7 meters high and 1.2 meters wide. 3. Its appearance is similar to the Great Wall. 4. The stronghold was discovered along the peaks of Jincheng Mountain in Licao Village, in Yunyang County, Chongqing City. 5. The military structure was built in Ming Dynasty. II. 1.T 2.T 3.T 4.F 5.F III. 1.D 2.D 3.D 4.D 5. B

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秭归新民居

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新滩滑坡遗址

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新 滩 民 居

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旧屈原祠

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汉 阙

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大足石刻

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白 帝 庙

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巴东秋风亭

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张 飞 庙

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土家吊脚楼

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古 栈 道

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丰 都 鬼 城

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古黄陵庙

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镇 江 阁

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至 喜 亭

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宜昌西陵长江大桥

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宜昌夷陵长江大桥

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宜昌长江公路大桥

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大 昌 古 镇

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古 兵 寨

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玉泉寺铁塔

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宜昌滨江公园一角

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滨江公园之世界和平公园一角

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Thank You back

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