Slide2: Ways to Improving Writing Skill Study writing principles and techniques.
Watch for their appearance in the writing of others.
Try them out in your own writing—over and over and over again.
Imitate sentences and passages of good writing. Slide3: Breast cancer strikes more than 212,000 American women each year and kills more than 40,000, making it the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer.
MRI tends to produce false positives at about twice the rate of mammography, forcing more women to undergo repeated tests and sometimes biopsies and subjecting them to anxiety, distress and discomfort. But the panel concluded that the benefits outweigh the downside for those at high risk.
The champion smiled, recalling the roar of the crowd.
His mother waited, tapping her foot on the hardwood floor.
Dicey looked out over the tall marsh grasses, blowing in the wind.
The children stared down at the honeybees, careening from flower to flower. Slide4: Congress gave final approval to a broad overhaul of federal student loan programs Friday, sharply cutting subsidies to lenders and increasing grants to needy students.
The United States Air Force has decided to push development of a new type of fuel to power its bombers and fighters, mixing conventional jet fuel with fuels from nonpetroleum sources that could eventually limit military dependence on imported oil.
The World Health Organization on Wednesday urged nations with rampant AIDS epidemics to begin offering free or subsidized circumcisions in hopes of preventing millions of new infections and deaths.
The American Cancer Society’s guidelines stress that the MRI exams should be done in addition to annual mammograms and regular physical exams in the hope of driving down the death toll from the common, widely feared malignancy. Slide5: Novartis said it will stop phase II development of NKS104, a treatment for elevated total cholesterol, after data showed the drug wasn't competitive enough to invest further resources.
Outline for “English Technical Writing” Course: Outline for “English Technical Writing” Course Traits of good technical writing
Five steps to successful writing
Structure and content for scientific papers/research reports, and proposals
Elements of composition: words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and punctuation
Sentences: structures and patterns
Variation of sentences: expansion, transformation, reduction, sentence combining, inversion, and ellipsis Keys to clear, concise, and grammatically correct sentences
Transition words and phrases: conjunctive adverbs and conjunctions
Paragraphs: topic sentence, elaboration, unity, and coherence
Essays: thesis statement, unity, and coherence
Common expressions in technical writing
Critical analyses of published journal articles
Demonstration of editing with drafts of students’ papers Unit 1: Unit 1 Traits of Good Technical Writing Good Technical Writing Is :: Good Technical Writing Is : Technically accurate
Correct in spelling, punctuation, and grammar
Compliant with the conventions of institutions or professional societies Well organized
Ethical Unit 2: Unit 2 Five Steps to Successful Writing Five Steps to Successful Writing: Five Steps to Successful Writing Planning
Establish your purpose or objective.
Identify your readers.
Define your scope.
Select the appropriate medium.
Find information and take notes.
Gather all your own data.
Five Steps to Successful Writing(Continued): Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued) Organization
Group related information with headings and subheadings.
Arrange information in a logical order (e.g., general to specific, specific to general, chronological, spatial, sequential, cause and effect, and comparison).
Write an outline.
Articulate your thesis and support it with evidence.
Achieve unity and coherence in structure. Five Steps to Successful Writing(Continued): Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued) Revision
Check for completeness and accuracy.
Check for unity and coherence.
Activate the writing.
Clarify the writing.
Check for sentence variety (i.e., structure and length).
Check for appropriate word choice.
Eliminate problems with grammar.
Check for spelling and punctuation.
Check for the adherence to format guidelines. Unit 3: Unit 3 Structure and Content for Scientific Papers/Research Reports, and Proposals Elements of Technical Paper or Reports: Elements of Technical Paper or Reports Title – What is the paper about?
Need to reflect an overview of the paper’s content and emphasis.
Be brief, honest, and communicative.
Avoid phrase such as “on the”, “a study of”, “research on”, “regarding”, and “use of”.
Avoid nonquantitative, meaningless word such as “rapid” and “new”.
Capitalizing Words in TitlesAlways capitalize the first and last words and main words oftitles and subtitles. Also capitalize in accordance with parts of speech.: CAPITALIZED PARTS OF
Adverbs NOT CAPITALIZED
PARTS OF SPEECH
To in infinitives
Capitalizing Words in Titles Always capitalize the first and last words and main words of titles and subtitles. Also capitalize in accordance with parts of speech. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports(continued): Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Abstract – What is the basic content?
– Summarize its objectives, the work performed,
and the major conclusions reached in an
informative, concise, one-paragraph statement. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports(continued): Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Introduction – What is the problem and why should anyone care?
An Opening Attention-Grabber
Point out the problem or issue.
Offer your reasons for studying it.
Give a concise and appropriate review of the preexisting literature of the problem.
Describe how your work differs or is related to work previously published.
A Preview of the Whole
State your purpose or thesis and give a blueprint of the contents to be presented. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports(continued): Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Materials and Methods – How was the evidence obtained?
Identify the materials used and give information on the degree of and criteria for purity.
Describe apparatus only if it is not standard or not commercially available.
Describe the procedures used unless they are established and standard.
Note any safety precautions. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports(continued): Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Results – What was found or seen?
Summarize the data collected and their statistical treatment.
Include only relevant data, but give sufficient detail to justify your conclusions.
Use equations, figures, and tables only where necessary for clarity and brevity. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports(continued): Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Discussion and Conclusion – What do these findings mean?
Relate your results to current knowledge in the field and to your original purpose in undertaking the project.
State the logical implications of your results.
Suggest further study or implications if warranted.
Be objective while pointing out the features and limitations of your work. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports(continued): Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Be tactful about disagreements when discussing other people’s results and hypotheses that are relevant to yours. If possible, offer approaches to resolve the conflicts.
Elements of Technical Paper or Reports(continued): Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Acknowledgements – Who help, support or sponsor this work?
Thank those persons, other than coauthors, who added substantially to the work, provided advice or technical assistance, or aided materially by providing equipment or supplies.
State grant numbers and sponsors, as well as auspices under which the work was done, including permission to publish. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports(continued): Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) References – Who did what?
Check original references for accuracy and appropriate content.
Follow the journal’s guideline or company’s policy on the style of references. Proposal: Proposal Summary of Proposal
Briefly state the purpose of the proposal.
Define the problem or need.
State why addressing it is important.
Present a detailed solution.
Explain its benefits.
Restate the problem or need and the benefits of the solution.
Unit 4: Unit 4 Elements of Composition: Words, Phrases, Clauses, Sentences, Paragraphs, and Punctuation Slide26:
Parts of speech
It describes the class of words to which a particular
word belongs, according to its function in a
sentence. The eight parts of speech in the English
Nouns (common and proper; concrete and abstract;
singular and collective;count and noncount)
Pronouns (personal, demonstrative, relative,
interrogative, indefinite, and reflexive) 1. Words Slide27: Adjectives & Articles (a, an and the)
Verbs, Auxiliaries (be, have, do and modals)
and Verbals (gerund, infinitive, and participle)
Conjunctions (coordinating, correlative, subordinating, and conjunctive adverb)
Slide28: PART OF SPEECH FUNCTION
noun, pronoun name/referring
adjective, adverb describing/modifying
preposition, conjunction linking/joining
interjection exclaiming Slide29: The function of a word in a sentence always
determines its part of speech in that sentence.
Examples: The government sent the city aid.
Governments aid citizens.
It is company policy.
He went home.
Slide30: 2. Phrases
A phrase is a group of related words that is used
as a single part of speech and that does not
contain both a verb and its subject.
Gerund Phrases, Participial Phrases, Infinitive
Phrases, Prepositional Phrases, Appositive phrases,
and Absolute phrases Slide31: 3. Punctuation
Period, Comma, Semicolon, Colon, Dash, Question
Mark, Quotation Marks, Apostrophe, Parentheses,
Brackets, Slash, Hyphen, Ellipsis points, and
Exclamation Mark 4. Clauses
A clause is word group that contains a verb and its
subject and that is used as a sentence or as part
of a sentence. There are two basic kinds of clauses:
Independent (main) Clauses and Dependent
(subordinate) Clauses. Slide32: 5. Sentences
A sentence is word group that contains a subject
and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.
Subject + Predicate
STRUCTURE: Simple, Compound, Complex, and
PURPOSE: Declarative, Interrogative,
Exclamatory, and Imperative Slide33: 6. Paragraphs
Topic Sentence (Main Point),
Unity (Focus or Consistency), and Coherence Slide34: 7. Composition Thesis Statement (main Idea or Message), Unity
(Focus or Consistency), and Coherence Pursuasive Essay: Pursuasive Essay Clearly state the issue and your position on it in the introduction
Use language appropriate to the audience you’re trying to convince.
Support your position with facts, statistics, and reasons.
Answer possible objections to your position.
Provide clear reasoning
Conclude with a summary of your position or a call to action, Supplements to Unit 4: Supplements to Unit 4 Slide37: NOUNS
A noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
Common Nouns Proper nouns
Event Academy Awards, French
Holiday Fourth of July, Mardi Gras
City Houston, New York City
Language Spanish, Chinese
Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns
Tree, car, pencil peace, courage, honor, citizenship
Slide38: Singular Nouns Collective Nouns
Person, dog, flower crowd, jury, family, flock,
Count Nouns Noncount Nouns
One chair furniture
Many chairs a lot of furniture
Operas, songs Music
Slide39: Remember that some nouns may be used as count or
as noncount nouns depending on their meanings.
Materials and abstract concepts are noncount nouns,
but they may be used as count nouns to express
I have a paper due Monday.
Let’s use paper to make the present.
Dr. Chan will receive a special honor at the
Slide40: We need a glass (glasses) for the juice.
She needs to find work.
War is as old as mankind.
Space is the last frontier for man to conquer.
8. It is generally believed that an M.B.A. degree is good preparation for a career in business. Slide41: PRONOUNS
A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more
nouns or pronouns.
The word or word group that a pronoun stands for is
called the antecedent of the pronoun.
Examples: Jay enjoys hiking and camping; in fact
they are his favorite pastimes.
The students complained to the principal
about the dress code. They wished he had
consulted with them about it. Slide42: Personal Pronouns
A personal pronoun refers to the one(s) speaking
(first person), the one(s) spoken to (second person),
or the one(s) spoken about (third person). Slide43: Examples: If I give you my address, will you write
We told them that they could go with us.
Slide44: Reflexive Pronouns
A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of a verb and
functions as a complement for emphasis, as an object
to rename the subject, or as an object of a preposition. Slide45: Examples: I myself faxed the report to him.
I wrote this script myself.
Mary excused herself from the table.
He hit himself with the hammer.
Robert bought himself a pair of shoes.
They baked the pie for themselves.
Anna lives by herself.
Slide46: Demonstrative Pronouns
A demonstrative pronoun points out somebody or
something already mentioned or identified or something
understood by both the speaker and hearer. Examples: Is this the one you want?
That may be the only reasonable
These or those are the pictures from
our vacation. Slide47: The new program comes as social-networking sites grabble with how to build on their success among young users and convert this into profit. Slide48: Interrogative Pronouns
An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. Examples: Everyone knows many examples of energy and its
use, but what does the term energy really mean?
To whom should I direct your call?
Whose is this red sweater?
The department manager decided who
should be hired. Slide49: Relative Pronouns
A relative pronoun introduces an adjective clause.
Examples: I thanked the woman who helped me.
The college that I chose is in Ohio.
The birds, which usually have flown
south by this time of the year, were still
congregating in our backyard.
Slide50: Indefinite Pronouns
An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, a
thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically
named. In other words, the pronoun may not have a
specific antecedent. Slide51: Examples: All of the members have voted.
Does everyone favor a weekly meeting?
Slide52: The fallen tree provided homes for several
of the creatures of the woods.
One should always be polite.
The cervical cancer vaccine is a
phenomenal breakthrough, one that has
the potential of eliminating this disease
Slide53: ADJECTIVES & ARTICLES
An adjective is a word used to modify or describe a
noun or pronoun.
Examples: The tired and hungry hikers straggled
The hikers, tired and hungry, straggled
What time will you be back?
I much prefer this painting to that one.
This confusion is costly. Slide54: A and an are called indefinite articles because they refer
to any member of a general group. A is used before
words beginning with a consonant sound; an is used
before words beginning with a vowel sound.
Examples: A manual has been written on that subject.
He seems an unlikely candidate for the job.
The interviewer arrived an hour early.
Slide55: The is called the definite article because it refers to a
specific person, place, thing, or idea.
Examples: The package was delivered yesterday.
Please open the door. Slide56: VERBS
A verb is a word that expresses an action, a condition,
or a state of being.
There are two main types of verbs: action verbs and
An action verb expresses action. The action may be
physical or mental.
Examples: The band marches onto the field. (physical)
The audience expects a great performance.
Slide57: An action verb that has an object-a word or word group
that tells who or what receives the action of the verb is
called transitive verb.
Examples: They posted a card on her door.
The rain lashed the windows.
This kid’s behavior in school
worried his parents.
Slide58: An action verb does not have an object is called
Examples: The rain fell.
My cousin arrived yesterday.
He travels around the country with
the other musicians.
Slide59: A linking verb connects the subject to a word or word
group that identifies or describes the subject. Such a
word or word group is called a subject complement.
Common linking verbs:
Forms of Be Verb
am, are, is, was, were
Verbs That Express Condition
feel, look, smell, sound, taste appear, seem, remain,
stay, become (and get, turn, grow when they mean
“become”) Slide60: Examples: John is a student.
John is intelligent.
This food tastes delicious.
The children feel happy.
The weather became cold. Note: The forms of be are not always used as linking
verbs. That is, they are sometimes used as
state-of-being verbs. In such cases, words that tell
where or when are generally used to complete the
meaning of the verb forms. Slide61: Examples: He is upstairs.
You should have been here yesterday.
Note: While action verbs may be transitive or intransitive,
linking verbs and state-of-being verbs are always
intransitive. Slide62: A main verb and one or more helping verbs (also called
auxiliary verbs) make up a verb phrase. A verb phrase
may be used to express a particular tense of a verb (that
is, the time referred to) or to indicate that an action is
directed as the subject.
Examples: Sally is a nice person and you can
speak freely with her.
The stadium is filled to the capacity. Slide64: Verbals
A verbal is a verb form that is used as a noun, an adjec-
tive, or an adverb. The three kinds of verbals are the par-
ticiple, the gerund, and the infinitive.
A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjec-
tive. Three kinds of participles are the present participle,
the past participle and the present perfect participle. Pre-
sent participles end in –ing. Most participles end in –d or
–ed. Others are irregularly formed. Present perfect forms
are formed by adding having or having been to the past
participles of verbs and indicate complete actions.
Slide65: Examples: The freezing rain made the road slick.
This medicine represents a significant
improvement compared with existing
Bowing, the performers acknowledged
Did I hear someone knocking the door?
First prize was an engraved trophy.
The lab tested samples of water taken
from wells in the area.
Slide66: Rested and relaxed, we returned to work.
Having completed his chores, Andy decided
to join his friends playing football in the park.
Having been declared the winner, she called
a press conference to thank her supporters.
Slide67: Examples: The lecturer was boring.
The audience was bored.
A developing country
A developed country
One unshared pair of electrons
A teacher-dominated classroom culture
Note: A present participle should describe a person
or thing causing or stimulating an experience; a past participle should describe a person or thing
undergoing an experience. Also a present participle is used to indicate an on-going or active action whereas a past participle a completed or passive one. Slide68: A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as
Examples: Smoking is indisputably a danger to
Please stop whispering.
In answering, give specific examples.
During 2006, incomes from wages and
salaries rose 4.2% after adjusting for
inflation, the strongest year since 2000.
Slide69: His favorite hobby these days is playing video games.
Delivering long- and short-term results at the same time is what good managers do for a living.
Among other things, figuring out where this one came from will help us prevent future problems.
World powers hoped that approving the resolution quickly and unanimously would signal that Iran will face stricter sanctions each time it ignores a Security Council deadline to suspend uranium enrichment, a process that can be used to produce nuclear energy or nuclear weapons. Slide70: Note: Use a possessive noun or pronoun before a
The issue is his whining.
Wang's pitching won the game.
His wife resented his going out and having
What did the teacher say about your
missing the test yesterday? Slide71: An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a
noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives
begin with to. In addition to the present form, infi-
nitives have a present perfect form. This form adds
to have or to have been to the past participle of a
verb and indicates a completed action. Examples: To error is human.
No one wants to stay.
Slide72: The survivors had little to celebrate.
Is everybody ready to go?
The rain seems to have stopped.
Kelly was happy to have been chosen.
Slide73: Sometimes, infinitives omit the word to.
Examples: All you have to do is [to] write your
book this year.
Who dares [to] challenge a champion?
Help me [to] wash the car.
Let’s [to] wait here.
The clowns made us [to] laugh.
We saw him [to] leave. Slide74: Note:
With verbs of perception such as see, hear, feel, smell, notice, observe and watch, we can use a present participle or an infinitive without “to” as its objective complement in a sentence.
Examples: I saw him running (or run) down the stairs.
He could feel his bed shaking (or shake)
during the earthquake last night. Slide75: ADVERBS
An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb
or a clause.
Examples: Teresa spoke eloquently.
Have you heard this melody before?
The brochure design used extremely
When Dell first started making PCs, it
entered an industry with lots of built-in
fat, namely reseller commissions and
retailer markups. Slide76: The redesigned brake pad lasted much longer.
Surprisingly, the machine failed.
Frankly, I could do without it.
Sadly, he died before I managed to reach him
Fortunately, I had enough money left to pay my
Hopefully, it will be over by Christmas. Slide77: PREPOSITIONS
A preposition shows the relation of a noun or pronoun,
called the object of the preposition, to another word.
Examples: I found this information on the internet.
The manager sat behind the desk in
As of today, she hasn’t made her final
You can log on to this web site to
access the following information.
Slide78: Bond prices rose, taking the yield on the 10-year note down to 4.41 percent, the lowest interest rate on that closely-watched bond since December. Slide79: CONJUNCTIONS
A conjunction is a word that joins or connects words,
phrases, or sentences. Slide80: Examples: The old man is extremely kind and
He will leave at eight and arrive at nine.
It was raining hard, and there was a
It was raining hard. And there was a
Slide81: There have been a series of studies over the
past 20 years which show that people in their
70s, 80s and 90s are functioning at a
substantially higher level than they were only 20
years ago, and there is a much lower
percentage of disability in older people than
there was 20 years ago. And of course, life
expectancy has gone up dramatically, as you're
well aware, for the last 80 years.
Mr. Bush needs to make clear to the Iraqi
leader that continued American support will
depend on his active cooperation. And that,
ultimately, the Iraqis have even more to lose
than the Americans from an unending civil war.
Slide82: This disease is incurable but treatable.
We missed the opening scene, but we enjoyed
the rest of the play.
The U.S. expansion has shown it can tolerate $50 oil with hardly a hesitation. But how will it handle $60 oil when the Federal Reserve has more than tripled short-term interest rates over the past year, signs of corporate jitters have resurfaced, and the dollar has rallied, making exports once again more expensive on global markets?
Slide83: A major change in the national diet is under way: Heart-damaging trans fat is rapidly disappearing from grocery aisles and restaurant food, too. But are its replacements really healthier?
He was tired, so he went to bed.
The child hid behind his mother’s skirt, for he
was afraid of the dog.
She did not study, yet she passed the exam.
Americans live longer than ever, yet more of us
are told we are sick. Slide84: Examples: Neither my sister nor my parents are here.
Both the students and the teacher are
planning to come.
I’m going to go swimming tomorrow
whether it is cold or not.
Slide85: A growing body of research suggests
that diversity in the workplace not only
helps companies stay in tune with their
customers, but also adds to the diversity
of ideas and attitudes.
In writing, we can error not only by
using the wrong words but also by
misusing the right words.
I would rather try something great and
fail than try nothing great and succeed.
Slide86: A subordinating conjunction begins a subordinating
clause and connects it to an independent clause. Slide87: Examples: Please turn down the stereo so that I
can concentrate on my homework.
Before you write your paper, you must
submit an outline.
Robert enjoyed the movie as much as
Because I have two cousins living in
San Francisco, I always have a place to
stay when I visit the West Coast.
Where there is a will, there is a way. Slide88: A conjunctive adverb has the force of conjunction
because it joins two independent clauses. The most
common conjunctive adverbs are however, moreover,
therefore, further, then, consequently, besides,
accordingly, also, and thus.
Example: The engine performed well in the laboratory;
however, it failed under road conditions.
An interjection expresses emotion and has no gram-
matical relation to the rest of the sentence.
Examples: Hey! I think I know the answer.
Wow! Profits more than doubled last
Well, we need to rethink the proposal. Unit 5: Unit 5 Diction
(Proper Words in Proper Places) Slide91: 5a Know the meanings of words
1. not present: not attending a place or event, especially when expected to
He was absent from school yesterday.
2. inattentive: not paying attention
His face took on an absent expression.
Definition: without: in the absence of
Absent a cure, or more effective drugs, Alzheimer’s disease is a march to oblivion. Slide92: Human DNA isn't that different from what you find in other mammals. So how does it combine to form people in some cases and dogs or chimps in others? It's one of the big mysteries of biology. Slide93: 5b Choose precise words
His remark left the audience in a confused state.
His remark bewildered the audience.
He went quickly down the street.
He scurried down the street.
China's top electronics makers on Wednesday unveiled dozens of video players made with a homegrown DVD format in a campaign to promote a Chinese alternative to foreign technology.
transitive verb expose something secret: to reveal something that has been hidden or kept secret Slide94: Imply means “to suggest or state indirectly”; infer means to “to draw a conclusion.”
John implied that he knew all about computers, but the interviewer inferred that John was inexperienced.
Global sea-level rise is probably not going to happen as fast as Gore implies in his movie.
Slide95: 5c Watch out the connotations of certain words
One of the advantages of this newly developed chemical process is the use of cheap raw material.
One of the advantages of this newly developed chemical process is the use of inexpensive raw material.
Talk is cheap unless you can deliver.
The words in each of the following groups have the same denotation, but different connotations.
smile, beam, smirk thin, slender, scrawny
laugh, chuckle, guffaw look, peek, gawk
Slide96: 5d Use vivid words
The politicians spent hours talking about what was the proper choice of action.
The politicians debated for hours what was the proper choice of action.
5e Express idiomatic expressions correctly
Only experts can distinguish a master piece from a fake.
Many credit Thomas Edison with having invented the light bulb.
The author does a good job of tying motivational theory to obtainable results.
Slide97: The debate centers on the still-in-development process of extracting material from days-old human embryos that can morph into any tissue in the body. Unit 6: Unit 6 Phrases Slide99: Phrases
A phrase is a group of related words, generally having
neither subject nor predicate and used as though it
were a single word. It cannot make a statement and
is therefore not a clause. Slide100: Knowledge of the phrase and how it is used will
suggest to you ways of diversifying and enlivening
your sentences. Variety in using sentences will
remedy the monotonous "subject first" habit. The use
of the participial phrase, for instance, will add life and
movement to your style because the participle is an
action word, having the strength of its verbal nature in
addition to its function as a modifier. Slide101: We classify phrases as gerund, participial, infinitive,
prepositional, appositive, and absolute. The following
sentences will show how the same idea may be
expressed differently by the use of different kinds of
phrases: Sue swam daily. She hoped to improve her
By swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her
backstroke. Slide102: 3. Swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her
4. Sue's only hope of improving her backstroke
was to swim daily.
5. With a daily swim, Sue hoped to improve her
6. Sue knew of one way to improve her backstroke:
7. Sue swam daily, hoping to improve her backstroke.
Slide103: 6a Gerund phrase
A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any
complement or modifiers it may have. The function of the
gerund phrase is always that of a noun:
1. Being late for breakfast is Joe’s worst fault.
2. Substituting vo = C into v = at + C gives us v = at + vo.
3. She finally succeeded in opening the camera.
4. Bill hated driving his golf balls into the lake.
5. His hobby, making furniture, is enjoyable and useful. Slide104: 6b Participial phrase
A participial phrase consists of a participle and any
complement or modifiers it may have. It functions as
an adjective or an adverb:
Believed to have originated in Africa, AIDS has become an epidemic, infecting tens of millions of people worldwide.
Given a list of potential school improvements and
asked which one they would most like their
children’s school to make, 24 percent of parents
selected smaller class size.
Having gotten a large bonus, the smiling, contented sales representative worked harder than ever. Slide105: The Department of Education recently awarded 18
federal grants totaling more than $38 million to
provide financial incentives to educators.
In efforts directed toward the synthesis of this new
cancer drug, we put eight researchers work on this
Note that electronegativity generally increases
going from left to right across a period and decreases
going down a group for the representative elements.
The first step is to calculate theΔH for the reaction
using the Hess law. Slide106: The woman improved her health running five miles a day.
The oxidation potential for the dimer was lower
than that of the 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP)
monomer, suggesting that the oxidation potential
of the terminal phenolic group becomes lower as
the polymerization progresses. Slide107: 6c Infinitive Phrase
An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any
complement or modifiers it may have. Infinitives function
as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns:
1. In 1995, Steve Fossett became the first person to
fly solo across the Pacific Ocean in a balloon.
2. To be in Mr. Foster’s class was to learn the
meaning of discipline.
3. China's goal is to foster a higher-wage economy
built on science and innovation. Slide108: 4. Millie left early to avoid the heavy traffic.
To express the very large and very small quantities
we often run into in physics, we use scientific notation,
which employs powers of 10.
6. We decided to go for a long walk.
7. Her fiancé seems to be very pleasant. Slide109: 6d Prepositional phrase
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition
followed by a noun or pronoun used as its object,
together with any modifiers the noun or pronoun
may have. The prepositional phrase functions usually
as an adjective or an adverb: Slide110: The plan of the house is very simple.
The river runs through rich farmland.
3. Throughout the house there was an aroma of
corned beef and cabbage.
The conformations about the Re- Re bond, in
addition, are different for all three complexes.
We shouldn’t jump to a quick conclusion yet with
our test results still ambiguous. Slide111: 6e Appositive phrase
An appositive is a word or phrase that explains,
identifies, or renames the word it follows.
An appositive phrase may be a noun phrase (that is, a noun and its modifiers), a gerund phrase, an infinitive phrase, or a prepositional phrase:
Slide112: Ascorbic acid, a valuable preservative, is ubiquitous
in processed and other foods.
Jean knew a way out of her difficulty: telling the truth.
His greatest ambition, to make a million dollars,
was doomed from the start.
The rustler's hideout, in the old cave by the river,
was discovered by the posse.
The core feature of planthood is autotrophy,
that is, the happy ability to make one’s own food. Slide113: The United States remains the leading source of the carbon dioxide, the main emission linked to global warming.
In 1995, Microsoft added a free Web browser to its operating system in an attempt to fend off new rivals, an effort ultimately blocked by the courts.
Slide114: An appositive may be essential or nonessential; it is
essential if it positively identifies that which it renames,
frequently by use of a proper noun. Examples of both
essential and nonessential appositives occur in the
In late 1990s, a Nobel laureate Professor Y. T. Lee
played an active and significant role in Taiwan’s
political and educational arenas.
In late 1990s, Professor Y. T. Lee, a Nobel laureate,
played an active and significant role in Taiwan’s
political and educational arenas.
Slide115: Note: A modifying phrase must modify a
word or phrase appearing in the
sentence and be next to what it
Slide116: 6f Absolute phrase
An Absolute phrase consists of a subject, usually a
noun or a pronoun, and a participle, together with any
objects or modifiers of the participle. It allows you to
add specific, concrete detail to a general statement with
greater economy than most alternative constructions.
Extremely flexible besides, it can be placed at the
beginning or end of a sentence, or often in the middle. Slide117: When the participle of an absolute phase is a form of
the verb be, the verb is frequently omitted entirely, so
that the absolute consists simply of a noun followed by
1. Each child carrying his little bag of crackling, we
trod the long road home in the cold winter afternoon.
2. If f(x) = xn, then f’(x) = nxn-1 for all n, n being a real
3. The theater being nearby, I decided to walk.
4. Their dinner finished, the two industrialists were
ready to talk business.
Slide118: 5. The rain having stopped, we went to the beach.
6. He lay flat on the bed, his chin on his folded arms
Our opponent has chosen to ignore scientific principles, his theories a wish list of insupportable propositions.
8. Our atmosphere is currently about 20 percent oxygen, all of it the bounty of the planet’s green-skinned autotrophs.
9. His research complete, he began to write his report.
10. I shall do as I please, all things considered.
11. The driver of the wrecked car, one leg trapped beneath the dashboard, body pinned firmly against the steering wheel, waited patiently for the rescue squad.
12. About the bones, ants were ebbing away, their pincers full of meat.
Slide119: 13. Six boys came over the hill half an hour early that afternoon,
running hard, their heads down, their forearms working, their
14. The little boy stood crying besides the road, his bicycle
broken, his knees bruised, and his confidence badly shaken.
15. The pianist played beautifully, her technique flawless, her
interpretation sure and sensitive.
Slide120: Note: The following sentences are elliptical because of the omission of the subject “we” understood in the context. They are not dangling.
1. The conclusions were premature, considering the lack of
2. Judging from the spectral changes, exhaustive photolysis of
compound 4 had occurred.
3. Assuming that each gas behaves ideally, the partial pressure of
each gas can be calculated from the ideal gas law:
P1=n1RT/V, P2=n2RT/V, P3=n3RT/V, …
4. Taking this value as an upper limit, the two shortest
distances are sometimes too long for incipient hydrogen
bonds. Slide121: 5. Building an new fab for more capacity would seem not only
superfluous, but also incredibly risky, given the high cost
involved, the fears of an industrywide chip glut, and the
increasingly fierce competition in the microprocessor market.
6. Stocks may be at record highs, but the value of the profits
from the rally are worth less given the sharp drop in the dollar
against foreign currencies.
7. Given that half of the 65-year-olds alive today will likely live
beyond age 83, outliving one's assets is an all-too-likely
possibility for some retirees.
Slide122: What’s the problem with this sentence?
Using a pipette, 25 mL of 0.05 N aqueous HCl solution was slowly added to the stirred mixture. Supplements to Unit 6 : Supplements to Unit 6 Slide124: Scheduled to give a keynote speech early the next morning, she didn’t want to sit in the emergency room all night.
Long used as a substitute for saturated fats in baked goods, fried foods, salad dressings, margarine and other foods, trans fats also have a longer shelf life than other alternatives.
The war being over at last, the task of arranging the peace terms began.
New York has never been a cheap place to stay, but today's high prices are remarkable, considering where the city has been.
A strike lasting close to a month or more would cause GM to burn up $8.1 billion in the first month and $7.2 billion in the second month, assuming the company can't produce vehicles in Mexico or Canada, according to Lehman Brothers analyst Brian Johnson.
Slide125: Plants essentially eat the sun, transforming solar energy into sugars and starch through the stepwise enzymatic stitchery of photosynthesis.
The federal government has financed research and development of energy technology and alternative fuels for decades, often focusing on basic science, and has a mixed record of incubating winners, including some widely used technologies.
Stocks like Microsoft and Dell look like buys, given their earnings growth and their past P/Es.
Given the risks involved in such personal revelations, including job discrimination and health insurance woes, no one knows how many people will take that route.
The big deterioration this month was unexpected, given that other readings on consumer confidence have been showing strength.
Unit 7 : Unit 7 Clauses Slide127: 7a Noun clauses
NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION
Slide128: For anyone who has cancer, there is one moment that you can never forget. It's when the doctor tells you, "It's cancer." Now, the exact words may vary, but the impact is the same. Your heart begins to pound; your brain screams out in disbelief. Your hearing stops, too, but usually only after you hear the words that so often come next: "There's no cure." Slide129: NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH
WHETHER OR IF Slide130: NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH THAT Slide131: Other experts challenge the idea that a warmer world means more and stronger storms.
Today, because of the growing consensus that the nation must wean itself from imported oil and sharply curb climate-altering carbon emissions, new energy options are in vogue.
Retail sales in the U.S. rose less than forecast in August, adding to concerns a softening labor market and a deeper housing slump will curtail demand.
Note: The “that” may be omitted when the “that clause” is the object of a verb or functions as an appositive. Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects: Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects Delete the preposition when be + adjectives + preposition phrases are used with that-noun clauses. The adjectives (e.g., afraid, certain, delighted, glad, interested, pleased, positive, satisfied, and surprised) here express personal feelings or states of the mind.
I am convinced that my sister would attend this party.
I am afraid that he won’t make it.
We are all surprised that this catalyst is so active in the reaction.
President Bush said he was confident the nation would stand with him despite "gut-wrenching" televised images of fallen Americans.
Educators were still not aware that there are better ways to teach science.
Oil traders are nervous that any escalation in violence in the Middle East may disrupt oil supplies from the region, which holds two-thirds of global reserves.
We are concerned that a lot of our retirees will end up losing their health benefits.
Scientists are actually pretty grateful by and large that Gore has succeeded in bringing the issue of global warming to the public's attention. Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects(Continued): Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects (Continued) When the that-clause refers to a statement of fact, the words the fact are inserted between the preposition and the clause.
The fire was due to the fact that someone had dropped a lighted cigarette.
except that: with the exception of the fact that, or if it were not for the fact that
The pyridine molecule is like benzene except that a nitrogen atom
replaces one of the carbon atoms in the ring.
The twins looked identical, except that one had dyed his hair.
I would come, except that I have another engagement. Slide134: in that: introduces an explanation of a statement
She's unusual for a commuter in that she's never late for work.
Surfuric acid is unique among the common acids in that it is a strong
acid in its first dissociation step and a weak acid in its second step.
Slide136: USING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES
The teacher demands that we be on time.
(b) I insisted that he pay me the money.
(c) I recommended that she not go to the concert.
(d) It is important that they be told the truth.
(e) I suggested that she see a doctor.
(f) I suggested that she should see a doctor. Slide137: COMMON VERBS AND EXPRESSIONS
FOLLOWED BY THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN
A NOUN CLAUSE Slide138: 7b Adjective clauses
RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE SUBJECT Slide139: A function is a rule that assigns to each element in the domain one and only one element in the range. Slide140: RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE
OBJECT OF A VERB Slide141: RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT
OF A PREPOSITION Slide142: USING WHOSE
I know the man whose bicycle was stolen.
(b) The student whose composition I read writes well.
(c) Mr. Catt has a painting whose value is inestimable.
Slide143: USING WHERE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Slide144: USING WHEN IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Slide145: The housewife-traders were so secretive that many market analysts did not realize how widespread the trend had become until this summer, when the police arrested a Tokyo housewife accused of failing to pay $1.1 million in taxes on her foreign exchange earnings.
She called My Home Doctor a second time when her daughter had a respiratory infection. Slide146: Note: THAT can be a conjunction used to introduce
a clause expressing cause or result.
I felt hurt that you should think such a thing.
This result was shocking and totally smashed all
the good reasons (that) we initially went into palm oil.
The reason (that) we care about cancer is that it is a killer.
One reason that students are filing more applications is the increasing use of the Common Application, a form that can be completed and filed via the Internet.
The eroding economics of practicing basic medicine was a reason (that) fewer medical students were going into primary care, which pays much less than specialties.
It made such a noise that we had to cover our ears. Slide147: USING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY
PRONOUNS There is someone (whom) I want you to meet.
(b) Everything he said was pure nonsense.
(c) Anybody who wants to come is welcome.
(d) Paula was the only one I knew at the party.
(e) Scholarships are available for those who need
financial assistance. Slide148: USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES In my class there are 20 students, most of whom
are from Asia.
(b) He gave several reasons, only a few of which
(c) The teachers discussed Jim, one of whose
problems was poor study habits.
(d) Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., the maker of the most
prescribed diabetes pill, is developing three new
drugs to target the world's fastest-growing disease,
each of which carries sales potential of $1 billion
Slide149: USING NOUN + OF WHICH
We have an antique table, the top of which has jade
inlay. Slide150: Note:
Generally an adjective clause must be placed right beside the word it describes. However, when the adjective clause is too long, a compromise will be made as long as the role of the modifier for the adjective clause is clear (see the following example).
A new kind of medical practice is flourishing nationwide that offers to go to where the patients are — whether a home, an office or a hotel — to treat ailments as diverse as a sprained ankle or a bad case of bronchitis. Slide151: USING WHICH TO MODIFY A WHOLE
(a) Tom was late.
(b) That surprised me.
(c) Tom was late, which surprised me.
(d) The elevator is out of order.
(e) This is too bad.
(f) The elevator is out of order, which is too bad.
Slide152: Their consensus was that chip sales will be flat to slightly up this year, which doesn't bode well for chipmakers or companies that make chip-manufacturing gear.
Treasury prices rallied at the expense of stocks Friday - after news that the economy shed 4,000 jobs last month, which jolted economists who were expecting a gain of at least 110,000 positions.
The Democrats want to actually pass some things that people actually care about, which would never happen if this dragged on. Slide153: Intel also reiterated plans to build graphics capabilities into Nehalem processors, a sign that it is mounting a challenge to AMD chips scheduled to come out in early 2009.
Orders to U.S. factories surged in March by the largest amount in a year, an encouraging sign that the recent slowdown in manufacturing may be ending.
Dialysis is a dreary experience, one in which people with failed kidneys sit for hours hooked to machines that cleanse their blood, assisted by technicians who often have to work a second job to make ends meet. Slide154: The embryonic stem cells have the ability to transform into a "dazzling array of specialized cells," the Web site says — the property that scientists and others say offers the potential for the development of treatment for diseases as varied as juvenile diabetes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.
The Intel factory, slated to go online in 2010, will produce 12-inch wafers with circuitry 90 nanometers thick, which is a generation behind the current top of the line, chips with 65-nanometer circuits. Later this year U.S. plants will begin producing 45-nanometer chips, a factor which probably helped Intel win approval for the project from the U.S. government.
Slide155: The Fed's last rate increase occurred in June 2006 and since that time the central bank has left rates unchanged, a stance that is expected to remain intact when Fed officials meet next week.
Scientists have identified a gene that makes roundworms live longer when they eat less, a finding they hope could lead to drugs that promote human longevity, but without the pain of strict dieting.
Iran appears to be enriching uranium on a far larger scale than before, a finding that may affect effort by diplomats to stem Tehran’s program.
Most have agreed that data is best understood by experts, a view that might not prove popular with patients. Slide156: New York City produces almost 1 percent of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions -- an amount that puts it on par with Ireland or Portugal -- according to a city study.
House and Senate negotiators reached an agreement Wednesday to boost aid to college students, a deal that calls for slashing roughly $20 billion in government subsidies to banks that issue student loans.
The bill calls for research on alternative techniques to derive stem cells without the use of human embryos, an approach that is certainly worth pursuing but is deemed less promising by most experts.
Slide157: A RELATIVE PRONOUN NEXT TO AN INTERRUPTER CLAUSE AND ONE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
Thomas M. Siebel, founder of Siebel Systems, pledged $100 million this year to support basic research that he hopes will reduce dependency on carbon-based fuels.
A major draw of Duke is that we have an athletic prowess which separates us from Harvard, Princeton, Yale, which I know are schools the administration tends to compare Duke to.
Slide158: The Environmental Protection Agency, which Knatz says should be doing more to help clean up America's ports, did not respond to our interview requests.
New technology is allowing energy producers to capture speedier wind that environmental activists say has the potential to provide 20 percent of the state's electricity within 10 years.
People are living longer, and the extra years of life, which I think have been one of the crowning achievements of the last century, have to be financed somehow.
Slide159: In his testimony on Friday, Mr. Nifong faulted himself for his inflammatory public statements last winter, which he said were intended to pressure witnesses to come forward when the police investigation stalled.
"In retrospect we got it wrong partly because the truth was so implausible," he writes. The truth Tenet refers to, we now know, is that no unconventional weapons would be found in Iraq.
Hydrogen peroxide, the chemical that the German police say two terrorism suspects planned to use to make bombs, is a simple molecule — two oxygen atoms and two hydrogen atoms — with myriad uses.
Slide160: Dr. Lipkin, whose focus is human disease, became involved because the quest for a cause for the beehive collapses employed new genetic sifting techniques that he said might also prove useful in investigating outbreaks of human diseases.
Still, Mr. Broad dedicates his biggest gifts to areas that he thinks lack government support, like the $25 million he gave to the University of Southern California last year to found an institute for integrative biology and stem cell research, or the tens of millions he dedicated to complete the new Disney concert hall in Los Angeles. Slide161: Yet Jaffe feels strongly that her patients need someone to hunt down lower-cost options, negotiate with insurers, and find other ways to help them to get the medical care she thinks they need.
Slide162: John didn't disclose who he thought should lead the ticket.
I am pleased that after reviewing all the evidence the Executive Directors of the World Bank Group have accepted my assurance that I acted ethically and in good faith in what I believed were the best interests of the institution, including protecting the rights of a valued staff member.
This new catalyst has changed the reaction pathway. That's what I think takes place now.
Slide163: More Examples Involving Noun/Adjective Clauses:
What we're facing now is a crisis that is by far the most serious we've ever faced.
He takes issue with what he describes as unfair accusations that his company’s profits are built on a product that causes harm to patients.
The Food and Drug Administration is changing the rules on who can serve on its advisory committees. Some members who have advised the agency on drugs and medical devices have had financial dealings deemed to represent conflicts of interest.
Slide164: How we cope with crises in our lives is as individual as we are.
Many of the hardest-hit regions are where the poor live — in Africa and in many other parts of the tropics.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a United Nations scientific group, will report in May on what kinds of things can be done to lessen the impacts of climate change.
Federal regulators should relax restrictions on which patients are included in clinical trials of a widely used treatment for a common heart malfunction, a panel of experts told the Food and Drug Administration on Thursday. Slide165: In those dark hours of the night, when we're left alone with our greatest fears, when the power of the disease seems strongest, it's important to remember that others are always with us, even if we don't even know them.
These are the kinds of things that we expect to see more of as a result of global warming.
A thermometer is an instrument that measures the temperature by expansion and contraction of mercury or alcohol in a capillary tube and bulb.
A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed itself.
Slide166: The standard enthalpy of formation ( ) of a compound is defined as the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound at 25℃ from its elements with all substances in their standard states at that temperature.
The rewards teachers receive for outstanding performance range from a few hundred dollars to $10,000 or more in a few districts.
For the union, guarantees for future investment are pivotal to ensuring the sacrifices it makes today will pay off tomorrow.
Slide167: 7c Adverb clauses
When we were in New York, we saw several plays.
(b) We saw several plays when we were in New York.
(c) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed.
(d) He went to bed because he was sleepy.
(e) INCORRECT: When were in New York. We saw
(f) INCORRECT: He went to bed. Because he was
Slide168: USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOW CAUSE
AND EFFECT Slide169: SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST: WHILE AND
Mary is rich, while John is poor.
(b) John is poor, while Mary is rich.
(c) Mary is rich, whereas John is poor.
(d) Whereas Mary is rich, John is poor.
(e) While I was studying, the phone rang. Slide170: EXPRESSING CONDITIONS IN ADVERB
CLAUSES: IF-CLAUSES (a) If it rains, the streets get wet.
(b) If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella. Slide171: ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING
WHETHER OR NOT AND EVEN IF
WHETHER OR NOT
I’m going to go to swimming tomorrow whether or
not it is cold.(OR: whether it is cold or not.)
(b) I have decided to go to swimming tomorrow. Even
if the weather is cold, I’m going to go swimming.
Slide172: ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING IN
CASE AND IN THE EVENT THAT
I’ll be at my uncle’s house in case you (should)
need to reach me.
(b) In the event that you (should) need to reach me,
I’ll be at my uncle’s house. Slide173: ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING
UNLESS or EXCEPT WHEN
I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it’s cold.
(b) I’ll go swimming tomorrow if it isn’t cold.
(c) He dislikes the game except when he wins. Slide174: ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING
The picnic will be canceled only if it rains.
If it’s windy, we’ll go on the picnic.
If it’s cold, we’ll go on the picnic.
If it’s damp and foggy, we’ll go on the picnic.
If it’s unbearably hot, we’ll go on the picnic.
(b) Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled. Slide175: More examples for Adverb Clauses:
Engineers are working on methods for capturing the carbon dioxide emitted when coal is burned.
In the semiconductor industry, prices are always falling as chip companies scramble to cram more semiconductors into less space, allowing them to deliver more computing power per buck.
I'm sure most people, whether they're 40 or 60 or 75, would say the same thing: They are not ready to die.
Because multiplying any quantity by unity leaves the quantity unchanged, we can introduce conversion factors wherever we find them useful.
Slide176: If we have a contract that enables us to be competitive we will invest; if not we will disinvest in the U.S. and use our money where we think we can get a better return.
Where there’s life, there’s hope.
Unit 8: Unit 8 Sentences: Structures and Patterns
Subject + Predicate
Slide178: 8a Simple Sentence–one independent
Five Basic Sentence Patterns
S + Vi
1. The phone rang.
2. This method won’t work.
3. Many people swim daily. Slide179: 4. These two sisters don’t get along.
5. One loses by conceit and gains by modesty.
6. Useful solvents result when propylene oxide reacts
with alcohols to form glycol ethers.
7. You can go broke by not spending money on
insurance where you should.
8. The price of oil fell to its lowest level in two months
on Wednesday as evidence builds that the high cost
of gasoline and other fuels is sapping demand. Slide180: 9. Many lawmakers say their hope is growing that
Congress will pass an immigration bill next year.
10. Evidence could surface of a previously unknown
victim — a homeless person, perhaps, or an illegal
11. Evidence also emerged that some detainees had
been involved in shipments of weapons to illegal
armed groups in Iraq.
12. If the hypothesis holds up that the drop in hormone
use is the main cause, as seems likely, it should
persuade even more women to curb their use except
when absolutely necessary. Slide181: 13. A consensus is building across the political
spectrum that rewarding teachers with bonuses or
raises for improving student achievement, working
in lower income schools or teaching subjects that
are hard to staff can energize veteran teachers and
attract bright rookies to the profession.
14. The policymaking FOMC meets on June 29-30 and
expectations have risen that, as the economy gains
momentum, they soon will raise rates at least a
quarter percentage point to keep inflation
pressures in check.
Slide182: 15. Productivity improves as companies, unable to pass
along costs as higher prices, are forced to operate
16. The business of manufacturing intermediates and
active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for
commercial drugs is still suffering due to overcapacity
and the dearth of new products at the end of the
pharmaceutical industry’s pipeline.
16. Oil prices rose Monday after the foiled
weekend attempts to bomb Iraq's key Basra
crude export terminal revived fears of more
attacks on the country's oil infrastructure.
Slide184: S + Vi + C
1. This is a formula for success: underpromise and
2. We are not at an impasse now.
3. Our bus was late.
4. The price seemed reasonable.
5. The food tasted good. Slide185: 6. The appropriate place to really render honors, and to
acknowledge the sacrifice that somebody has made
is at the gravesite.
7. For cancer survivors, the prospect of death is no
longer a cerebral awareness but is an unavoidable
part of daily life.
8. The whole point is that you withdraw the stimulus
when you no longer need it. Slide186: 9. There are concerns insurers may be seeking to
exclude from the pool applicants at risk for a
disorder, even if it’s a relatively small risk.
10. Google's software, which is expected to be
introduced soon, according to several people with
knowledge of the company's plans, is the clearest
indication to date that the company, based in
Mountain View, Calif., hopes to extend its search
business to compete directly with Microsoft's control
of desktop computing. Slide187: 11. Corporations are well positioned to benefit from
strong economic growth.
12. It is apparent that smoking can cause cancer.
13. It is one of my goals to visit South America.
14. It will be necessary for him to sign these papers.
15. It is a fact that English is the principal language of
the business community throughout much of the
world. Slide188: 16. It has been well known that Mr. Powell was the
most skeptical among Mr. Bush's senior advisers
about the wisdom of invading Iraq.
17. It was ironic to some investors that stocks were
sagging at a time when oil prices were falling more
sharply than they have been in some time. Slide189: 18. As the new session of Congress begins this week,
it appears as murky as ever whether some
confluence of forces will draw together and push
Congress to do what it did more than a decade ago
and pass national energy legislation.
Slide190: 19. For some people, fear of getting the disease is
nearly as debilitating as the ailment itself. But a
growing health-care movement known as
predictive medicine, aided by recent advances in
human genetics, is starting to ease some patients‘
minds – or at least provide tailored strategies for
better managing their risk and their care, experts
say. Slide191: S + Vt + O
1. The student reads a book.
2. A storm has delayed the plane.
3. A translucent object reflects some light and trans-
mits some light.
4. The Fed cuts short-term rates to boost economic
growth and raises them to try to ward off inflation. Slide192: 5. This case provides evidence that long-term freezing
can successfully preserve sperm quality and fertility.
6. The increase in energy cost over the past few years
has hurt chemical companies that depend on natural gas
for feedstock and fuel.
7. Monetary and fiscal stimuli have created excess
liquidity that must be leached during an economic
rebound. Slide193: 8. Still, many companies are planning further job
cuts in order to boost profit, as excess production
capacity makes it difficult to raise prices in many
9. This new piece of legislation established new
protections for the unborn by making it a separate
crime to harm a fetus during an assault on the
mother-to-be. Slide194: 10. MTBE makers are facing a growing number of lawsuits in dozens of states and cities where their product has wound up in drinking water, most likely from leaking gasoline storage tanks. The bill would give them liability protection from these suits in return for an MTBE phaseout by 2014.
11. Greenspan has no idea right now when he will have to raise the overnight federal funds rate from its four-decade low of 1 percent.
12. The bill’s fate appears to continue to rest with these five senators. Slide195: 13. Catalysis continues to grow in importance in the
production of fine chemicals.
14. Potential impact on the environment has become
as large a factor as economics in the design of new
chemical products and processes.
15. Chinese mine owners regularly flout safety
regulations to meet insatiable demand for a fuel
powering the country's booming economy. Slide196: 16. Following a diet and exercise regime similar to
that for diabetics and people with heart disease
may delay the onset of Alzheimer's.
17. Group of Seven nations should indicate steps
they can take to achieve sustainable global
economic growth and to reduce geopolitical risks,
including the situation in Iraq. Slide197: S + Vt + Oi + Od and S + Vt + Od +
( to or for) + Oi
1. My father often gives me a gift.
2. The boy wrote his parents a letter.
3. My aunt will send us the money.
4. This change provided me a unique opportunity to
experience life as a sixth-grader in an American Junior
Slide198: 5. My brother bought two books for me.
6. Please offer your seat to anyone in need.
7. I would recommend it for kids who have a lot of
initiative and who are truly interested and not just
looking for something to do.
8. The central bank lowered interest rates to almost
zero in March 2001.
9. Being the oldest, Jane set an example for her
brother and sister. Slide199: 10. Crystallization usually affords highly purified
solids from relatively impure solutions in a single
11. The Fed isn't going to wean the economy from life-support until there's enough personal income being generated to sustain economic growth without excessive monetary stimulus.
12. A new power plant chimney that converts greenhouse gases into helpful substances could have a huge impact on global warming. Slide200: 13. Bush has dismissed congressional proposals as "the same old tax-and-spend policy that the Democrats have tried before."
14. As public servants, we owe it to American taxpayers to complete our work responsibly.
15. The report cites as examples the sharply reduced use of chemical pesticides to grow gene-altered, pest-resistant cotton, and the rising incomes of small cotton farmers in countries, such as China and South Africa, which have embraced the technology. Slide201: 16. In the coming weeks, the city will be required to disclose to us many more details about its preconvention surveillance of groups and activists, and many will be shocked by the breadth of the Police Department’s political surveillance operation.”
17. The nurse would record an agreed-upon time in the appointment book and pass on to the patient instructions like not eating or drinking from midnight before the day of the requested procedure.
18. The swift move would promote to the supreme
Court’s top job a newcomer who currently is being
considered as one of eight associate justices.
Slide202: S + Vt + O + C
1. This interest-rate thing has me all confused.
2. We got that message loud and clear.
3. Eric called his friend a liar.
4. The power of creativity and intelligence can
make the world a better place. Slide203: 5. Research on human embryonic stem cells
holds the potential to cure Alzheimer's,
Parkinson's disease, spinal injuries, diabetes
and other conditions.
6. The man and his wife, who chose to remain
anonymous, wanted their case publicized to
encourage young cancer patients to have hope
for the future. Slide204: 7. You should do research on what risks the
manager takes, and how he or she expects to
8. He let his opportunities slip.
9. On Tuesday, stocks took a dive when Fed
Chairman Alan Greenspan let slip that deflation
was no longer a concern. Slide205: 10. The Energy Department revised upward earlier
estimates of heating costs for households using oil
and propane this winter, citing continued high
prices for energy supplies.
11. Mr. Chirac made clear that he still viewed the
war and its aftermath very differently than his
American counterpart did.
12. Saudi Arabia, the only OPEC member with any
significant immediate spare capacity, has already
made clear it will be pumping real extra volumes of
some 700,000 bpd, irrespective of quotas. Slide206: 13. Intel’s new chips will make possible higher-speed computing, more reliable storage and more advanced audiovisual standards and will represent fundamental change in the internal structure of the standard PC.
Slide207: 14. The report, by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, explicitly rejects as too extreme the position embraced by many environmental and advocacy groups that have called for bans on genetic engineering of plants and animals. Many of these groups are opposed in principle to a technology in which genes are deliberately transferred from one species to another to confer new traits. Slide208: 15. The Bush administration’s regulatory czar,
John Graham publicly dismissed as unproven
the idea that the hormonal system could be
disrupted by multiple low-dose exposures to
16. I would like to make (it) clear that the new
superconductors have many useful properties.
17. Powell has made it clear that he wants to
know how this could have happened. Slide209: 18. The evolution of more complex national and global financial markets during the past quarter-century has made it easier and cheaper to finance a business or home purchase, while spreading financial risk more widely.
19. Every Fed official who takes to the podium makes it clear he'd like to see the unutilized resources (of labor) reduced. Slide210: 20. Over the years, counterfeiters have found it financially advantageous to substitute diethylene glycol, a sweet-tasting syrup, for its chemical cousin glycerin, which is usually much more expensive.
21. Central heating systems have made it possible to live and work comfortably in winter.
22. The French, Russian and Canadian representatives made it clear that they will not supply troops for Iraq but that they are willing to help with reconstruction. Slide211: 8b Compound Sentence–two or more
1. A barrel of oil now costs more than $40, but when
adjusted for inflation, that price is less alarming.
2. Life is limited and there is an end to it.
3. Glucose is to industrial biotech what crude oil is to petrochemicals.
4. Across China, villages are becoming aware of
new environmental laws, but they're usually too
poor and powerless to stand up to local officials. Slide212: 8c Complex Sentence–one independent
clause and one or more dependent clauses.
1. By searching in wild and wonderful environments, microbiologists hope to find new genes that might be of use to investors and customers.
Slide213: 2. But what biotechnology mostly cannot do yet is produce either feedstock or finished product more cheaply than the petrochemical industry.
3. Asian stocks fell after a gain in oil and gasoline futures renewed concern higher energy prices may damp global growth. Slide214: Original
DDT became available for public use in 1945, and it is the grandfather of the synthetic organic pesticides, and perhaps it is the best known insecticide.
DDT, which became available for public use in 1945, is the grandfather of the synthetic organic pesticides—and perhaps the best known insecticide.
Slide215: 8d Compound-complex Sentence–two or
more independent clauses and one or more
1. John was close to his sister Linda when they
were young, but now they seldom see each
2. Not only is soy a rich source of high-quality
protein, but it also contains complex
carbohydrates that don't raise blood sugar as
high as more processed carbohydrates. Slide216: 3. Once the pathways have been selected, and the new enzymes designed, it is just a question of adding the relevant genes to E. coli, removing the genes for the undesired pathways, and seeing whether the result lives up to expectations.
4. Yes, high fuel costs could ultimately endanger the economic recovery, but there is no reason to believe that they will do so at this level.
Slide217: 5. Samuel Johnson was known for his concern about the environment and in 1975 SC Johnson & Sons Inc. voluntarily stopped using chlorofluorocarbon propellants in aerosol products, three years before the U.S. government banned the ozone-depleting substances.
Slide218: 6. In the business world, chief executives must know when their strategies aren’t working and react, or they go out of business. Slide219: 7. Money that might have gone toward other purchases would be drained away paying for fuel, and indirectly, higher fuel costs would gradually add to inflation as they work their way through the economy, business people here said. Unit 9: Unit 9 Punctuation Rules Slide221: 1. THE PERIOD (.) a. Use a period to end a sentence.
He is a student.
Take this medicine three times a day. b. Use periods after initials and abbreviations. Exceptions: Many abbreviations made up of the first letters of words that name an organization are written without period (UN, WHO, TVA).
Periods are also often omitted after many technical abbreviations (PC, IT). Slide222: 2. THE QUESTION MARK (?) Use a question mark to end an interrogative sentence.
Is it time for the train to arrive?
Did you see the eclipse? 3. THE EXCLAMATION POINT (!) Use an exclamation point after a forceful or emotional statement and sometimes after a command. Slide223: 4. THE COMMA (,) a. Use a comma to separate independent clauses that are connected by a coordinating conjunction (“for,” “and,” “nor,” “so,” “but,” “or,” and “yet”). We left the house early to drive to the airport, but heavy traffic caused us to miss our plane. Slide224: Note: The comma is often omitted from a compound sentence if its clauses are very short. I called and she answered. Slide225: b. Use a comma to separate an introductory
clause or phrase. Although they had only two weeks to travel, they managed to see many villages in Mexico.
After hiking for three hours, we stopped to rest.
In the middle of the first semester, he began to understand the principles of economics. Note: The comma is often omitted following a very short introductory prepositional phrase.
At work he was friendly and industrious. Slide226: c. Use commas to set off any adverbial phrase between the subject and the verb.
Bloated budget deficits, if not curbed, could pose a danger to the economy's long-term health, he warned.
The court, in a manner surprising to all, excluded the press from the courtroom.
Slide227: d. Use commas to set off nonrestrictive clauses or phrases within a sentence.
The new church, which was built with donated
funds, will open next week. e. Use commas to set off conjunctive adverbs.
Minnesota’s experience shows, however, that an incentive
plan created with union input can draw teacher support.
As a matter of fact, I never expected him to
complete his studies.
The house is, for the most part, very satisfactory.
Slide228: f. Use commas to separate words, phrases, or clauses
in a series.
We gave them food, clothing, and shelter for the
At the beach they learned to swim, to fish, and to
g. Use a comma to separate elements of place
Leningrad, Russia, used to be named St. Petersburg.
Slide229: h. Use a comma to separate day and year when
you state a precise date (month, day, and year).
The convention was to be held on March 18, 1984, in
San Francisco, California.
i. Use commas to set off a contrasted element.
The boy’s uncle, not his aunt, will meet you at the
Slide230: j. Put a comma before etc.
Please bring your report, e-mail files, meeting minutes, etc., to my
k. Put a comma after the clarifying devices i.e. and
The problems on the control system cannot be attributed to shoddy
Technology alone (i.e., human error has played a large role).
Several endangered species (e.g., the red wolf and the snowy owl)
are being introduced into the park.
l. Use commas to set off interrupters or parenthetical expressions.
Carl Sandburg, the biographer of Lincoln, won
the Pulitzer Prize.
The committee’s decision, to say the least, sparked
Slide232: m. Use commas to set off direct address.
Come inside, Michael, and join us.
You see, my friends, the problem is not a simple
n. Use commas to set off absolute elements.
Rain or shine, he plays tennis every day.
I wonder what will happen next, his ambition
being what it is. Slide233: o. Use a comma to set off interjections.
Well, I decided to try to turn the boat around.
Oh, how beautiful the tropical sunset is!
p. Use a comma to prevent misreading.
In the morning, light began to flood our room.
The problem is, is there time to shower before
q. Use a comma after last names when the
normal order of names is reversed.
Kennedy, Howard J. Slide234: r. Use a comma as a thousands separator in numbers
of 1,000 and higher.
1,200 15,000 750,000 45,000,000 (or $45 million)
s. Use commas to set off dialogue from nondialogue
components in a sentence.
He said, “I have found the key.”
“If you leave this afternoon,” he said, “you will
arrive in plenty of time.”
Slide235: t. Use a comma to indicate omitted text in a parallel construction.
To error is human; to forgive, divine.
In the U.S., we have two research centers; in China, one; in Europe, three. Slide236: 5. THE SEMICOLON (;)
Use a semicolon to connect two main clauses
when there is no coordinating conjunction.
The debate was drawing to a close; each team
gathered together to prepare its final remarks.
I closed the book; I had grown tired of reading. Slide237: b. Use semicolons to separate coordinate elements
containing internal punctuation.
The extra $22 billion includes $4 billion for veterans' health
care and administrative services; $2 billion for port security;
$3 billion for education; nearly $1 billion for sewage
and water treatment improvements; and money for
local law enforcement, housing for the poor, and road and
bridge upgrades. Slide238: 6. THE COLON (:)
Use a colon before a word, phrase, sentence, or several sentences that clarify, explain, amplify, or summarize the preceding expression.
Voters approved the controversial amendment by an extremely
narrow margin: 20,100 in favor and 19,899 against.
The different affinities of atoms for the electrons in a bond are
described by a property called electronegativity: the ability of
an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.
Figure X. Variable-temperature proton-decoupled 31P NMR
spectra of compound YY: top, 350 K; middle, 303 K; bottom,
I have one objection to this advertisement: it is far too
technical for its intended audience.
Your first draft is like a rich uncultivated field for the
farmer: it is waiting for you to bring it into full bloom.
After a week of meetings with Chinese energy, environmental
and clean-car experts, I’m left with one big, gnawing question:
can China go green without going orange?
Slide240: b. Use a colon to introduce a list. Make sure
that the expression preceding the colon is a
Our research focuses on two areas: inexpensive feed
stocks for ethanol production and new catalysts for
c. Use a colon to introduce a quotation.
The advertisement for the Hawaiian trip read as
follows: “Visit six islands and learn for yourself
what Paradise of the Pacific means.”
Slide241: d. Use a colon to express direct ratio.
a ratio of 50:1 5:2:1
e. Use a colon after the salutation of a
business letter, between a title and subtitle,
between a chapter and verse reference from
the Bible, and between the hour and minute
figures in time designations.
To Whom It May Concern:
Science Problems: A Handbook for Students
according to Ecclesiastes 3:9
10:50 A.M. Slide242: 7. THE APOSTROPHE (‘)
An apostrophe is used for these reasons:
Use an apostrophe to indicate the possessive case,
except for personal pronouns.
If the word (either singular or plural) does not end
in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add the apostrophe and s.
the girl’s dress
the car’s upholstery Slide243: 2. If the singular ends in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add the
apostrophe and s unless the second s makes the
pronunciation difficult; in such case, add only the
Charles’s dog but
(The addition of a second s would change the
pronunciation of Moses to Moseses and Aristo-
phanes to Aristophaneses.) Slide244: 3. If the plural ends in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add only the
ladies’ dresses (dresses for ladies)
boys’ shoes (shoes of the boys)
five dollars’ worth 4. In compound words, make only the last word
brother-in-law’s books (singular possessive)
mothers-in-law’s books (plural possessive)
someone else’s book Slide245: 5. In noun of joint possession, make only the last
noun possessive. In nouns of individual possession, make
both nouns possessive.
Jane and Alice’s book (joint possession)
Jane’s and Alice’s books (individual possession) Slide246: 6. An apostrophe indicates the omission of a letter
or a number.
the gold rush of ‘49 Slide247: An apostrophe and s form the plural of letters,
figures, symbols, and words. (Such forms are
Writers should cross their t’s and dot their i’s.
Count to 100 by 5’s
Try to cut down on the number of and’s you
use in your writing.
We live in the 80’s. Slide248: 8. THE DASH (—) Use a dash to indicate a sudden break in
She had her reasons — or did she?
Could he — I mean, would he be willing to
work with us?
Her eyes lighted up with love — or was it pity? — when
she read the letter.
Slide249: b. Use a dash before an appositive or brief
The best universities and colleges have stuck to their
missions — hiring the most qualified professors, offering the
highest-quality courses, and providing the broadest possible
educations not only for the world of work but also for public
service and personal development.
He asked Congress to set an immediate freeze on emissions of
carbon dioxide — that's the main pollutant responsible for
trapping heat in the atmosphere.
Doctors are looking at cancer more and more as a chronic
disease — something people can live with for a longer period
of time. Slide250: These three experimental parameters — activity, selectivity,
and life span — should be considered for the selection of a
catalyst employed in a commercial chemical process.
c. Uses dashes (instead of commas or parentheses) to
set off strong parenthetical element.
The new chip — which took us two years to complete its
design — will be in commercial production next month.
The president — reversing his position — now opposes this
Slide251: d. Uses dashes to set off a parenthetical
expression when that expression interrupts
the flow of thought.
If you wish to stress the idea — the decision is up to
you — then use dashes rather than commas or parentheses. Slide252: 9. THE HYPHEN (-)
a. Hyphenate two or more words as a compound
noun, verb or adverb or as a compound modifier
of a noun:
a well-known actor technology’s cost-effectiveness
a risk-taking strategy birth-control movement
hydrogen-powered cars cross-link two polymers
short-sighted thinking vacuum-dry this material
Many U.S. hospitals aren't set up to provide state-of-the-art treatment
for heart attacks on a 24/7 basis.
Slide253: He is a well-liked man.
He is well liked.
She is old-fashioned. (Permanent compound)
It is an up-to-date book.
This book is up to date. Phrases hyphenated before a noun are not hyphenated
when they appear in the predicate unless they are
permanent compounds: Slide254: b. Place a hyphen between the numerator and
denominator of a fraction unless either part
contain a hyphen:
but: twenty-two sixteenths
In an expression like one half of and in a fraction
intended as merely roughly approximate, the hyphen
is generally omitted:
About three fourths of the students attended the
game. Slide255: c. Hyphenate compound numbers between
twenty and one hundred:
thirty-five sixty-three ninety-nine
d. Use a hyphen to avoid ambiguity.
resign (to quit) refund (to give money back)
re-sign (to sign again) re-fund (to bring money in again)
Slide256: e. Use a hyphen to indicate a season that straddled
two calendar years.
The winter of 1883-84 was especially severe.
f. Use a hyphen to designate a continuous period of
two or more years.
The presidency of George Bush (1988-1992) was good for the
Slide257: g. Use a hyphen to indicate “suspended compounds” (where the important element is omitted in all but the last term).
The lumber is available in 8-, 16-, and 32-foot lengths.
The national test scores for 4th- and 8th-graders show modest
improvements in math, but flat scores in reading.
h. Use a hyphen to denote a precise numerical
a two-hour test 12-inch-diameter pipe
a ten-year-old brother. six-game winning streak. Slide258: i. Use a hyphen at the end of the first line to
mark the separation of syllables when a word
is divided between two lines. Never divide
In your essay you should avoid using frag-
ment sentences. Slide259: j. In compounds not covered by the above rules, a
writer must depend chiefly upon memory of the
individual words and upon help from a reliable,
up-to-date dictionary. As with spelling in
general, hyphen usage cannot be reduced to a logical system. The general tendency is to use the hyphen only if joined elements are not felt to be thoroughly fused or if the omission of the mark between separate elements might cause a misreading. Slide260: 10. PARENTHESES ( ) Use parentheses to enclose numbers in a series.
The treaty stipulated that the countries would (1)
cease fighting, (2) respect each other’s boundaries,
and (3) resume trade. Slide261: b. Use parentheses to introduce acronyms and
abbreviations (including abbreviations of
The organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEC) cannot agree on a quota. Slide262: c. Use parentheses to set off parenthetical,
supplementary, or illustrative material.
He said (and we assumed that he was sincere) that he would
attend the ceremony without fail.
As we drove down the mountain road (could this truly be
called a road?), our brakes began to smoke. Slide263: 11. BRACKETS ([ ]) Brackets are used to set off editorial corrections or
additions to quoted matter.
On his desk he found a note: “Do not try to find
me for i [sic] will be far away when you read this.”
(A bracketed sic－meaning thus－tells the reader
that the error appears in the original and is not a
The Cardinal sent a message to his
trusted subordinate in Rome [Bishop Francetti] to
ask for further information. Slide264: 12. THE SLASH (/)
a. Use the slash to indicate “per” in technical
b. Use the slash to indicate a twelve-month
period overlapping two calendar years.
academic year 2006/2007 fiscal year 1999/2000 Slide265: c. Use the slash in the expression “and/or” only
after other alternatives have been considered.
The crash was caused by mechanical failure and/or pilot
d. Use a slash to represent a ratio or to connect
components of a mixture.
dissolved in 4:1 isopropanol/water
the methane/oxygen/argon (1/50/400) matrix
Slide266: 13. ELLIPSIS POINTS (…)
a. To show omission of a word or words from
a quoted sentence, use ellipsis points (three
The senator said, “The American public … can’t be
fooled for long.”
Slide267: No science is immune to the infection of politics and the corruption of power….The time has come to consider how we might bring about a separation, as complete as possible, between Science and Government in all countries.
－ Jacob Bronowski
…Remember that the fear of failure is the most paralyzing of all human emotions. The fear of failure stops us from trying, from daring, from succeeding. It must be confronted. Don’t grow old saying, “I wish Ihad. I should have. Why didn’t I?” Failure is not to be dreaded, but to confront, reject, and overcome.
－ Mark Shields
Slide268: 14. QUOTATION MARKS (“ ”)(‘ ’) Follow these rules in punctuating quoted material:
Use double quotation marks to enclose a direct
quotation from both spoken and written sources.
He said, “Wait for me at the corner.”
The handbook says, “Students are responsible
for keeping their rooms clean.” Notice that indirect quotations are not punctuated:
He said that I should wait for him at the corner. Slide269: b. Use single quotation marks to enclose a
quotation within a quotation.
She replied, “Look for the letter that ends ‘Most
Slide270: c. Use quotation marks to set off titles of poems,
songs, and of articles short stories, ad other
parts of a longer work.
The class liked the story “A Rose for Emily” in
our text Stories for Our Time.
“Get me to the Church on Time” is a song from
the musical play My Fair Lady.
Look for the article in Time titled “A New
Approach to the Monetary Problem.” Slide271: d. Use quotation marks to set off words used in a
What he calls “stylish” I would consider to be
very out of date.
The professor referred to the student as a “frisky
colt.” Slide272: e. Always place a comma or period inside quotation
“If you try again,” she said, “I think you will
Although he told us that he is “restless,” I think
a more appropriate word would be “lazy.’
He said, “The note read ‘No milk today.’ ”
The desire of consumers for better access to a doctor
has also given rise to “concierge medicine,” in which
they pay thousands of dollars annually to get convenient,
Slide273: f. Always place a colon or semicolon outside
I looked blankly at my music instructor when
he said “Andante”; I did not understand the
meaning of the term.
He gave us what he called his “recipe”: think
well, listen carefully, speak cautiously. Slide274: g. Place a question mark, dash, or exclamation
point inside the quotation when it applies only to
the quotation. Place it outside the quotation
when it applies to the whole statement. He asked, “Will you be ready to recite tomorrow?”
Did you hear her say, “I overslept yesterday”?
He cried out, “I will never agree to that!”
I can’t describe the horror of that “unfortunate
incident”! Slide275: h. Use a comma to separate an opening quotation
from the part of the sentence that follows unless
the quotation ends with a question mark,
exclamation point, or dash. “This case is closed,” he said firmly.
“Is it time to eat?” she asked.
“I can’t believe it!” he exclaimed. “Our house
can’t have burned down!”
“You’ve misunderstood–” he began. “I meant
something quite different.” Slide276: i. When a quotation is interrupted by explanatory
words (he said, or similar ones), use a comma
after the first part of the quotation. In choosing
the punctuation mark to place after the
explanatory words, follow the rules for
punctuating clauses and phrases. “I have been told,” he said, “of the dangers of
Slide277: “You follow directions well,” the supervisor said.
“Your first two weeks with us have been very
“Michael was an imaginative tour leader,” the girl
said; “every day brought some new adventure.” Slide278: j. In punctuating explanatory words preceding a
quotation, be guided by the length and
formality of the quotation. Unit 10: Unit 10 Variation of Sentences:
Expansion, Transformation, Reduction, Sentence combining, Inversion, and Ellipsis Slide280: 10a Expansion 1. One-Word Additions
John hit the ball.
Big John hit the slow ball
Big John, the catcher, hit the slow ball.
Big John, the reserve catcher, hit the
Big John, the reserve catcher,
powerfully hit the slow ball. Slide281: 2. Multiword Additions: Phrases
His knees shaking with nervous energy, big John, the reserve catcher, powerfully hit the slow ball over the fence in the bottom of the ninth to win the ALC championship game before 50,000 screaming fans. Slide282: 3. Multiword Additions: Clauses
His knees shaking with nervous energy, big John, the reserve catcher, powerfully hit the slow ball over the fence in the bottom of the ninth to win the ALC championship game before 50,000 screaming fans, who drank large vats of cheap beer, which were provided by a local brewery. Slide283: Legislation overhauling U.S. college student aid by slashing subsidies to lenders and using the money to boost student assistance by $20 billion was approved by Congress on Friday.
The killings have outraged many Iraqis, who long have resented the presence of armed Western security contractors, considering them an arrogant mercenary force that abuses Iraqis in their own country.
Doctor delivery is one of many new approaches springing up to address the demand for faster, more convenient medical care. Slide284: 10b Transformations
The empty house looked quite frightening.
Empty, the house looked quite frightening.
The house, empty, looked quite frightening.
Slide285: Causing injuries for which she sues, the scale struck the plaintiff.
The scale, causing injuries for which she sues, struck the plaintiff.
The scale struck the plaintiff, causing injuries for which she sues.
Desperate, the young mother called for help.
Below, the traffic looked like a necklace of ants.
Slide286: No matter how long it takes, our medical team will do our best to save your child’s life.
Our medical team, no matter how long it takes, will do our best to save your child’s life.
Slide287: This is one of the admiralty texts that are worth reading.
Of the admiralty texts that are worth reading, this is one.
Much is expected from those to whom much is given.
From those to whom much is given, much is expected.
Slide288: The S&P 500 gained 11.8% a year between 1982 and 2001. But only investors who stayed the course managed to earn that big a return. Slide289: 10c Reduction 1. Noun Clauses Slide292: CHANGING AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE TO AN ADJECTIVE PHRASE 2. Adjective Clauses Slide294: (g) George Washington, who was the first
president of the United States, was a
wealthy colonist and a general in the
(h) George Washington, the first president of
the United States, was a wealthy colonist
and a general in the army.
(i) Paris, the capital of France, is an
exciting city. Slide295: (j) I read a book by Mark Twain, a famous
Slide296: Note: If an adjective clause that contains be +
a single adjective is changed, the
adjective is moved to its normal position
in front of the noun it modifies.
Clause: Fruit that is fresh tastes better than old, softer,
Correct Phrase: Fresh fruit tastes better than old, softer,
Incorrect phrase: Fruit fresh tastes better than old, softer,
Slide297: She has two children, ages 7 and 10.
The general demanded absolute obedience, instant and unquestioning.
Typewriters, once common in schools and offices, are rarely seen or used now.
Wolves—once feared and killed—are being reintroduced into the environment.
Slide298: Many compound adjectives used immediately before a noun can be viewed as reduced forms of adjective clauses.
Environment-friendly transportation cellulose-rich material
Temperature-dependent reactions tumor-free time
Structure-specific sensors oxygen-sensitive catalysts
Flood-prone mountain valleys energy-efficient technology
Data-gathering devices time-consuming work record-setting stock market
Life-threatening diseases performance-enhancing drugs
Oxygen-transporting hemoglobin lead-containing paint
Problem-solving techniques money-making machines
Diarrhea-causing virus risk-taking strategies mind-boggling issues
Record-setting hurricane season record-breaking adventurer
Company-operated stores coal-fired power plants hydrogen-powered cars
Information-based economy debt-burdened students custom-built homes
Foundation-supported programs government-subsidized vaccines Slide300: Performance-related bonuses human-induced global warming
Market-oriented incentives Chinese-made toys
Fastest-growing markets slow-growing crystals
Far-reaching influence forward-thinking strategy
Broad-based support long-anticipated challenge
Foreign-born immigrants short-lived species a well-paid job
Well-defined policy far-fetched statement so-called new invention
Cutting-edge research Slide301: For ADJECTIVE CLAUSES that use WHICH to modify a whole sentence Slide304: More Examples:
As in America, higher education costs are hammering other developed nations, forcing a reassessment of who pays and how.
Experts point to many short-term reasons the United States is running low on gasoline, causing prices to rise: many oil companies are doing maintenance work on refineries; new federal rules make fuels cleaner but costlier; and a string of delays, fires and accidents in the industry have reduced supplies just when drivers are starting to hit the road for summer vacations.
Rates for 30-year mortgages this week sank to their lowest point since late May, providing a ray of sunlight for would-be home buyers.
Slide305: The U.S. economy unexpectedly lost jobs in August for the first time in four years, increasing speculation that the Federal Reserve will have to reduce interest rates to counter an economic slowdown.
College costs have soared in recent years in the United States, forcing students to rely increasingly on loans and driving growth for banks and specialized student lenders.
Democrats described the legislation as costless to taxpayers, saying the rate cuts would be offset by a reduction of nearly $21 billion in subsidies paid by the government to lenders in the federal loan program.
A hot air balloon burst into flames over western Canada, burning two passengers to death while their families looked on, police said Saturday.
Slide306: Some services may even wheel in a mobile X-ray machine or an ultrasound machine, depending on the ailment, or perhaps pull out kits to test for strep throat or to draw blood. Slide307: The eldest children in families tend to develop slightly higher I.Q.s than their younger siblings, researchers are reporting, based on a large study that could effectively settle more than a half-century of scientific debate about the relationship between I.Q. and birth order.
Some 350,000 or so Americans currently need dialysis; that population is growing about 3 percent a year, fueled by a rise in diabetes.
Amgen offers discounts and rebates to dialysis companies based, in part, on how much Epogen they use and how much that use increases year to year. Slide308: 3. Adverb Clauses Slide310: CHANGING TIME CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES Slide312: EXPRESSING THE IDEA OF “DURING THE SAME TIME” IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES Slide313: EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES Slide315: USING UPON+-ING IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES (a) Upon reaching the age of 21, I received my
(b) When I reached the age of 21, I received my
(c) On reaching the age of 21, I received my
inheritance. Slide316: Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Prepositional Phrases
When we keep the temperature constant, the reaction rate is proportional to the concentration of reactant B.
At constant temperature, the reaction rate is proportional to the concentration of reactant B.
Because several public transportation projects, such as the MRT, had been completed, commuting to work has become easier for people living in the suburbs.
With the completion of several public transportation projects, such as the MRT, commuting to work has become easier for people living in the suburbs. Slide317: When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
When found to be forged, the data was withdrawn from the paper immediately.
When discussing the effects of global warming, scientists do care very much about how precise the details are.
Though old, he still has a dream.
Though a fair man, my boss often required us to work far into the night.
If made into law, the Genetic Non-Discrimination Act would bar prejudicial treatment based solely on genetic data, such as genetic predisposition to disease.
These problems can be treated if caught in time. More examples: Slide318:
Today we are much better with therapies that are more
specific, and also with supportive care and pain
management that makes the course of cancer therapy,
although not easy, much more tolerable.
Intel Corp. said a new line of computer processors due out later this year will be about 40 percent faster than current chips when running computer games, videos and other heavy workloads.
When faced with product concerns from Asian trading partners, China adopts an assertive tone. 4. Simple Sentences with Compound Verb: 4. Simple Sentences with Compound Verb The court reversed the lower court and ruled that consent is not required.
The court reversed the lower court, ruling that consent is not required.
The helicopter flew low over the forest, and spotted the missing prisoner just before dark.
The helicopter flew low over the forest, spotting the missing prisoner just before dark. Slide320: More examples:
The National Science Foundation believes in nanotech's future, estimating the market impact will exceed $1 trillion by 2015.
The first Chinese person in space returned safely to Earth early Wednesday, landing as planned on the soft grass of Inner Mongolia.
Cheney planned to return to Jordan later Sunday, ending his weeklong trip to the Middle East with talks with Jordan's King Abdullah. Slide321: Microsoft Corp. introduced a new version of its Office software Tuesday, betting that enhanced tools for collaboration will entice companies to spend $150-to-$500 for copies of the upgrade.
Some oil executives are now warning that the current shortages of fuel could become a long-term problem, leading to stubbornly higher prices at the pump.
The next morning I read what I wrote the day before, making only the most superficial changes, and then continue on my way. This is all you have to do.
For other women, trading offered a more modest sort of independence, giving them a chance to build up savings separate from their husbands’ accounts. Slide322: Winds of 160 mph slammed the city of Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, peeling roofs off shelters and a police station, knocking down electric poles and destroying or damaging some 5,000 homes — many of them made of wood with roofs of corrugated metal or palm branches Slide323: 10d Sentence Combining
To make your writing flow, you may need
to combine some of your short, related
sentences. This technique helps you write
concisely and express the relationships
between the ideas clearly. Slide324: 1. Inserting Words
Separate Sentence He was in an
exuberant mood. His
mood was contagious.
Combined Sentence His exuberant
mood was contagious.
Separate Sentence Butter the pan. Pour
the cake batter into
Combined Sentence Pour the cake batter
into the buttered pan. Slide325: 2. Inserting Phrases
· Prepositional Phrases
Separate Sentence Great Salt Lake is an
inland body of saltwater.
The lake is in north-
Combined Sentence Great Salt Lake is an
inland body of saltwater
in northwestern Utah. Slide326: Participial Phrases
Separate Sentence Migrant laborers
They search for work.
Combined Sentence Searching for work,
Slide327: Separate Sentence The hikers struggled on.
They were gasping for
breath and nearly
Combined Sentence The hikers, gasping for
breath and nearly
exhausted, struggled on. Slide328: Separate Sentence The Boston Red Sox won
the American League
pennant Wednesday night.
It trounced the New York
Yankees 10-3 in Game 7
of the AL Championship
Series at Yankee Stadium
and completed an
Slide329: Combined Sentence The Boston Red Sox
won the American
trouncing the New
York Yankees 10-3 in
Game 7 of the AL
at Yankee Stadium
and completing an
comeback. Slide330: Separate Sentence The ship was badly
damaged by the storm.
The ship finally reached
a safe harbor.
Combined Sentence Badly damaged by the
storm, the ship finally
reached a safe harbor.
Slide331: Separate Sentence Water around the island
started to recede Thursday.
This lessened the danger
to others who remained
Combined Sentence Water around the island
started to recede
Thursday, lessening, the
danger to others who
Slide332: Separate Sentence Globalization brings
people and institutions
in distant parts of the
world closer econo-
mically. It enhances
their opportunities to
trade goods, services
Slide334: Appositive Phrases
Slide336: Absolute Phrases
Slide338: 3. Using Compound Subjects, Verbs and Predicates Slide342: 4. Creating a Compound Sentence Use coordination when two ideas are about
equally important. Slide344: 5. Creating a Complex Sentence Use subordination to help the main idea stand out and to clarify relationships in a sentence. Adjective Clauses
Slide348: Adverb Clauses
Noun Clauses: Noun Clauses Slide354: Original
Our new headquarters building, which is scheduled to be completed next year, will enable us to provide each employee with a private office , which should significantly improve productivity.
When we move into our new headquarters building next year, each employee will have a private office. As a result, productivity should improve significantly. Slide355: Original
The results of the survey among managers that was conducted to determine the relationship of dollars spent on training to improved productivity last month are summarized below.
Last month we surveyed managers to determine the correlation between training dollars and productivity. This report summarizes the results of the survey. Slide356: 10e Inversion
1. Complete inversion
----- + V + S Such was the force of the explosion that all the windows were broken.
So deep are their differences that few observers think the early 2005 deadline attainable. Slide357: To make sure your hard-earned savings don't go to waste, here are four strategies education experts recommend.
Speak of the devil; here comes Tom.
There remains much room for improvement. Slide358: At stake was a vast effort to remake the program that provides health insurance for 40 million elderly and disabled Americans.
At stake are public health standards addressing fine pollution particles 2.5 micrometers or smaller, which lodge in people’s lungs and blood vessels.
At issue now is a ruling last month by the World Trade Organization's highest panel, which found the tariffs illegal. Slide359: In the audience at the General Assembly, sat Ahmed Chalabi, this month's president of the Iraqi Governing Council, and President Jacques Chirac of France, who opposes Bush's plan for Iraq.
With the pickup in the world economy has come an unexpectedly high jump in global demand for oil. Demand is up 3.5 percent this year, Mr. Goldstein said, far more than many experts who track oil markets predicted. Slide360: On the evolutionists' side is a legal team put together by the American Civil Liberties Union and Americans United for Separation of Church and State. These groups want to put intelligent design itself on trial and discredit it so thoroughly that no other school board would dare authorize teaching it.
In the medical examiner's freezer may lie the remains of a victim who was never reported missing
Slide361: Among the most politically attractive elements in the plan is a proposal to double the use of ethanol, a corn-based fuel additive popular with farmers in midwestern states such as Iowa, South Dakota and Minnesota.
The good news is that there is a better sense today of what it takes to end hunger. Among the practices being used to help the hungry include focusing on economic and agricultural growth, lowering population growth, lowering HIV infection rates, improving access to water for irrigation and creating social safety nets to ensure that those who can't grow or buy food still get enough to eat. Slide362: We discover physics by learning how to measure the quantities involved in physics. Among these quantities are length, time, mass, temperature, pressure, and electric current.
Among the measures being discussed are installing security camera above the front door of every office or lab and asking students to be more alert to outsiders inside the chemistry building.
Slide363: Among the proposals being considered by the administration was making permanent early reporting requirements to detect any big influx of steel into the United States.
Among the hardest hit areas of the U.S. economy was manufacturing, already losing thousands of jobs each year to dramatically cheaper labor next door in Mexico and Latin America and across the Pacific to China and Vietnam, as well. Slide364: Among the experiments that led John Dalton to propose the atomic theory were his studies of mixtures of gases.
Behind much of the opposition to the state visit by President Bush is a feeling among many Britons that while the part of the association based on shared language, history, culture and economy remains solid and enduring, the political and diplomatic costs have become too high. Slide365: But behind them lies a detention system that treats all prisoners as terrorists regardless of their supposed offenses, and makes brutal interrogations all too common.
Also in question was exactly when Rumsfeld informed Bush of the extent of the abuse.
The president is a man on whom falls a heavy responsibility, whether he likes it or not. Slide366: Following are the stories of how Warner, who will begin college in the fall, and Moore, who is headed to law school, arrived at their decisions.
No less sobering, commanders said, were new reports of children playing roles in guerrilla attacks.
Joining us now to talk more about this is Michael Rothman, senior energy market specialist at Merrill Lynch. And he joins us from his firm’s trading floor. Hi, Mike. Slide367: Joining me is Reginald Dumas, the United Nations' special adviser on Haiti.
Lying beneath 20,000 feet of mud and rock, and topped by more than 6,000 feet of ocean, are oil and gas reserves that were previously inaccessible.
More troubling to some experts is the likelihood of an accelerating loss of quality scientists. Slide368: Also contributing to the bullish sentiment early on was the economic data, which provided further support for the accelerating economy and boded well for the manufacturing sector and the state of the consumer.
The counties in violation included most of California, a ring of states around the Great Lakes, and a concentration of Northeast states from the Washington, D.C., area to Boston. Also failing the federal test are parts of eastern Tennessee, Georgia, and North Carolina, as well as the Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio areas. Slide369: Fueling the spring rally has been the end of the Iraqi war, indications that the Federal Reserve will keep interest rates low for the foreseeable future and a few early signs that the economy may be picking up steam.
Also newly recommended are a vaccine against hepatitis A, a booster shot for chickenpox, a booster shot against whooping cough, and yearly flu shots until a child’s fifth birthday instead of only until the second birthday. Slide370: Attached is the file you requested.
Cut out of the process, as usual, was Colin Powell's State Department. So were military lawyers for the uniformed services.
Set at the top two corners of the stage were huge lavender hearts outlined in bright white lights. Slide371: Displayed in the glass case was a rare emerald.
Crushed in the collision of these two grandiose dreams are all the smaller dreams of fallen soldiers, to raise kids and watch baseball and grill hot dogs on the Fourth of July.
Included in this study is the possible site location should the construction of such a facility be deemed feasible. Slide372: "Microsoft is at or nearing a stage of maturity. Analysts are expecting slower growth rates and so is the market," said Michael Cohen, director of research with Pacific American Securities.
Although obesity can increase the risk of a host of health problems, skeptics argue, so do smoking and high cholesterol, which are not considered diseases. Slide373: As those wholesale prices went up, so did pump prices.
As Microsoft goes, so does the PC sector.
As violence deepens, so does pessimism. Slide374: As growth increases, so will the pressure for firms to expand their payrolls.
If ethanol can be made cheaply from cellulose, so can a lot of other bulk chemicals. Slide375: Analysts say the cost of crude is now a less important factor in U.S. gasoline prices than are the high consumer demand, limited refining capacity and concerns about possible shortages in blending components for reformulated gasoline.
Manual laborers are more strongly opposed to immigrants than are white-collar workers, whose jobs are not seriously threatened by outsiders that swarm into this country. Slide376: It was recently reported that many young parents today plan to have fewer children than did their parents or grandparents.
Communication satellites transmit information more reliably than do ordinary short wave radios. Slide377: Henry James is as famous as is his philosopher brother William.
They point out that the effects of the refinancing boom are beginning to wane, as are the effects of the tax cut.
In addition to energy stocks, producers of other raw materials are classic hedges against inflation, as are companies that own valuable real estate. Slide378: Nearly 40 percent of engineering faculty members in the United States are foreign-born, as are a third of American Nobel Prize winners.
The ambassador will be extremely influential, as will U.S. advisers who will remain attached to Iraqi ministries. Slide379: Being a leader in the new Iraq is a dangerous job. One member of the national Governing Council has been assassinated, as have the deputy mayor of Baghdad and judges in Najaf and Mosul.
If protected properly, a sewing machine usually lasts as long as does a typewriter.
Mr. Love plans to testify at today's hearing, as do a number of consumer advocates and members of AIDS groups who have protested Abbott's pricing of Norvir. Slide380: 2. Half inversion
Be + S; Do/Does/Did + S +V; Have/Has/Had + S + P.P.
; Modal + S + V Should the war drag on for a long time, it would have a disastrous effect.
Had I been there, I could have done something to help. Slide381: Rarely have I eaten better food.
Hardly ever does he come to class on time.
Seldom do I sleep pass seven o’clock.
There’s an old adage that no one in Washington can tell the difference between $1 million and $1 billion. Seldom has that Beltway learning disability been more vividly demonstrated than in the weeks since Katrina. Slide382: Not until then, he added, would the United States transfer authority from the American-led occupation to Iraq itself.
Not once could President Bush admit to a concrete mistake on either the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, or the invasion of Iraq under false pretenses and the current deadly chaos there.
"Not since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in 1948 has there been such a sustained attack on (its) values and principles," Khan told the press conference. Slide383: Never has one of my doctors said, "Sorry, I have to go, no more time." They have always been willing to talk with me as long as I need them. That is invaluable.
Never will I do that again.
The Maine lobstermen labor long on capricious seas, but these are their glory days. Never in modern times have they harvested so many red-clawed lobsters. Slide384: "Never has the Democratic Party been more united than it is today," Kerry said. "Never have we been more poised to win a victory in November.“
Never have stress levels for high school students been so high about where they get in, or about the idea that if you don’t get into a glamour college, your life is somehow ruined. Slide385: Never, other than during the two world wars, has there been such a concerted effort by opinion-forming institutions to indoctrinate Americans, 83 percent of whom now call global warming a " serious problem."
No longer are a Porsche in the driveway, a country club membership and high-speed Internet access considered necessities. Slide386: Nowhere is the impact of this troubling pattern more evident than in the oil industry.
Nowhere has this newfound confidence been on display more than in China’s rapidly improving international relations. Slide387: The principles of open competition, however, dictate that the company with the best product, marketed most effectively, ought to win. Nowhere would there be an asterisk that says if you can't win fair and square with customers, go complain to every court you can find until you snatch victory. Slide388: However, the chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee, John Scarlett, assured the ISC that he did not "at any time feel under pressure, nor was he asked to include material that he did not believe ought to be included in the dossier," Thursday's report said.
Slide389: Bush's speech was not nearly as discouraging as some had feared, but nor did it move the Iraq controversy any closer to a viable solution.
He did not speak, nor did he move. Slide390: Four Cabinet members, appearing at an unusual joint news conference, said the administration would not accept a petition filed last month by the AFL-CIO calling for stiff tariffs on Chinese imports to punish China for allegedly exploiting workers. Nor, they said, would they accept a petition readied by some industry associations that would threaten China with sanctions to force a rise in the value of the Chinese currency. Slide391: He would not say whether the United States agreed with Israel's contention that the site was a training camp for terrorists, nor would he say whether the Bush administration would veto a U.N. resolution condemning Israel's airstrike.
"They were not involved in leaking classified information, nor did they condone it," McClellan said. Slide392: Citizen soldiers can no longer expect to do only the minimum training — one weekend a month and a two-week session each summer — nor expect to rarely, if ever, get called to active duty.
"Occidental does not have the complications of a refining and marketing segment, nor is it of a scale that forces it to take multi-billion-dollar bets to see growth," Grubert said, as the majors have in places such as Russia and the Middle East. Slide393: Harlow said that "the committee has yet to take the opportunity to hear a comprehensive explanation of how and why we reached our conclusions," nor has it accepted an offer made Wednesday by Tenet to hear from him and senior intelligence officials. Slide394: "The president grieves the loss of every American soldier," said a White House spokesman. "He sends a note to the families, but beyond that he cannot issue a statement at the time every soldier dies, nor can he go to every memorial service that he'd like to go to. Slide395: Unlike the programs to eradicate smallpox and polio -- the only WHO efforts remotely comparable -- this goal is not one that when reached will allow public health officials to move on to other tasks. Nor is it achieved through bursts of intense effort, such as investigating disease outbreaks and mounting vaccination campaigns. Slide396: I don't have a lot of faith that they can expand their market share considerably, nor am I impressed with the demographics over the next five to 10 years.
Bush offered no hint of his administration's preference for those leaders, nor did he say who would choose them. Slide397: There is nothing wrong with political passion. Nor is there anything wrong with criticizing the administration's conduct of the war.
"We have set a deadline of June 30. It is important that we meet that deadline. As a proud and independent people, Iraqis do not support an indefinite occupation and neither does America," Mr. Bush said, warning any change in this deadline would fuel suspicion of American objectives in Iraq. Slide398: Not only are we concerned with apprehending those individuals who commit computer crimes but also in limiting the damage done by these criminals to private industry and the public.
Not only do you need to be involved in a lot of different things, but you need to be the head because you need to show a commitment. Slide399: Not only does continued strife in the Middle East increase the possibility of a disruption in oil supplies, but cheap oil is steadily being used up. That means that over the next decade oil prices should inevitably rise.
Not only is soy a rich source of high-quality protein, but it also contains complex carbohydrates that don't raise blood sugar as high as more processed carbohydrates. It has fiber, folic acid (a key B vitamin), healthy fat and antioxidants that help protect against cancer. Slide400: Not only did China design, build and launch the satellite for Nigeria, but it also provided a huge loan to help pay the bill. Slide401: Only then can they find a cure.
Only yesterday did I understand his predicament.
Only in this way can we learn English well.
Only by working hard can we make substantial contributions to scientific discovery. Slide402: Only when the public were alerted to the problem by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) did industry suddenly find substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
Reports in China have repeatedly hinted that only if China gets its way on chicken exports to the United States will Beijing lift its four-year-old ban on importing U.S. beef. Slide403: Last week, China urged the US to stop selling weapons to Taiwan and honor its commitment to the “One China” policy. “Only by doing so can the interests of both China and the US be safeguarded and peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait be maintained,” a foreign ministry spokesman said.
Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled. Slide404: Only when people can be satisfied with what they have, will they be able to feel complete happiness.
Only after these life stages (i.e., getting through school, getting married, having young kids, and then sending their kids to college) do "people start to think seriously about saving or putting money into their 401(k)s. The problem is if you put it off that long, then it's very hard to get big piles" of savings. Slide405: So diligently does he work that he often forgets to eat and sleep.
So entrenched have hatreds become that neither side believes the other will ever accept their existence.
So entranced with the video games do young students become that parents often have to restrict their children’s allowances to limit their play. Slide406: If you can keep a secret, so can I. 10f Ellipsis: 10f Ellipsis In Illinois, there are seventeen such institutions; in Ohio, twenty-two; in Indiana, three.
John elected to attend Stanford; Mary, Harvard.
Some were punctual; others, late.
One manager comes from UNC, another from Duke, and a third from GW. Slide408: From its inception, Lake Powell, the nation’s second-largest artificial lake, after Lake Mead in Nevada, was a powerful symbol across the West. Some saw it as a statement of human will and know-how, others of arrogance.
The weather here gets more humid than (it gets) in my hometown. Slide409: This year, we’ve gotten much less rain than (we got) last year.
Many children respond better to rewards than punishments.
Our reaction was faster than (it was or we) anticipated.
The war could last much longer than originally predicted. Slide410: In Lu's view, the shame, stigma and silence surrounding mental health treatment among Asian immigrants appears to be greater than among other ethnic groups.
High school students who take this core curriculum – four years of English and three each of mathematics, science and social studies – are better prepared for college. Slide411: David likes winter as much as (he likes) summer.
Our goal is (to) maximize the reaction yield.
Your president (’s) calling us a rogue nation and disrespecting our 5,000 years of civilization is offensive. How many years of civilization do you have?