Quasi-Newton Methods: Quasi-Newton Methods
Background: Background Assumption: the evaluation of the Hessian is impractical or costly.
Central idea underlying quasi-Newton methods is to use an approximation of the inverse Hessian.
Form of approximation differs among methods. Question: What is the simplest approximation? The quasi-Newton methods that build up an approximation of the inverse Hessian are often regarded as the most sophisticated for solving unconstrained problems.
Modified Newton Method: Modified Newton Method Question: What is a measure of effectiveness for the Classical Modified Newton Method?
Quasi-Newton Methods: Quasi-Newton Methods Big question: What is the update matrix? In quasi-Newton methods, instead of the true Hessian, an initial matrix H0 is chosen (usually H0 = I) which is subsequently updated by an update formula:
Hk+1 = Hk + Hku
where Hku is the update matrix. This updating can also be done with the inverse of the Hessian H-1as follows:
Let B = H-1; then the updating formula for the inverse is also of the form
Bk+1 = Bk + Bku
Hessian Matrix Updates: Hessian Matrix Updates Given two points xk and xk+1 , we define gk = y(xk) and gk+1 = y(xk+1).
Further, let pk = xk+1 - xk , then
gk+1 - gk ≈ H(xk) pk
If the Hessian is constant, then
gk+1 - gk = H pk which can be rewritten as qk = H pk
If the Hessian is constant, then the following condition would hold as well
H-1k+1 qi = pi 0 ≤ i ≤ k
This is called the quasi-Newton condition.
Rank One and Rank Two Updates: Rank One and Rank Two Updates Let B = H-1, then the quasi-Newton condition becomes Bk+1 qi = pi 0 ≤ i ≤ k
Substitute the updating formula Bk+1 = Bk + Buk and the condition becomes
pi = Bk qi + Buk qi (1)
(remember: pi = xi+1 - xi and qi = gi+1 - gi )
Note: There is no unique solution to funding the update matrix Buk
A general form is Buk = a uuT + b vvT
where a and b are scalars and u and v are vectors satisfying condition (1).
The quantities auuT and bvvT are symmetric matrices of (at most) rank one.
Quasi-Newton methods that take b = 0 are using rank one updates.
Quasi-Newton methods that take b ≠ 0 are using rank two updates.
Note that b ≠ 0 provides more flexibility.
Update Formulas: Update Formulas The following two update formulas have received wide acceptance:
• Davidon -Fletcher-Powell (DFP) formula
• Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) formula.
Davidon-Fletcher-Powel Formula: Davidon-Fletcher-Powel Formula Earliest (and one of the most clever) schemes for constructing the inverse Hessian was originally proposed by Davidon (1959) and later developed by Fletcher and Powell (1963).
It has the interesting property that, for a quadratic objective, it simultaneously generates the directions of the conjugate gradient method while constructing the inverse Hessian.
The method is also referred to as the variable metric method (originally suggested by Davidon).
Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno Formula: Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno Formula
Some Comments on Broyden Methods: Some Comments on Broyden Methods Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno formula is more complicated than DFP, but straightforward to apply
BFGS update formula can be used exactly like DFP formula.
Numerical experiments have shown that BFGS formula's performance is superior over DFP formula. Hence, BFGS is often preferred over DFP. Both DFP and BFGS updates have symmetric rank two corrections that are constructed from the vectors pk and Bkqk. Weighted combinations of these formulae will therefore also have the same properties. This observation leads to a whole collection of updates, know as the Broyden family, defined by:
Bf = (1 - f)BDFP + fBBFGS
where f is a parameter that may take any real value.
Quasi-Newton Algorithm: Quasi-Newton Algorithm Note: You do have to calculate the vector of first order derivatives g for each iteration. 1. Input x0, B0, termination criteria.
2. For any k, set Sk = – Bkgk.
3. Compute a step size a (e.g., by line search on y(xk + aSk)) and
set xk+1 = xk + aSk.
4. Compute the update matrix Buk according to a given formula (say, DFP or BFGS) using the values qk = gk+1 - gk , pk = xk+1 - xk , and Bk.
5. Set Bk+1 = Bk + Buk.
6. Continue with next k until termination criteria are satisfied.
Some Closing Remarks: Some Closing Remarks Both DFP and BFGS methods have theoretical properties that guarantee superlinear (fast) convergence rate and global convergence under certain conditions.
However, both methods could fail for general nonlinear problems. Specifically,
• DFP is highly sensitive to inaccuracies in line searches.
• Both methods can get stuck on a saddle-point. In Newton's method, a saddle-point can be detected during modifications of the (true) Hessian. Therefore, search around the final point when using quasi-Newton methods.
• Update of Hessian becomes "corrupted" by round-off and other inaccuracies.
All kind of "tricks" such as scaling and preconditioning exist to boost the performance of the methods.