English Technical Writing

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Ways to Improving Writing Skill Study writing principles and techniques. Watch for their appearance in the writing of others. Try them out in your own writing—over and over and over again. Imitate sentences and passages of good writing.


Breast cancer strikes more than 212,000 American women each year and kills more than 40,000, making it the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer. MRI tends to produce false positives at about twice the rate of mammography, forcing more women to undergo repeated tests and sometimes biopsies and subjecting them to anxiety, distress and discomfort. But the panel concluded that the benefits outweigh the downside for those at high risk. The champion smiled, recalling the roar of the crowd. His mother waited, tapping her foot on the hardwood floor. Dicey looked out over the tall marsh grasses, blowing in the wind. The children stared down at the honeybees, careening from flower to flower.


Congress gave final approval to a broad overhaul of federal student loan programs Friday, sharply cutting subsidies to lenders and increasing grants to needy students. The United States Air Force has decided to push development of a new type of fuel to power its bombers and fighters, mixing conventional jet fuel with fuels from nonpetroleum sources that could eventually limit military dependence on imported oil. The World Health Organization on Wednesday urged nations with rampant AIDS epidemics to begin offering free or subsidized circumcisions in hopes of preventing millions of new infections and deaths. The American Cancer Society’s guidelines stress that the MRI exams should be done in addition to annual mammograms and regular physical exams in the hope of driving down the death toll from the common, widely feared malignancy.


Novartis said it will stop phase II development of NKS104, a treatment for elevated total cholesterol, after data showed the drug wasn't competitive enough to invest further resources.

Outline for “English Technical Writing” Course: 

Outline for “English Technical Writing” Course Traits of good technical writing Five steps to successful writing Structure and content for scientific papers/research reports, and proposals Elements of composition: words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and punctuation Diction Phrases Clauses Sentences: structures and patterns Punctuation Variation of sentences: expansion, transformation, reduction, sentence combining, inversion, and ellipsis Keys to clear, concise, and grammatically correct sentences Transition words and phrases: conjunctive adverbs and conjunctions Paragraphs: topic sentence, elaboration, unity, and coherence Essays: thesis statement, unity, and coherence Common expressions in technical writing Critical analyses of published journal articles Demonstration of editing with drafts of students’ papers

Unit 1: 

Unit 1 Traits of Good Technical Writing

Good Technical Writing Is :: 

Good Technical Writing Is : Technically accurate Clear Concise Correct in spelling, punctuation, and grammar Compliant with the conventions of institutions or professional societies Well organized Useful Targeted Complete Consistent Ethical

Unit 2: 

Unit 2 Five Steps to Successful Writing

Five Steps to Successful Writing: 

Five Steps to Successful Writing Planning Establish your purpose or objective. Identify your readers. Define your scope. Select the appropriate medium. Research Find information and take notes. Gather all your own data.

Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued): 

Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued) Organization Group related information with headings and subheadings. Arrange information in a logical order (e.g., general to specific, specific to general, chronological, spatial, sequential, cause and effect, and comparison). Write an outline. Composing Articulate your thesis and support it with evidence. Achieve unity and coherence in structure.

Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued): 

Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued) Revision Check for completeness and accuracy. Check for unity and coherence. Activate the writing. Clarify the writing. Check for sentence variety (i.e., structure and length). Check for appropriate word choice. Eliminate problems with grammar. Check for spelling and punctuation. Check for the adherence to format guidelines.

Unit 3: 

Unit 3 Structure and Content for Scientific Papers/Research Reports, and Proposals

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports: 

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports Title – What is the paper about? Need to reflect an overview of the paper’s content and emphasis. Be brief, honest, and communicative. Avoid phrase such as “on the”, “a study of”, “research on”, “regarding”, and “use of”. Avoid nonquantitative, meaningless word such as “rapid” and “new”.

Capitalizing Words in Titles Always capitalize the first and last words and main words of titles and subtitles. Also capitalize in accordance with parts of speech.: 

CAPITALIZED PARTS OF SPEECH Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs NOT CAPITALIZED PARTS OF SPEECH Articles Prepositions Coordinating conjunctions To in infinitives Subordinating conjunctions Capitalizing Words in Titles Always capitalize the first and last words and main words of titles and subtitles. Also capitalize in accordance with parts of speech.

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued): 

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Abstract – What is the basic content? – Summarize its objectives, the work performed, and the major conclusions reached in an informative, concise, one-paragraph statement.

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued): 

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Introduction – What is the problem and why should anyone care? An Opening Attention-Grabber Point out the problem or issue. Offer your reasons for studying it. Background Information Give a concise and appropriate review of the preexisting literature of the problem. Describe how your work differs or is related to work previously published. A Preview of the Whole State your purpose or thesis and give a blueprint of the contents to be presented.

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued): 

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Materials and Methods – How was the evidence obtained? Identify the materials used and give information on the degree of and criteria for purity. Describe apparatus only if it is not standard or not commercially available. Describe the procedures used unless they are established and standard. Note any safety precautions.

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued): 

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Results – What was found or seen? Summarize the data collected and their statistical treatment. Include only relevant data, but give sufficient detail to justify your conclusions. Use equations, figures, and tables only where necessary for clarity and brevity.

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued): 

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Discussion and Conclusion – What do these findings mean? Relate your results to current knowledge in the field and to your original purpose in undertaking the project. State the logical implications of your results. Suggest further study or implications if warranted. Be objective while pointing out the features and limitations of your work.

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued): 

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Be tactful about disagreements when discussing other people’s results and hypotheses that are relevant to yours. If possible, offer approaches to resolve the conflicts.

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued): 

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Acknowledgements – Who help, support or sponsor this work? Thank those persons, other than coauthors, who added substantially to the work, provided advice or technical assistance, or aided materially by providing equipment or supplies. State grant numbers and sponsors, as well as auspices under which the work was done, including permission to publish.

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued): 

Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) References – Who did what? Check original references for accuracy and appropriate content. Follow the journal’s guideline or company’s policy on the style of references.


Proposal Summary of Proposal Briefly state the purpose of the proposal. Need Define the problem or need. State why addressing it is important. Proposed Solution Present a detailed solution. Explain its benefits. Restate the problem or need and the benefits of the solution.

Unit 4: 

Unit 4 Elements of Composition: Words, Phrases, Clauses, Sentences, Paragraphs, and Punctuation


Parts of speech It describes the class of words to which a particular word belongs, according to its function in a sentence. The eight parts of speech in the English language are: Nouns (common and proper; concrete and abstract; singular and collective;count and noncount) Pronouns (personal, demonstrative, relative, interrogative, indefinite, and reflexive) 1. Words


Adjectives & Articles (a, an and the) Verbs, Auxiliaries (be, have, do and modals) and Verbals (gerund, infinitive, and participle) Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions (coordinating, correlative, subordinating, and conjunctive adverb) Interjections


PART OF SPEECH FUNCTION noun, pronoun name/referring verb asserting/acting adjective, adverb describing/modifying preposition, conjunction linking/joining interjection exclaiming


The function of a word in a sentence always determines its part of speech in that sentence. Examples: The government sent the city aid. Governments aid citizens. It is company policy. He went home.


2. Phrases A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject. Classification Gerund Phrases, Participial Phrases, Infinitive Phrases, Prepositional Phrases, Appositive phrases, and Absolute phrases


3. Punctuation Period, Comma, Semicolon, Colon, Dash, Question Mark, Quotation Marks, Apostrophe, Parentheses, Brackets, Slash, Hyphen, Ellipsis points, and Exclamation Mark 4. Clauses A clause is word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence. There are two basic kinds of clauses: Independent (main) Clauses and Dependent (subordinate) Clauses.


5. Sentences A sentence is word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought. Subject + Predicate STRUCTURE: Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-complex PURPOSE: Declarative, Interrogative, Exclamatory, and Imperative


6. Paragraphs Topic Sentence (Main Point), Adequate Elaboration Unity (Focus or Consistency), and Coherence


7. Composition Thesis Statement (main Idea or Message), Unity (Focus or Consistency), and Coherence

Pursuasive Essay: 

Pursuasive Essay Clearly state the issue and your position on it in the introduction Use language appropriate to the audience you’re trying to convince. Support your position with facts, statistics, and reasons. Answer possible objections to your position. Provide clear reasoning Conclude with a summary of your position or a call to action,

Supplements to Unit 4: 

Supplements to Unit 4


NOUNS A noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. Common Nouns Proper nouns Event Academy Awards, French Revolution Holiday Fourth of July, Mardi Gras City Houston, New York City Language Spanish, Chinese Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns Tree, car, pencil peace, courage, honor, citizenship


Singular Nouns Collective Nouns Person, dog, flower crowd, jury, family, flock, committee Count Nouns Noncount Nouns One chair furniture Many chairs a lot of furniture Suggestions advice Operas, songs Music


Remember that some nouns may be used as count or as noncount nouns depending on their meanings. Materials and abstract concepts are noncount nouns, but they may be used as count nouns to express specific meanings. I have a paper due Monday. Let’s use paper to make the present. Dr. Chan will receive a special honor at the graduation.


We need a glass (glasses) for the juice. She needs to find work. War is as old as mankind. Space is the last frontier for man to conquer. 8. It is generally believed that an M.B.A. degree is good preparation for a career in business.


PRONOUNS A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns. The word or word group that a pronoun stands for is called the antecedent of the pronoun. Examples: Jay enjoys hiking and camping; in fact they are his favorite pastimes. The students complained to the principal about the dress code. They wished he had consulted with them about it.


Personal Pronouns A personal pronoun refers to the one(s) speaking (first person), the one(s) spoken to (second person), or the one(s) spoken about (third person).


Examples: If I give you my address, will you write to me? We told them that they could go with us.


Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of a verb and functions as a complement for emphasis, as an object to rename the subject, or as an object of a preposition.


Examples: I myself faxed the report to him. I wrote this script myself. Mary excused herself from the table. He hit himself with the hammer. Robert bought himself a pair of shoes. They baked the pie for themselves. Anna lives by herself.


Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points out somebody or something already mentioned or identified or something understood by both the speaker and hearer. Examples: Is this the one you want? That may be the only reasonable solution. These or those are the pictures from our vacation.


The new program comes as social-networking sites grabble with how to build on their success among young users and convert this into profit.


Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. Examples: Everyone knows many examples of energy and its use, but what does the term energy really mean? To whom should I direct your call? Whose is this red sweater? The department manager decided who should be hired.


Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun introduces an adjective clause. Examples: I thanked the woman who helped me. The college that I chose is in Ohio. The birds, which usually have flown south by this time of the year, were still congregating in our backyard.


Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named. In other words, the pronoun may not have a specific antecedent.


Examples: All of the members have voted. Does everyone favor a weekly meeting?


The fallen tree provided homes for several of the creatures of the woods. One should always be polite. The cervical cancer vaccine is a phenomenal breakthrough, one that has the potential of eliminating this disease almost completely.


ADJECTIVES & ARTICLES An adjective is a word used to modify or describe a noun or pronoun. Examples: The tired and hungry hikers straggled into camp. The hikers, tired and hungry, straggled into camp. What time will you be back? I much prefer this painting to that one. This confusion is costly.


A and an are called indefinite articles because they refer to any member of a general group. A is used before words beginning with a consonant sound; an is used before words beginning with a vowel sound. Examples: A manual has been written on that subject. He seems an unlikely candidate for the job. The interviewer arrived an hour early.


The is called the definite article because it refers to a specific person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: The package was delivered yesterday. Please open the door.


VERBS A verb is a word that expresses an action, a condition, or a state of being. There are two main types of verbs: action verbs and linking verbs. An action verb expresses action. The action may be physical or mental. Examples: The band marches onto the field. (physical) The audience expects a great performance. (mental)


An action verb that has an object-a word or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb is called transitive verb. Examples: They posted a card on her door. The rain lashed the windows. This kid’s behavior in school worried his parents.


An action verb does not have an object is called intransitive verb. Examples: The rain fell. My cousin arrived yesterday. He travels around the country with the other musicians.


A linking verb connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. Such a word or word group is called a subject complement. Common linking verbs: Forms of Be Verb am, are, is, was, were Verbs That Express Condition feel, look, smell, sound, taste appear, seem, remain, stay, become (and get, turn, grow when they mean “become”)


Examples: John is a student. John is intelligent. This food tastes delicious. The children feel happy. The weather became cold. Note: The forms of be are not always used as linking verbs. That is, they are sometimes used as state-of-being verbs. In such cases, words that tell where or when are generally used to complete the meaning of the verb forms.


Examples: He is upstairs. You should have been here yesterday. Note: While action verbs may be transitive or intransitive, linking verbs and state-of-being verbs are always intransitive.


A main verb and one or more helping verbs (also called auxiliary verbs) make up a verb phrase. A verb phrase may be used to express a particular tense of a verb (that is, the time referred to) or to indicate that an action is directed as the subject. Examples: Sally is a nice person and you can speak freely with her. The stadium is filled to the capacity.


Verbals A verbal is a verb form that is used as a noun, an adjec- tive, or an adverb. The three kinds of verbals are the par- ticiple, the gerund, and the infinitive. A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjec- tive. Three kinds of participles are the present participle, the past participle and the present perfect participle. Pre- sent participles end in –ing. Most participles end in –d or –ed. Others are irregularly formed. Present perfect forms are formed by adding having or having been to the past participles of verbs and indicate complete actions.


Examples: The freezing rain made the road slick. This medicine represents a significant improvement compared with existing therapies. Bowing, the performers acknowledged the applause. Did I hear someone knocking the door? First prize was an engraved trophy. The lab tested samples of water taken from wells in the area.


Rested and relaxed, we returned to work. Having completed his chores, Andy decided to join his friends playing football in the park. Having been declared the winner, she called a press conference to thank her supporters.


Examples: The lecturer was boring. The audience was bored. A developing country A developed country Trained nurses Experienced cardiologists Exaggerated fears One unshared pair of electrons A teacher-dominated classroom culture Note: A present participle should describe a person or thing causing or stimulating an experience; a past participle should describe a person or thing undergoing an experience. Also a present participle is used to indicate an on-going or active action whereas a past participle a completed or passive one.


A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun. Examples: Smoking is indisputably a danger to one’s health. Please stop whispering. In answering, give specific examples. During 2006, incomes from wages and salaries rose 4.2% after adjusting for inflation, the strongest year since 2000.


His favorite hobby these days is playing video games. Delivering long- and short-term results at the same time is what good managers do for a living. Among other things, figuring out where this one came from will help us prevent future problems. World powers hoped that approving the resolution quickly and unanimously would signal that Iran will face stricter sanctions each time it ignores a Security Council deadline to suspend uranium enrichment, a process that can be used to produce nuclear energy or nuclear weapons.


Note: Use a possessive noun or pronoun before a gerund. The issue is his whining. Wang's pitching won the game. His wife resented his going out and having business lunches. What did the teacher say about your missing the test yesterday?


An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with to. In addition to the present form, infi- nitives have a present perfect form. This form adds to have or to have been to the past participle of a verb and indicates a completed action. Examples: To error is human. No one wants to stay.


The survivors had little to celebrate. Is everybody ready to go? The rain seems to have stopped. Kelly was happy to have been chosen.


Sometimes, infinitives omit the word to. Examples: All you have to do is [to] write your book this year. Who dares [to] challenge a champion? Help me [to] wash the car. Let’s [to] wait here. The clowns made us [to] laugh. We saw him [to] leave.


Note: With verbs of perception such as see, hear, feel, smell, notice, observe and watch, we can use a present participle or an infinitive without “to” as its objective complement in a sentence. Examples: I saw him running (or run) down the stairs. He could feel his bed shaking (or shake) during the earthquake last night.


ADVERBS An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb or a clause. Examples: Teresa spoke eloquently. Have you heard this melody before? The brochure design used extremely bright colors. When Dell first started making PCs, it entered an industry with lots of built-in fat, namely reseller commissions and retailer markups.


The redesigned brake pad lasted much longer. Surprisingly, the machine failed. Frankly, I could do without it. Sadly, he died before I managed to reach him again. Fortunately, I had enough money left to pay my fare home. Hopefully, it will be over by Christmas.


PREPOSITIONS A preposition shows the relation of a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to another word. Examples: I found this information on the internet. The manager sat behind the desk in her office. As of today, she hasn’t made her final choice. You can log on to this web site to access the following information.


Bond prices rose, taking the yield on the 10-year note down to 4.41 percent, the lowest interest rate on that closely-watched bond since December.


CONJUNCTIONS A conjunction is a word that joins or connects words, phrases, or sentences.


Examples: The old man is extremely kind and generous. He will leave at eight and arrive at nine. It was raining hard, and there was a strong wind. It was raining hard. And there was a strong wind.


There have been a series of studies over the past 20 years which show that people in their 70s, 80s and 90s are functioning at a substantially higher level than they were only 20 years ago, and there is a much lower percentage of disability in older people than there was 20 years ago. And of course, life expectancy has gone up dramatically, as you're well aware, for the last 80 years. Mr. Bush needs to make clear to the Iraqi leader that continued American support will depend on his active cooperation. And that, ultimately, the Iraqis have even more to lose than the Americans from an unending civil war.


This disease is incurable but treatable. We missed the opening scene, but we enjoyed the rest of the play. The U.S. expansion has shown it can tolerate $50 oil with hardly a hesitation. But how will it handle $60 oil when the Federal Reserve has more than tripled short-term interest rates over the past year, signs of corporate jitters have resurfaced, and the dollar has rallied, making exports once again more expensive on global markets?


A major change in the national diet is under way: Heart-damaging trans fat is rapidly disappearing from grocery aisles and restaurant food, too. But are its replacements really healthier? He was tired, so he went to bed. The child hid behind his mother’s skirt, for he was afraid of the dog. She did not study, yet she passed the exam. Americans live longer than ever, yet more of us are told we are sick.


Examples: Neither my sister nor my parents are here. Both the students and the teacher are planning to come. I’m going to go swimming tomorrow whether it is cold or not.


A growing body of research suggests that diversity in the workplace not only helps companies stay in tune with their customers, but also adds to the diversity of ideas and attitudes. In writing, we can error not only by using the wrong words but also by misusing the right words. I would rather try something great and fail than try nothing great and succeed.


A subordinating conjunction begins a subordinating clause and connects it to an independent clause.


Examples: Please turn down the stereo so that I can concentrate on my homework. Before you write your paper, you must submit an outline. Robert enjoyed the movie as much as Sarah did. Because I have two cousins living in San Francisco, I always have a place to stay when I visit the West Coast. Where there is a will, there is a way.


A conjunctive adverb has the force of conjunction because it joins two independent clauses. The most common conjunctive adverbs are however, moreover, therefore, further, then, consequently, besides, accordingly, also, and thus. Example: The engine performed well in the laboratory; however, it failed under road conditions.


INTERJECTIONS An interjection expresses emotion and has no gram- matical relation to the rest of the sentence. Examples: Hey! I think I know the answer. Wow! Profits more than doubled last quarter! Well, we need to rethink the proposal.

Unit 5: 

Unit 5 Diction (Proper Words in Proper Places)


5a Know the meanings of words ab·sent adjective  Definition:  1. not present: not attending a place or event, especially when expected to He was absent from school yesterday. 2. inattentive: not paying attention His face took on an absent expression. preposition  Definition:  without: in the absence of Absent a cure, or more effective drugs, Alzheimer’s disease is a march to oblivion.


Human DNA isn't that different from what you find in other mammals. So how does it combine to form people in some cases and dogs or chimps in others? It's one of the big mysteries of biology.


5b Choose precise words His remark left the audience in a confused state. His remark bewildered the audience. He went quickly down the street. He scurried down the street. China's top electronics makers on Wednesday unveiled dozens of video players made with a homegrown DVD format in a campaign to promote a Chinese alternative to foreign technology. Note: Unveil transitive verb expose something secret: to reveal something that has been hidden or kept secret


Imply means “to suggest or state indirectly”; infer means to “to draw a conclusion.” John implied that he knew all about computers, but the interviewer inferred that John was inexperienced. Global sea-level rise is probably not going to happen as fast as Gore implies in his movie.


5c Watch out the connotations of certain words One of the advantages of this newly developed chemical process is the use of cheap raw material. One of the advantages of this newly developed chemical process is the use of inexpensive raw material. Talk is cheap unless you can deliver. The words in each of the following groups have the same denotation, but different connotations. smile, beam, smirk thin, slender, scrawny laugh, chuckle, guffaw look, peek, gawk


5d Use vivid words The politicians spent hours talking about what was the proper choice of action. The politicians debated for hours what was the proper choice of action. 5e Express idiomatic expressions correctly Only experts can distinguish a master piece from a fake. Many credit Thomas Edison with having invented the light bulb. The author does a good job of tying motivational theory to obtainable results.


The debate centers on the still-in-development process of extracting material from days-old human embryos that can morph into any tissue in the body.

Unit 6: 

Unit 6 Phrases


Phrases A phrase is a group of related words, generally having neither subject nor predicate and used as though it were a single word. It cannot make a statement and is therefore not a clause.


Knowledge of the phrase and how it is used will suggest to you ways of diversifying and enlivening your sentences. Variety in using sentences will remedy the monotonous "subject first" habit. The use of the participial phrase, for instance, will add life and movement to your style because the participle is an action word, having the strength of its verbal nature in addition to its function as a modifier.


We classify phrases as gerund, participial, infinitive, prepositional, appositive, and absolute. The following sentences will show how the same idea may be expressed differently by the use of different kinds of phrases: Sue swam daily. She hoped to improve her backstroke. By swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her backstroke.


3. Swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her backstroke. 4. Sue's only hope of improving her backstroke was to swim daily. 5. With a daily swim, Sue hoped to improve her backstroke. 6. Sue knew of one way to improve her backstroke: swimming daily. 7. Sue swam daily, hoping to improve her backstroke.


6a Gerund phrase A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any complement or modifiers it may have. The function of the gerund phrase is always that of a noun: 1. Being late for breakfast is Joe’s worst fault. 2. Substituting vo = C into v = at + C gives us v = at + vo. 3. She finally succeeded in opening the camera. 4. Bill hated driving his golf balls into the lake. 5. His hobby, making furniture, is enjoyable and useful.


6b Participial phrase A participial phrase consists of a participle and any complement or modifiers it may have. It functions as an adjective or an adverb: Believed to have originated in Africa, AIDS has become an epidemic, infecting tens of millions of people worldwide. Given a list of potential school improvements and asked which one they would most like their children’s school to make, 24 percent of parents selected smaller class size. Having gotten a large bonus, the smiling, contented sales representative worked harder than ever.


The Department of Education recently awarded 18 federal grants totaling more than $38 million to provide financial incentives to educators. In efforts directed toward the synthesis of this new cancer drug, we put eight researchers work on this project. Note that electronegativity generally increases going from left to right across a period and decreases going down a group for the representative elements. The first step is to calculate theΔH for the reaction using the Hess law.


The woman improved her health running five miles a day. The oxidation potential for the dimer was lower than that of the 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP) monomer, suggesting that the oxidation potential of the terminal phenolic group becomes lower as the polymerization progresses.


6c Infinitive Phrase An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any complement or modifiers it may have. Infinitives function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns: 1. In 1995, Steve Fossett became the first person to fly solo across the Pacific Ocean in a balloon. 2. To be in Mr. Foster’s class was to learn the meaning of discipline. 3. China's goal is to foster a higher-wage economy built on science and innovation.


4. Millie left early to avoid the heavy traffic. To express the very large and very small quantities we often run into in physics, we use scientific notation, which employs powers of 10. 6. We decided to go for a long walk. 7. Her fiancé seems to be very pleasant.


6d Prepositional phrase A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition followed by a noun or pronoun used as its object, together with any modifiers the noun or pronoun may have. The prepositional phrase functions usually as an adjective or an adverb:


The plan of the house is very simple. The river runs through rich farmland. 3. Throughout the house there was an aroma of corned beef and cabbage. The conformations about the Re- Re bond, in addition, are different for all three complexes. We shouldn’t jump to a quick conclusion yet with our test results still ambiguous.


6e Appositive phrase An appositive is a word or phrase that explains, identifies, or renames the word it follows. An appositive phrase may be a noun phrase (that is, a noun and its modifiers), a gerund phrase, an infinitive phrase, or a prepositional phrase:


Ascorbic acid, a valuable preservative, is ubiquitous in processed and other foods. Jean knew a way out of her difficulty: telling the truth. His greatest ambition, to make a million dollars, was doomed from the start. The rustler's hideout, in the old cave by the river, was discovered by the posse. The core feature of planthood is autotrophy, that is, the happy ability to make one’s own food.


The United States remains the leading source of the carbon dioxide, the main emission linked to global warming. In 1995, Microsoft added a free Web browser to its operating system in an attempt to fend off new rivals, an effort ultimately blocked by the courts.


An appositive may be essential or nonessential; it is essential if it positively identifies that which it renames, frequently by use of a proper noun. Examples of both essential and nonessential appositives occur in the Sentences below: In late 1990s, a Nobel laureate Professor Y. T. Lee played an active and significant role in Taiwan’s political and educational arenas. In late 1990s, Professor Y. T. Lee, a Nobel laureate, played an active and significant role in Taiwan’s political and educational arenas.


Note: A modifying phrase must modify a word or phrase appearing in the sentence and be next to what it modifies.


6f Absolute phrase An Absolute phrase consists of a subject, usually a noun or a pronoun, and a participle, together with any objects or modifiers of the participle. It allows you to add specific, concrete detail to a general statement with greater economy than most alternative constructions. Extremely flexible besides, it can be placed at the beginning or end of a sentence, or often in the middle.


When the participle of an absolute phase is a form of the verb be, the verb is frequently omitted entirely, so that the absolute consists simply of a noun followed by adjectives. 1. Each child carrying his little bag of crackling, we trod the long road home in the cold winter afternoon. 2. If f(x) = xn, then f’(x) = nxn-1 for all n, n being a real number. 3. The theater being nearby, I decided to walk. 4. Their dinner finished, the two industrialists were ready to talk business.


5. The rain having stopped, we went to the beach. 6. He lay flat on the bed, his chin on his folded arms Our opponent has chosen to ignore scientific principles, his theories a wish list of insupportable propositions. 8. Our atmosphere is currently about 20 percent oxygen, all of it the bounty of the planet’s green-skinned autotrophs. 9. His research complete, he began to write his report. 10. I shall do as I please, all things considered. 11. The driver of the wrecked car, one leg trapped beneath the dashboard, body pinned firmly against the steering wheel, waited patiently for the rescue squad. 12. About the bones, ants were ebbing away, their pincers full of meat.


13. Six boys came over the hill half an hour early that afternoon, running hard, their heads down, their forearms working, their breath whistling. 14. The little boy stood crying besides the road, his bicycle broken, his knees bruised, and his confidence badly shaken. 15. The pianist played beautifully, her technique flawless, her interpretation sure and sensitive.


Note: The following sentences are elliptical because of the omission of the subject “we” understood in the context. They are not dangling. 1. The conclusions were premature, considering the lack of available data. 2. Judging from the spectral changes, exhaustive photolysis of compound 4 had occurred. 3. Assuming that each gas behaves ideally, the partial pressure of each gas can be calculated from the ideal gas law: P1=n1RT/V, P2=n2RT/V, P3=n3RT/V, … 4. Taking this value as an upper limit, the two shortest distances are sometimes too long for incipient hydrogen bonds.


5. Building an new fab for more capacity would seem not only superfluous, but also incredibly risky, given the high cost involved, the fears of an industrywide chip glut, and the increasingly fierce competition in the microprocessor market. 6. Stocks may be at record highs, but the value of the profits from the rally are worth less given the sharp drop in the dollar against foreign currencies. 7. Given that half of the 65-year-olds alive today will likely live beyond age 83, outliving one's assets is an all-too-likely possibility for some retirees.


What’s the problem with this sentence? Using a pipette, 25 mL of 0.05 N aqueous HCl solution was slowly added to the stirred mixture.

Supplements to Unit 6 : 

Supplements to Unit 6


Scheduled to give a keynote speech early the next morning, she didn’t want to sit in the emergency room all night. Long used as a substitute for saturated fats in baked goods, fried foods, salad dressings, margarine and other foods, trans fats also have a longer shelf life than other alternatives. The war being over at last, the task of arranging the peace terms began. New York has never been a cheap place to stay, but today's high prices are remarkable, considering where the city has been. A strike lasting close to a month or more would cause GM to burn up $8.1 billion in the first month and $7.2 billion in the second month, assuming the company can't produce vehicles in Mexico or Canada, according to Lehman Brothers analyst Brian Johnson.


Plants essentially eat the sun, transforming solar energy into sugars and starch through the stepwise enzymatic stitchery of photosynthesis. The federal government has financed research and development of energy technology and alternative fuels for decades, often focusing on basic science, and has a mixed record of incubating winners, including some widely used technologies. Stocks like Microsoft and Dell look like buys, given their earnings growth and their past P/Es. Given the risks involved in such personal revelations, including job discrimination and health insurance woes, no one knows how many people will take that route. The big deterioration this month was unexpected, given that other readings on consumer confidence have been showing strength.

Unit 7 : 

Unit 7 Clauses




For anyone who has cancer, there is one moment that you can never forget. It's when the doctor tells you, "It's cancer." Now, the exact words may vary, but the impact is the same. Your heart begins to pound; your brain screams out in disbelief. Your hearing stops, too, but usually only after you hear the words that so often come next: "There's no cure."






Other experts challenge the idea that a warmer world means more and stronger storms. Today, because of the growing consensus that the nation must wean itself from imported oil and sharply curb climate-altering carbon emissions, new energy options are in vogue. Retail sales in the U.S. rose less than forecast in August, adding to concerns a softening labor market and a deeper housing slump will curtail demand. Note: The “that” may be omitted when the “that clause” is the object of a verb or functions as an appositive.

Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects: 

Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects Delete the preposition when be + adjectives + preposition phrases are used with that-noun clauses. The adjectives (e.g., afraid, certain, delighted, glad, interested, pleased, positive, satisfied, and surprised) here express personal feelings or states of the mind. I am convinced that my sister would attend this party. I am afraid that he won’t make it. We are all surprised that this catalyst is so active in the reaction. President Bush said he was confident the nation would stand with him despite "gut-wrenching" televised images of fallen Americans. Educators were still not aware that there are better ways to teach science. Oil traders are nervous that any escalation in violence in the Middle East may disrupt oil supplies from the region, which holds two-thirds of global reserves. We are concerned that a lot of our retirees will end up losing their health benefits. Scientists are actually pretty grateful by and large that Gore has succeeded in bringing the issue of global warming to the public's attention.

Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects (Continued): 

Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects (Continued) When the that-clause refers to a statement of fact, the words the fact are inserted between the preposition and the clause. The fire was due to the fact that someone had dropped a lighted cigarette. Note: except that: with the exception of the fact that, or if it were not for the fact that The pyridine molecule is like benzene except that a nitrogen atom replaces one of the carbon atoms in the ring. The twins looked identical, except that one had dyed his hair. I would come, except that I have another engagement.


in that: introduces an explanation of a statement She's unusual for a commuter in that she's never late for work. Surfuric acid is unique among the common acids in that it is a strong acid in its first dissociation step and a weak acid in its second step.


USING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES The teacher demands that we be on time. (b) I insisted that he pay me the money. (c) I recommended that she not go to the concert. (d) It is important that they be told the truth. (e) I suggested that she see a doctor. (f) I suggested that she should see a doctor.






A function is a rule that assigns to each element in the domain one and only one element in the range.






USING WHOSE I know the man whose bicycle was stolen. (b) The student whose composition I read writes well. (c) Mr. Catt has a painting whose value is inestimable.






The housewife-traders were so secretive that many market analysts did not realize how widespread the trend had become until this summer, when the police arrested a Tokyo housewife accused of failing to pay $1.1 million in taxes on her foreign exchange earnings. She called My Home Doctor a second time when her daughter had a respiratory infection.


Note: THAT can be a conjunction used to introduce a clause expressing cause or result. I felt hurt that you should think such a thing. This result was shocking and totally smashed all the good reasons (that) we initially went into palm oil. The reason (that) we care about cancer is that it is a killer. One reason that students are filing more applications is the increasing use of the Common Application, a form that can be completed and filed via the Internet. The eroding economics of practicing basic medicine was a reason (that) fewer medical students were going into primary care, which pays much less than specialties. It made such a noise that we had to cover our ears.


USING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNS There is someone (whom) I want you to meet. (b) Everything he said was pure nonsense. (c) Anybody who wants to come is welcome. (d) Paula was the only one I knew at the party. (e) Scholarships are available for those who need financial assistance.


USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES In my class there are 20 students, most of whom are from Asia. (b) He gave several reasons, only a few of which were valid. (c) The teachers discussed Jim, one of whose problems was poor study habits. (d) Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., the maker of the most prescribed diabetes pill, is developing three new drugs to target the world's fastest-growing disease, each of which carries sales potential of $1 billion a year.


USING NOUN + OF WHICH We have an antique table, the top of which has jade inlay.


Note: Generally an adjective clause must be placed right beside the word it describes. However, when the adjective clause is too long, a compromise will be made as long as the role of the modifier for the adjective clause is clear (see the following example). A new kind of medical practice is flourishing nationwide that offers to go to where the patients are — whether a home, an office or a hotel — to treat ailments as diverse as a sprained ankle or a bad case of bronchitis.


USING WHICH TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE (a) Tom was late. (b) That surprised me. (c) Tom was late, which surprised me. (d) The elevator is out of order. (e) This is too bad. (f) The elevator is out of order, which is too bad.


Their consensus was that chip sales will be flat to slightly up this year, which doesn't bode well for chipmakers or companies that make chip-manufacturing gear. Treasury prices rallied at the expense of stocks Friday - after news that the economy shed 4,000 jobs last month, which jolted economists who were expecting a gain of at least 110,000 positions. The Democrats want to actually pass some things that people actually care about, which would never happen if this dragged on.


Intel also reiterated plans to build graphics capabilities into Nehalem processors, a sign that it is mounting a challenge to AMD chips scheduled to come out in early 2009. Orders to U.S. factories surged in March by the largest amount in a year, an encouraging sign that the recent slowdown in manufacturing may be ending. Dialysis is a dreary experience, one in which people with failed kidneys sit for hours hooked to machines that cleanse their blood, assisted by technicians who often have to work a second job to make ends meet.


The embryonic stem cells have the ability to transform into a "dazzling array of specialized cells," the Web site says — the property that scientists and others say offers the potential for the development of treatment for diseases as varied as juvenile diabetes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The Intel factory, slated to go online in 2010, will produce 12-inch wafers with circuitry 90 nanometers thick, which is a generation behind the current top of the line, chips with 65-nanometer circuits. Later this year U.S. plants will begin producing 45-nanometer chips, a factor which probably helped Intel win approval for the project from the U.S. government.


The Fed's last rate increase occurred in June 2006 and since that time the central bank has left rates unchanged, a stance that is expected to remain intact when Fed officials meet next week. Scientists have identified a gene that makes roundworms live longer when they eat less, a finding they hope could lead to drugs that promote human longevity, but without the pain of strict dieting. Iran appears to be enriching uranium on a far larger scale than before, a finding that may affect effort by diplomats to stem Tehran’s program. Most have agreed that data is best understood by experts, a view that might not prove popular with patients.


New York City produces almost 1 percent of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions -- an amount that puts it on par with Ireland or Portugal -- according to a city study. House and Senate negotiators reached an agreement Wednesday to boost aid to college students, a deal that calls for slashing roughly $20 billion in government subsidies to banks that issue student loans. The bill calls for research on alternative techniques to derive stem cells without the use of human embryos, an approach that is certainly worth pursuing but is deemed less promising by most experts.


A RELATIVE PRONOUN NEXT TO AN INTERRUPTER CLAUSE AND ONE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE Thomas M. Siebel, founder of Siebel Systems, pledged $100 million this year to support basic research that he hopes will reduce dependency on carbon-based fuels. A major draw of Duke is that we have an athletic prowess which separates us from Harvard, Princeton, Yale, which I know are schools the administration tends to compare Duke to.


The Environmental Protection Agency, which Knatz says should be doing more to help clean up America's ports, did not respond to our interview requests. New technology is allowing energy producers to capture speedier wind that environmental activists say has the potential to provide 20 percent of the state's electricity within 10 years. People are living longer, and the extra years of life, which I think have been one of the crowning achievements of the last century, have to be financed somehow.


In his testimony on Friday, Mr. Nifong faulted himself for his inflammatory public statements last winter, which he said were intended to pressure witnesses to come forward when the police investigation stalled. "In retrospect we got it wrong partly because the truth was so implausible," he writes. The truth Tenet refers to, we now know, is that no unconventional weapons would be found in Iraq. Hydrogen peroxide, the chemical that the German police say two terrorism suspects planned to use to make bombs, is a simple molecule — two oxygen atoms and two hydrogen atoms — with myriad uses.


Dr. Lipkin, whose focus is human disease, became involved because the quest for a cause for the beehive collapses employed new genetic sifting techniques that he said might also prove useful in investigating outbreaks of human diseases. Still, Mr. Broad dedicates his biggest gifts to areas that he thinks lack government support, like the $25 million he gave to the University of Southern California last year to found an institute for integrative biology and stem cell research, or the tens of millions he dedicated to complete the new Disney concert hall in Los Angeles.


Yet Jaffe feels strongly that her patients need someone to hunt down lower-cost options, negotiate with insurers, and find other ways to help them to get the medical care she thinks they need.


John didn't disclose who he thought should lead the ticket. I am pleased that after reviewing all the evidence the Executive Directors of the World Bank Group have accepted my assurance that I acted ethically and in good faith in what I believed were the best interests of the institution, including protecting the rights of a valued staff member. This new catalyst has changed the reaction pathway. That's what I think takes place now.


More Examples Involving Noun/Adjective Clauses: What we're facing now is a crisis that is by far the most serious we've ever faced. He takes issue with what he describes as unfair accusations that his company’s profits are built on a product that causes harm to patients. The Food and Drug Administration is changing the rules on who can serve on its advisory committees. Some members who have advised the agency on drugs and medical devices have had financial dealings deemed to represent conflicts of interest.


How we cope with crises in our lives is as individual as we are. Many of the hardest-hit regions are where the poor live — in Africa and in many other parts of the tropics. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a United Nations scientific group, will report in May on what kinds of things can be done to lessen the impacts of climate change. Federal regulators should relax restrictions on which patients are included in clinical trials of a widely used treatment for a common heart malfunction, a panel of experts told the Food and Drug Administration on Thursday.


In those dark hours of the night, when we're left alone with our greatest fears, when the power of the disease seems strongest, it's important to remember that others are always with us, even if we don't even know them. These are the kinds of things that we expect to see more of as a result of global warming. A thermometer is an instrument that measures the temperature by expansion and contraction of mercury or alcohol in a capillary tube and bulb. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed itself.


The standard enthalpy of formation ( ) of a compound is defined as the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound at 25℃ from its elements with all substances in their standard states at that temperature. The rewards teachers receive for outstanding performance range from a few hundred dollars to $10,000 or more in a few districts. For the union, guarantees for future investment are pivotal to ensuring the sacrifices it makes today will pay off tomorrow.


7c Adverb clauses When we were in New York, we saw several plays. (b) We saw several plays when we were in New York. (c) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed. (d) He went to bed because he was sleepy. (e) INCORRECT: When were in New York. We saw several plays. (f) INCORRECT: He went to bed. Because he was sleepy.




SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST: WHILE AND WHEREAS Mary is rich, while John is poor. (b) John is poor, while Mary is rich. (c) Mary is rich, whereas John is poor. (d) Whereas Mary is rich, John is poor. COMPARE (e) While I was studying, the phone rang.


EXPRESSING CONDITIONS IN ADVERB CLAUSES: IF-CLAUSES (a) If it rains, the streets get wet. (b) If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella.


ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING WHETHER OR NOT AND EVEN IF WHETHER OR NOT I’m going to go to swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold.(OR: whether it is cold or not.) EVEN IF (b) I have decided to go to swimming tomorrow. Even if the weather is cold, I’m going to go swimming.


ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING IN CASE AND IN THE EVENT THAT I’ll be at my uncle’s house in case you (should) need to reach me. (b) In the event that you (should) need to reach me, I’ll be at my uncle’s house.


ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING UNLESS or EXCEPT WHEN I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it’s cold. (b) I’ll go swimming tomorrow if it isn’t cold. (c) He dislikes the game except when he wins.


ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING ONLY IF The picnic will be canceled only if it rains. If it’s windy, we’ll go on the picnic. If it’s cold, we’ll go on the picnic. If it’s damp and foggy, we’ll go on the picnic. If it’s unbearably hot, we’ll go on the picnic. (b) Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled.


More examples for Adverb Clauses: Engineers are working on methods for capturing the carbon dioxide emitted when coal is burned. In the semiconductor industry, prices are always falling as chip companies scramble to cram more semiconductors into less space, allowing them to deliver more computing power per buck. I'm sure most people, whether they're 40 or 60 or 75, would say the same thing: They are not ready to die. Because multiplying any quantity by unity leaves the quantity unchanged, we can introduce conversion factors wherever we find them useful.


If we have a contract that enables us to be competitive we will invest; if not we will disinvest in the U.S. and use our money where we think we can get a better return. Where there’s life, there’s hope.

Unit 8: 

Unit 8 Sentences: Structures and Patterns Subject + Predicate


8a Simple Sentence–one independent clause. Five Basic Sentence Patterns S + Vi 1. The phone rang. 2. This method won’t work. 3. Many people swim daily.


4. These two sisters don’t get along. 5. One loses by conceit and gains by modesty. 6. Useful solvents result when propylene oxide reacts with alcohols to form glycol ethers. 7. You can go broke by not spending money on insurance where you should. 8. The price of oil fell to its lowest level in two months on Wednesday as evidence builds that the high cost of gasoline and other fuels is sapping demand.


9. Many lawmakers say their hope is growing that Congress will pass an immigration bill next year. 10. Evidence could surface of a previously unknown victim — a homeless person, perhaps, or an illegal immigrant. 11. Evidence also emerged that some detainees had been involved in shipments of weapons to illegal armed groups in Iraq. 12. If the hypothesis holds up that the drop in hormone use is the main cause, as seems likely, it should persuade even more women to curb their use except when absolutely necessary.


13. A consensus is building across the political spectrum that rewarding teachers with bonuses or raises for improving student achievement, working in lower income schools or teaching subjects that are hard to staff can energize veteran teachers and attract bright rookies to the profession. 14. The policymaking FOMC meets on June 29-30 and expectations have risen that, as the economy gains momentum, they soon will raise rates at least a quarter percentage point to keep inflation pressures in check.


15. Productivity improves as companies, unable to pass along costs as higher prices, are forced to operate more efficiently. 16. The business of manufacturing intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for commercial drugs is still suffering due to overcapacity and the dearth of new products at the end of the pharmaceutical industry’s pipeline.


16. Oil prices rose Monday after the foiled weekend attempts to bomb Iraq's key Basra crude export terminal revived fears of more attacks on the country's oil infrastructure.


S + Vi + C 1. This is a formula for success: underpromise and overdeliver. 2. We are not at an impasse now. 3. Our bus was late. 4. The price seemed reasonable. 5. The food tasted good.


6. The appropriate place to really render honors, and to acknowledge the sacrifice that somebody has made is at the gravesite. 7. For cancer survivors, the prospect of death is no longer a cerebral awareness but is an unavoidable part of daily life. 8. The whole point is that you withdraw the stimulus when you no longer need it.


9. There are concerns insurers may be seeking to exclude from the pool applicants at risk for a disorder, even if it’s a relatively small risk. 10. Google's software, which is expected to be introduced soon, according to several people with knowledge of the company's plans, is the clearest indication to date that the company, based in Mountain View, Calif., hopes to extend its search business to compete directly with Microsoft's control of desktop computing.


11. Corporations are well positioned to benefit from strong economic growth. 12. It is apparent that smoking can cause cancer. 13. It is one of my goals to visit South America. 14. It will be necessary for him to sign these papers. 15. It is a fact that English is the principal language of the business community throughout much of the world.


16. It has been well known that Mr. Powell was the most skeptical among Mr. Bush's senior advisers about the wisdom of invading Iraq. 17. It was ironic to some investors that stocks were sagging at a time when oil prices were falling more sharply than they have been in some time.


18. As the new session of Congress begins this week, it appears as murky as ever whether some confluence of forces will draw together and push Congress to do what it did more than a decade ago and pass national energy legislation.


19. For some people, fear of getting the disease is nearly as debilitating as the ailment itself. But a growing health-care movement known as predictive medicine, aided by recent advances in human genetics, is starting to ease some patients‘ minds – or at least provide tailored strategies for better managing their risk and their care, experts say.


S + Vt + O 1. The student reads a book. 2. A storm has delayed the plane. 3. A translucent object reflects some light and trans- mits some light. 4. The Fed cuts short-term rates to boost economic growth and raises them to try to ward off inflation.


5. This case provides evidence that long-term freezing can successfully preserve sperm quality and fertility. 6. The increase in energy cost over the past few years has hurt chemical companies that depend on natural gas for feedstock and fuel. 7. Monetary and fiscal stimuli have created excess liquidity that must be leached during an economic rebound.


8. Still, many companies are planning further job cuts in order to boost profit, as excess production capacity makes it difficult to raise prices in many industries. 9. This new piece of legislation established new protections for the unborn by making it a separate crime to harm a fetus during an assault on the mother-to-be.


10. MTBE makers are facing a growing number of lawsuits in dozens of states and cities where their product has wound up in drinking water, most likely from leaking gasoline storage tanks. The bill would give them liability protection from these suits in return for an MTBE phaseout by 2014. 11. Greenspan has no idea right now when he will have to raise the overnight federal funds rate from its four-decade low of 1 percent. 12. The bill’s fate appears to continue to rest with these five senators.


13. Catalysis continues to grow in importance in the production of fine chemicals. 14. Potential impact on the environment has become as large a factor as economics in the design of new chemical products and processes. 15. Chinese mine owners regularly flout safety regulations to meet insatiable demand for a fuel powering the country's booming economy.


16. Following a diet and exercise regime similar to that for diabetics and people with heart disease may delay the onset of Alzheimer's. 17. Group of Seven nations should indicate steps they can take to achieve sustainable global economic growth and to reduce geopolitical risks, including the situation in Iraq.


S + Vt + Oi + Od and S + Vt + Od + ( to or for) + Oi 1. My father often gives me a gift. 2. The boy wrote his parents a letter. 3. My aunt will send us the money. 4. This change provided me a unique opportunity to experience life as a sixth-grader in an American Junior High school.


5. My brother bought two books for me. 6. Please offer your seat to anyone in need. 7. I would recommend it for kids who have a lot of initiative and who are truly interested and not just looking for something to do. 8. The central bank lowered interest rates to almost zero in March 2001. 9. Being the oldest, Jane set an example for her brother and sister.


10. Crystallization usually affords highly purified solids from relatively impure solutions in a single processing step. 11. The Fed isn't going to wean the economy from life-support until there's enough personal income being generated to sustain economic growth without excessive monetary stimulus. 12. A new power plant chimney that converts greenhouse gases into helpful substances could have a huge impact on global warming.


13. Bush has dismissed congressional proposals as "the same old tax-and-spend policy that the Democrats have tried before." 14. As public servants, we owe it to American taxpayers to complete our work responsibly. 15. The report cites as examples the sharply reduced use of chemical pesticides to grow gene-altered, pest-resistant cotton, and the rising incomes of small cotton farmers in countries, such as China and South Africa, which have embraced the technology.


16. In the coming weeks, the city will be required to disclose to us many more details about its preconvention surveillance of groups and activists, and many will be shocked by the breadth of the Police Department’s political surveillance operation.” 17. The nurse would record an agreed-upon time in the appointment book and pass on to the patient instructions like not eating or drinking from midnight before the day of the requested procedure. 18. The swift move would promote to the supreme Court’s top job a newcomer who currently is being considered as one of eight associate justices.


S + Vt + O + C 1. This interest-rate thing has me all confused. 2. We got that message loud and clear. 3. Eric called his friend a liar. 4. The power of creativity and intelligence can make the world a better place.


5. Research on human embryonic stem cells holds the potential to cure Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, spinal injuries, diabetes and other conditions. 6. The man and his wife, who chose to remain anonymous, wanted their case publicized to encourage young cancer patients to have hope for the future.


7. You should do research on what risks the manager takes, and how he or she expects to make money. 8. He let his opportunities slip. 9. On Tuesday, stocks took a dive when Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan let slip that deflation was no longer a concern.


10. The Energy Department revised upward earlier estimates of heating costs for households using oil and propane this winter, citing continued high prices for energy supplies. 11. Mr. Chirac made clear that he still viewed the war and its aftermath very differently than his American counterpart did. 12. Saudi Arabia, the only OPEC member with any significant immediate spare capacity, has already made clear it will be pumping real extra volumes of some 700,000 bpd, irrespective of quotas.


13. Intel’s new chips will make possible higher-speed computing, more reliable storage and more advanced audiovisual standards and will represent fundamental change in the internal structure of the standard PC.


14. The report, by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, explicitly rejects as too extreme the position embraced by many environmental and advocacy groups that have called for bans on genetic engineering of plants and animals. Many of these groups are opposed in principle to a technology in which genes are deliberately transferred from one species to another to confer new traits.


15. The Bush administration’s regulatory czar, John Graham publicly dismissed as unproven the idea that the hormonal system could be disrupted by multiple low-dose exposures to industrial chemicals. 16. I would like to make (it) clear that the new superconductors have many useful properties. 17. Powell has made it clear that he wants to know how this could have happened.


18. The evolution of more complex national and global financial markets during the past quarter-century has made it easier and cheaper to finance a business or home purchase, while spreading financial risk more widely. 19. Every Fed official who takes to the podium makes it clear he'd like to see the unutilized resources (of labor) reduced.


20. Over the years, counterfeiters have found it financially advantageous to substitute diethylene glycol, a sweet-tasting syrup, for its chemical cousin glycerin, which is usually much more expensive. 21. Central heating systems have made it possible to live and work comfortably in winter. 22. The French, Russian and Canadian representatives made it clear that they will not supply troops for Iraq but that they are willing to help with reconstruction.


8b Compound Sentence–two or more independent clauses. 1. A barrel of oil now costs more than $40, but when adjusted for inflation, that price is less alarming. 2. Life is limited and there is an end to it. 3. Glucose is to industrial biotech what crude oil is to petrochemicals. 4. Across China, villages are becoming aware of new environmental laws, but they're usually too poor and powerless to stand up to local officials.


8c Complex Sentence–one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. 1. By searching in wild and wonderful environments, microbiologists hope to find new genes that might be of use to investors and customers.


2. But what biotechnology mostly cannot do yet is produce either feedstock or finished product more cheaply than the petrochemical industry. 3. Asian stocks fell after a gain in oil and gasoline futures renewed concern higher energy prices may damp global growth.


Original DDT became available for public use in 1945, and it is the grandfather of the synthetic organic pesticides, and perhaps it is the best known insecticide. Better DDT, which became available for public use in 1945, is the grandfather of the synthetic organic pesticides—and perhaps the best known insecticide.


8d Compound-complex Sentence–two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. 1. John was close to his sister Linda when they were young, but now they seldom see each other. 2. Not only is soy a rich source of high-quality protein, but it also contains complex carbohydrates that don't raise blood sugar as high as more processed carbohydrates.


3. Once the pathways have been selected, and the new enzymes designed, it is just a question of adding the relevant genes to E. coli, removing the genes for the undesired pathways, and seeing whether the result lives up to expectations. 4. Yes, high fuel costs could ultimately endanger the economic recovery, but there is no reason to believe that they will do so at this level.


5. Samuel Johnson was known for his concern about the environment and in 1975 SC Johnson & Sons Inc. voluntarily stopped using chlorofluorocarbon propellants in aerosol products, three years before the U.S. government banned the ozone-depleting substances.


6. In the business world, chief executives must know when their strategies aren’t working and react, or they go out of business.


7. Money that might have gone toward other purchases would be drained away paying for fuel, and indirectly, higher fuel costs would gradually add to inflation as they work their way through the economy, business people here said.

Unit 9: 

Unit 9 Punctuation Rules


1. THE PERIOD (.) a. Use a period to end a sentence. He is a student. Take this medicine three times a day. b. Use periods after initials and abbreviations. Exceptions: Many abbreviations made up of the first letters of words that name an organization are written without period (UN, WHO, TVA). Periods are also often omitted after many technical abbreviations (PC, IT).


2. THE QUESTION MARK (?) Use a question mark to end an interrogative sentence. Is it time for the train to arrive? Did you see the eclipse? 3. THE EXCLAMATION POINT (!) Use an exclamation point after a forceful or emotional statement and sometimes after a command.


4. THE COMMA (,) a. Use a comma to separate independent clauses that are connected by a coordinating conjunction (“for,” “and,” “nor,” “so,” “but,” “or,” and “yet”). We left the house early to drive to the airport, but heavy traffic caused us to miss our plane.


Note: The comma is often omitted from a compound sentence if its clauses are very short. I called and she answered.


b. Use a comma to separate an introductory clause or phrase. Although they had only two weeks to travel, they managed to see many villages in Mexico. After hiking for three hours, we stopped to rest. In the middle of the first semester, he began to understand the principles of economics. Note: The comma is often omitted following a very short introductory prepositional phrase. At work he was friendly and industrious.


c. Use commas to set off any adverbial phrase between the subject and the verb. Bloated budget deficits, if not curbed, could pose a danger to the economy's long-term health, he warned. The court, in a manner surprising to all, excluded the press from the courtroom.


d. Use commas to set off nonrestrictive clauses or phrases within a sentence. The new church, which was built with donated funds, will open next week. e. Use commas to set off conjunctive adverbs. Minnesota’s experience shows, however, that an incentive plan created with union input can draw teacher support. As a matter of fact, I never expected him to complete his studies. The house is, for the most part, very satisfactory.


f. Use commas to separate words, phrases, or clauses in a series. We gave them food, clothing, and shelter for the night. At the beach they learned to swim, to fish, and to water ski. g. Use a comma to separate elements of place names. Leningrad, Russia, used to be named St. Petersburg.


h. Use a comma to separate day and year when you state a precise date (month, day, and year). The convention was to be held on March 18, 1984, in San Francisco, California. i. Use commas to set off a contrasted element. The boy’s uncle, not his aunt, will meet you at the airport.


j. Put a comma before etc. Please bring your report, e-mail files, meeting minutes, etc., to my office. k. Put a comma after the clarifying devices i.e. and e.g. The problems on the control system cannot be attributed to shoddy Technology alone (i.e., human error has played a large role). Several endangered species (e.g., the red wolf and the snowy owl) are being introduced into the park.


l. Use commas to set off interrupters or parenthetical expressions. Carl Sandburg, the biographer of Lincoln, won the Pulitzer Prize. The committee’s decision, to say the least, sparked considerable controversy.


m. Use commas to set off direct address. Come inside, Michael, and join us. You see, my friends, the problem is not a simple one. n. Use commas to set off absolute elements. Rain or shine, he plays tennis every day. I wonder what will happen next, his ambition being what it is.


o. Use a comma to set off interjections. Well, I decided to try to turn the boat around. Oh, how beautiful the tropical sunset is! p. Use a comma to prevent misreading. In the morning, light began to flood our room. The problem is, is there time to shower before lunch? q. Use a comma after last names when the normal order of names is reversed. Kennedy, Howard J.


r. Use a comma as a thousands separator in numbers of 1,000 and higher. 1,200 15,000 750,000 45,000,000 (or $45 million) s. Use commas to set off dialogue from nondialogue components in a sentence. He said, “I have found the key.” “If you leave this afternoon,” he said, “you will arrive in plenty of time.”


t. Use a comma to indicate omitted text in a parallel construction. To error is human; to forgive, divine. In the U.S., we have two research centers; in China, one; in Europe, three.


5. THE SEMICOLON (;) Use a semicolon to connect two main clauses when there is no coordinating conjunction. The debate was drawing to a close; each team gathered together to prepare its final remarks. I closed the book; I had grown tired of reading.


b. Use semicolons to separate coordinate elements containing internal punctuation. The extra $22 billion includes $4 billion for veterans' health care and administrative services; $2 billion for port security; $3 billion for education; nearly $1 billion for sewage and water treatment improvements; and money for local law enforcement, housing for the poor, and road and bridge upgrades.


6. THE COLON (:) Use a colon before a word, phrase, sentence, or several sentences that clarify, explain, amplify, or summarize the preceding expression. Voters approved the controversial amendment by an extremely narrow margin: 20,100 in favor and 19,899 against. The different affinities of atoms for the electrons in a bond are described by a property called electronegativity: the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.


Figure X. Variable-temperature proton-decoupled 31P NMR spectra of compound YY: top, 350 K; middle, 303 K; bottom, 273 K. I have one objection to this advertisement: it is far too technical for its intended audience. Your first draft is like a rich uncultivated field for the farmer: it is waiting for you to bring it into full bloom. After a week of meetings with Chinese energy, environmental and clean-car experts, I’m left with one big, gnawing question: can China go green without going orange?


b. Use a colon to introduce a list. Make sure that the expression preceding the colon is a complete sentence. Our research focuses on two areas: inexpensive feed stocks for ethanol production and new catalysts for bio-processes. c. Use a colon to introduce a quotation. The advertisement for the Hawaiian trip read as follows: “Visit six islands and learn for yourself what Paradise of the Pacific means.”


d. Use a colon to express direct ratio. a ratio of 50:1 5:2:1 e. Use a colon after the salutation of a business letter, between a title and subtitle, between a chapter and verse reference from the Bible, and between the hour and minute figures in time designations. To Whom It May Concern: Science Problems: A Handbook for Students according to Ecclesiastes 3:9 10:50 A.M.


7. THE APOSTROPHE (‘) An apostrophe is used for these reasons: Use an apostrophe to indicate the possessive case, except for personal pronouns. If the word (either singular or plural) does not end in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add the apostrophe and s. the girl’s dress yesterday’s problem the car’s upholstery


2. If the singular ends in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add the apostrophe and s unless the second s makes the pronunciation difficult; in such case, add only the apostrophe. Lois’s coat Charles’s dog but Moses’ story Aristophanes’ comedies (The addition of a second s would change the pronunciation of Moses to Moseses and Aristo- phanes to Aristophaneses.)


3. If the plural ends in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add only the apostrophe. ladies’ dresses (dresses for ladies) boys’ shoes (shoes of the boys) five dollars’ worth 4. In compound words, make only the last word possessive. brother-in-law’s books (singular possessive) mothers-in-law’s books (plural possessive) someone else’s book


5. In noun of joint possession, make only the last noun possessive. In nouns of individual possession, make both nouns possessive. Jane and Alice’s book (joint possession) Jane’s and Alice’s books (individual possession)


6. An apostrophe indicates the omission of a letter or a number. shouldn’t doesn’t can’t o’ clock the gold rush of ‘49


An apostrophe and s form the plural of letters, figures, symbols, and words. (Such forms are also italicized.) Writers should cross their t’s and dot their i’s. Count to 100 by 5’s Try to cut down on the number of and’s you use in your writing. We live in the 80’s.


8. THE DASH (—) Use a dash to indicate a sudden break in thought. She had her reasons — or did she? Could he — I mean, would he be willing to work with us? Her eyes lighted up with love — or was it pity? — when she read the letter.


b. Use a dash before an appositive or brief summary. The best universities and colleges have stuck to their missions — hiring the most qualified professors, offering the highest-quality courses, and providing the broadest possible educations not only for the world of work but also for public service and personal development. He asked Congress to set an immediate freeze on emissions of carbon dioxide — that's the main pollutant responsible for trapping heat in the atmosphere. Doctors are looking at cancer more and more as a chronic disease — something people can live with for a longer period of time.


These three experimental parameters — activity, selectivity, and life span — should be considered for the selection of a catalyst employed in a commercial chemical process. c. Uses dashes (instead of commas or parentheses) to set off strong parenthetical element. The new chip — which took us two years to complete its design — will be in commercial production next month. The president — reversing his position — now opposes this legislation.


d. Uses dashes to set off a parenthetical expression when that expression interrupts the flow of thought. If you wish to stress the idea — the decision is up to you — then use dashes rather than commas or parentheses.


9. THE HYPHEN (-) a. Hyphenate two or more words as a compound noun, verb or adverb or as a compound modifier of a noun: a well-known actor technology’s cost-effectiveness a risk-taking strategy birth-control movement broad-based efforts hydrogen-powered cars cross-link two polymers short-sighted thinking vacuum-dry this material Many U.S. hospitals aren't set up to provide state-of-the-art treatment for heart attacks on a 24/7 basis.


He is a well-liked man. He is well liked. She is old-fashioned. (Permanent compound) It is an up-to-date book. This book is up to date. Phrases hyphenated before a noun are not hyphenated when they appear in the predicate unless they are permanent compounds:


b. Place a hyphen between the numerator and denominator of a fraction unless either part contain a hyphen: two-thirds five-eighths but: twenty-two sixteenths In an expression like one half of and in a fraction intended as merely roughly approximate, the hyphen is generally omitted: About three fourths of the students attended the game.


c. Hyphenate compound numbers between twenty and one hundred: thirty-five sixty-three ninety-nine d. Use a hyphen to avoid ambiguity. resign (to quit) refund (to give money back) re-sign (to sign again) re-fund (to bring money in again) re-collect recollect re-cover recover re-form reform re-treat retreat


e. Use a hyphen to indicate a season that straddled two calendar years. The winter of 1883-84 was especially severe. f. Use a hyphen to designate a continuous period of two or more years. The presidency of George Bush (1988-1992) was good for the domestic economy.


g. Use a hyphen to indicate “suspended compounds” (where the important element is omitted in all but the last term). The lumber is available in 8-, 16-, and 32-foot lengths. The national test scores for 4th- and 8th-graders show modest improvements in math, but flat scores in reading. h. Use a hyphen to denote a precise numerical measurement. a two-hour test 12-inch-diameter pipe a ten-year-old brother. six-game winning streak.


i. Use a hyphen at the end of the first line to mark the separation of syllables when a word is divided between two lines. Never divide one-syllable words. In your essay you should avoid using frag- ment sentences.


j. In compounds not covered by the above rules, a writer must depend chiefly upon memory of the individual words and upon help from a reliable, up-to-date dictionary. As with spelling in general, hyphen usage cannot be reduced to a logical system. The general tendency is to use the hyphen only if joined elements are not felt to be thoroughly fused or if the omission of the mark between separate elements might cause a misreading.


10. PARENTHESES ( ) Use parentheses to enclose numbers in a series. The treaty stipulated that the countries would (1) cease fighting, (2) respect each other’s boundaries, and (3) resume trade.


b. Use parentheses to introduce acronyms and abbreviations (including abbreviations of measurement). The organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cannot agree on a quota.


c. Use parentheses to set off parenthetical, supplementary, or illustrative material. He said (and we assumed that he was sincere) that he would attend the ceremony without fail. As we drove down the mountain road (could this truly be called a road?), our brakes began to smoke.


11. BRACKETS ([ ]) Brackets are used to set off editorial corrections or additions to quoted matter. On his desk he found a note: “Do not try to find me for i [sic] will be far away when you read this.” (A bracketed sic-meaning thus-tells the reader that the error appears in the original and is not a misprint.) The Cardinal sent a message to his trusted subordinate in Rome [Bishop Francetti] to ask for further information.


12. THE SLASH (/) a. Use the slash to indicate “per” in technical abbreviation. m3/sec kg/cm2 b. Use the slash to indicate a twelve-month period overlapping two calendar years. academic year 2006/2007 fiscal year 1999/2000


c. Use the slash in the expression “and/or” only after other alternatives have been considered. The crash was caused by mechanical failure and/or pilot error. d. Use a slash to represent a ratio or to connect components of a mixture. dissolved in 4:1 isopropanol/water the methane/oxygen/argon (1/50/400) matrix


13. ELLIPSIS POINTS (…) a. To show omission of a word or words from a quoted sentence, use ellipsis points (three spaced periods). The senator said, “The American public … can’t be fooled for long.”


No science is immune to the infection of politics and the corruption of power….The time has come to consider how we might bring about a separation, as complete as possible, between Science and Government in all countries. - Jacob Bronowski …Remember that the fear of failure is the most paralyzing of all human emotions. The fear of failure stops us from trying, from daring, from succeeding. It must be confronted. Don’t grow old saying, “I wish Ihad. I should have. Why didn’t I?” Failure is not to be dreaded, but to confront, reject, and overcome. - Mark Shields


14. QUOTATION MARKS (“ ”)(‘ ’) Follow these rules in punctuating quoted material: Use double quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation from both spoken and written sources. He said, “Wait for me at the corner.” The handbook says, “Students are responsible for keeping their rooms clean.” Notice that indirect quotations are not punctuated: He said that I should wait for him at the corner.


b. Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation. She replied, “Look for the letter that ends ‘Most sincerely yours.’”


c. Use quotation marks to set off titles of poems, songs, and of articles short stories, ad other parts of a longer work. The class liked the story “A Rose for Emily” in our text Stories for Our Time. “Get me to the Church on Time” is a song from the musical play My Fair Lady. Look for the article in Time titled “A New Approach to the Monetary Problem.”


d. Use quotation marks to set off words used in a special sense. What he calls “stylish” I would consider to be very out of date. The professor referred to the student as a “frisky colt.”


e. Always place a comma or period inside quotation marks. “If you try again,” she said, “I think you will succeed.” Although he told us that he is “restless,” I think a more appropriate word would be “lazy.’ He said, “The note read ‘No milk today.’ ” The desire of consumers for better access to a doctor has also given rise to “concierge medicine,” in which they pay thousands of dollars annually to get convenient, no-wait appointments.


f. Always place a colon or semicolon outside quotation marks. I looked blankly at my music instructor when he said “Andante”; I did not understand the meaning of the term. He gave us what he called his “recipe”: think well, listen carefully, speak cautiously.


g. Place a question mark, dash, or exclamation point inside the quotation when it applies only to the quotation. Place it outside the quotation when it applies to the whole statement. He asked, “Will you be ready to recite tomorrow?” Did you hear her say, “I overslept yesterday”? He cried out, “I will never agree to that!” I can’t describe the horror of that “unfortunate incident”!


h. Use a comma to separate an opening quotation from the part of the sentence that follows unless the quotation ends with a question mark, exclamation point, or dash. “This case is closed,” he said firmly. “Is it time to eat?” she asked. “I can’t believe it!” he exclaimed. “Our house can’t have burned down!” “You’ve misunderstood–” he began. “I meant something quite different.”


i. When a quotation is interrupted by explanatory words (he said, or similar ones), use a comma after the first part of the quotation. In choosing the punctuation mark to place after the explanatory words, follow the rules for punctuating clauses and phrases. “I have been told,” he said, “of the dangers of skiing.”


“You follow directions well,” the supervisor said. “Your first two weeks with us have been very satisfactory.” “Michael was an imaginative tour leader,” the girl said; “every day brought some new adventure.”


j. In punctuating explanatory words preceding a quotation, be guided by the length and formality of the quotation.

Unit 10: 

Unit 10 Variation of Sentences: Expansion, Transformation, Reduction, Sentence combining, Inversion, and Ellipsis


10a Expansion 1. One-Word Additions John hit the ball. Big John hit the slow ball Big John, the catcher, hit the slow ball. Big John, the reserve catcher, hit the slow ball. Big John, the reserve catcher, powerfully hit the slow ball.


2. Multiword Additions: Phrases His knees shaking with nervous energy, big John, the reserve catcher, powerfully hit the slow ball over the fence in the bottom of the ninth to win the ALC championship game before 50,000 screaming fans.


3. Multiword Additions: Clauses His knees shaking with nervous energy, big John, the reserve catcher, powerfully hit the slow ball over the fence in the bottom of the ninth to win the ALC championship game before 50,000 screaming fans, who drank large vats of cheap beer, which were provided by a local brewery.


Legislation overhauling U.S. college student aid by slashing subsidies to lenders and using the money to boost student assistance by $20 billion was approved by Congress on Friday. The killings have outraged many Iraqis, who long have resented the presence of armed Western security contractors, considering them an arrogant mercenary force that abuses Iraqis in their own country. Doctor delivery is one of many new approaches springing up to address the demand for faster, more convenient medical care.


10b Transformations The empty house looked quite frightening. Empty, the house looked quite frightening. The house, empty, looked quite frightening.


Causing injuries for which she sues, the scale struck the plaintiff. The scale, causing injuries for which she sues, struck the plaintiff. The scale struck the plaintiff, causing injuries for which she sues. Desperate, the young mother called for help. Below, the traffic looked like a necklace of ants.


No matter how long it takes, our medical team will do our best to save your child’s life. Our medical team, no matter how long it takes, will do our best to save your child’s life.


This is one of the admiralty texts that are worth reading. Of the admiralty texts that are worth reading, this is one. Much is expected from those to whom much is given. From those to whom much is given, much is expected.


The S&P 500 gained 11.8% a year between 1982 and 2001. But only investors who stayed the course managed to earn that big a return.


10c Reduction 1. Noun Clauses




(g) George Washington, who was the first president of the United States, was a wealthy colonist and a general in the army. (h) George Washington, the first president of the United States, was a wealthy colonist and a general in the army. (i) Paris, the capital of France, is an exciting city.


(j) I read a book by Mark Twain, a famous American author.


Note: If an adjective clause that contains be + a single adjective is changed, the adjective is moved to its normal position in front of the noun it modifies. Clause: Fruit that is fresh tastes better than old, softer, mushy fruit. Correct Phrase: Fresh fruit tastes better than old, softer, mushy fruit. Incorrect phrase: Fruit fresh tastes better than old, softer, mushy fruit.


She has two children, ages 7 and 10. The general demanded absolute obedience, instant and unquestioning. Typewriters, once common in schools and offices, are rarely seen or used now. Wolves—once feared and killed—are being reintroduced into the environment.


Many compound adjectives used immediately before a noun can be viewed as reduced forms of adjective clauses. Environment-friendly transportation cellulose-rich material Temperature-dependent reactions tumor-free time Structure-specific sensors oxygen-sensitive catalysts Flood-prone mountain valleys energy-efficient technology Water-soluble materials


Data-gathering devices time-consuming work record-setting stock market Life-threatening diseases performance-enhancing drugs Oxygen-transporting hemoglobin lead-containing paint Problem-solving techniques money-making machines Diarrhea-causing virus risk-taking strategies mind-boggling issues Record-setting hurricane season record-breaking adventurer Rate-limiting step Company-operated stores coal-fired power plants hydrogen-powered cars Information-based economy debt-burdened students custom-built homes Foundation-supported programs government-subsidized vaccines


Performance-related bonuses human-induced global warming Market-oriented incentives Chinese-made toys Fastest-growing markets slow-growing crystals Far-reaching influence forward-thinking strategy Fast-spreading disease Broad-based support long-anticipated challenge Foreign-born immigrants short-lived species a well-paid job Well-defined policy far-fetched statement so-called new invention Exceptions: Cutting-edge research


For ADJECTIVE CLAUSES that use WHICH to modify a whole sentence


More Examples: As in America, higher education costs are hammering other developed nations, forcing a reassessment of who pays and how. Experts point to many short-term reasons the United States is running low on gasoline, causing prices to rise: many oil companies are doing maintenance work on refineries; new federal rules make fuels cleaner but costlier; and a string of delays, fires and accidents in the industry have reduced supplies just when drivers are starting to hit the road for summer vacations. Rates for 30-year mortgages this week sank to their lowest point since late May, providing a ray of sunlight for would-be home buyers.


The U.S. economy unexpectedly lost jobs in August for the first time in four years, increasing speculation that the Federal Reserve will have to reduce interest rates to counter an economic slowdown. College costs have soared in recent years in the United States, forcing students to rely increasingly on loans and driving growth for banks and specialized student lenders. Democrats described the legislation as costless to taxpayers, saying the rate cuts would be offset by a reduction of nearly $21 billion in subsidies paid by the government to lenders in the federal loan program. A hot air balloon burst into flames over western Canada, burning two passengers to death while their families looked on, police said Saturday.


Some services may even wheel in a mobile X-ray machine or an ultrasound machine, depending on the ailment, or perhaps pull out kits to test for strep throat or to draw blood.


The eldest children in families tend to develop slightly higher I.Q.s than their younger siblings, researchers are reporting, based on a large study that could effectively settle more than a half-century of scientific debate about the relationship between I.Q. and birth order. Some 350,000 or so Americans currently need dialysis; that population is growing about 3 percent a year, fueled by a rise in diabetes. Amgen offers discounts and rebates to dialysis companies based, in part, on how much Epogen they use and how much that use increases year to year.


3. Adverb Clauses








USING UPON+-ING IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES (a) Upon reaching the age of 21, I received my inheritance. (b) When I reached the age of 21, I received my inheritance. (c) On reaching the age of 21, I received my inheritance.


Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Prepositional Phrases When we keep the temperature constant, the reaction rate is proportional to the concentration of reactant B. At constant temperature, the reaction rate is proportional to the concentration of reactant B. Because several public transportation projects, such as the MRT, had been completed, commuting to work has become easier for people living in the suburbs. With the completion of several public transportation projects, such as the MRT, commuting to work has become easier for people living in the suburbs.


When in Rome, do as the Romans do. When found to be forged, the data was withdrawn from the paper immediately. When discussing the effects of global warming, scientists do care very much about how precise the details are. Though old, he still has a dream. Though a fair man, my boss often required us to work far into the night. If made into law, the Genetic Non-Discrimination Act would bar prejudicial treatment based solely on genetic data, such as genetic predisposition to disease. These problems can be treated if caught in time. More examples:


Today we are much better with therapies that are more specific, and also with supportive care and pain management that makes the course of cancer therapy, although not easy, much more tolerable. Intel Corp. said a new line of computer processors due out later this year will be about 40 percent faster than current chips when running computer games, videos and other heavy workloads. When faced with product concerns from Asian trading partners, China adopts an assertive tone.

4. Simple Sentences with Compound Verb: 

4. Simple Sentences with Compound Verb The court reversed the lower court and ruled that consent is not required. The court reversed the lower court, ruling that consent is not required. The helicopter flew low over the forest, and spotted the missing prisoner just before dark. The helicopter flew low over the forest, spotting the missing prisoner just before dark.


More examples: The National Science Foundation believes in nanotech's future, estimating the market impact will exceed $1 trillion by 2015. The first Chinese person in space returned safely to Earth early Wednesday, landing as planned on the soft grass of Inner Mongolia. Cheney planned to return to Jordan later Sunday, ending his weeklong trip to the Middle East with talks with Jordan's King Abdullah.


Microsoft Corp. introduced a new version of its Office software Tuesday, betting that enhanced tools for collaboration will entice companies to spend $150-to-$500 for copies of the upgrade. Some oil executives are now warning that the current shortages of fuel could become a long-term problem, leading to stubbornly higher prices at the pump. The next morning I read what I wrote the day before, making only the most superficial changes, and then continue on my way. This is all you have to do. For other women, trading offered a more modest sort of independence, giving them a chance to build up savings separate from their husbands’ accounts.


Winds of 160 mph slammed the city of Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, peeling roofs off shelters and a police station, knocking down electric poles and destroying or damaging some 5,000 homes — many of them made of wood with roofs of corrugated metal or palm branches


10d Sentence Combining To make your writing flow, you may need to combine some of your short, related sentences. This technique helps you write concisely and express the relationships between the ideas clearly.


1. Inserting Words Separate Sentence He was in an exuberant mood. His mood was contagious. Combined Sentence His exuberant mood was contagious. Separate Sentence Butter the pan. Pour the cake batter into the pan. Combined Sentence Pour the cake batter into the buttered pan.


2. Inserting Phrases · Prepositional Phrases Separate Sentence Great Salt Lake is an inland body of saltwater. The lake is in north- western Utah. Combined Sentence Great Salt Lake is an inland body of saltwater in northwestern Utah.


Participial Phrases Separate Sentence Migrant laborers move constantly. They search for work. Combined Sentence Searching for work, migrant laborers move constantly.


Separate Sentence The hikers struggled on. They were gasping for breath and nearly exhausted. Combined Sentence The hikers, gasping for breath and nearly exhausted, struggled on.


Separate Sentence The Boston Red Sox won the American League pennant Wednesday night. It trounced the New York Yankees 10-3 in Game 7 of the AL Championship Series at Yankee Stadium and completed an unprecedented comeback.


Combined Sentence The Boston Red Sox won the American League pennant Wednesday night, trouncing the New York Yankees 10-3 in Game 7 of the AL Championship Series at Yankee Stadium and completing an unprecedented comeback.


Separate Sentence The ship was badly damaged by the storm. The ship finally reached a safe harbor. Combined Sentence Badly damaged by the storm, the ship finally reached a safe harbor.


Separate Sentence Water around the island started to recede Thursday. This lessened the danger to others who remained stranded. Combined Sentence Water around the island started to recede Thursday, lessening, the danger to others who remained stranded.


Separate Sentence Globalization brings people and institutions in distant parts of the world closer econo- mically. It enhances their opportunities to trade goods, services and labor.


Appositive Phrases


Absolute Phrases


3. Using Compound Subjects, Verbs and Predicates


4. Creating a Compound Sentence Use coordination when two ideas are about equally important.


5. Creating a Complex Sentence Use subordination to help the main idea stand out and to clarify relationships in a sentence. Adjective Clauses


Adverb Clauses

Noun Clauses : 

Noun Clauses


Original Our new headquarters building, which is scheduled to be completed next year, will enable us to provide each employee with a private office , which should significantly improve productivity. Better When we move into our new headquarters building next year, each employee will have a private office. As a result, productivity should improve significantly.


Original The results of the survey among managers that was conducted to determine the relationship of dollars spent on training to improved productivity last month are summarized below. Better Last month we surveyed managers to determine the correlation between training dollars and productivity. This report summarizes the results of the survey.


10e Inversion 1. Complete inversion ----- + V + S Such was the force of the explosion that all the windows were broken. So deep are their differences that few observers think the early 2005 deadline attainable.


To make sure your hard-earned savings don't go to waste, here are four strategies education experts recommend. Speak of the devil; here comes Tom. There remains much room for improvement.


At stake was a vast effort to remake the program that provides health insurance for 40 million elderly and disabled Americans. At stake are public health standards addressing fine pollution particles 2.5 micrometers or smaller, which lodge in people’s lungs and blood vessels. At issue now is a ruling last month by the World Trade Organization's highest panel, which found the tariffs illegal.


In the audience at the General Assembly, sat Ahmed Chalabi, this month's president of the Iraqi Governing Council, and President Jacques Chirac of France, who opposes Bush's plan for Iraq. With the pickup in the world economy has come an unexpectedly high jump in global demand for oil. Demand is up 3.5 percent this year, Mr. Goldstein said, far more than many experts who track oil markets predicted.


On the evolutionists' side is a legal team put together by the American Civil Liberties Union and Americans United for Separation of Church and State. These groups want to put intelligent design itself on trial and discredit it so thoroughly that no other school board would dare authorize teaching it. In the medical examiner's freezer may lie the remains of a victim who was never reported missing


Among the most politically attractive elements in the plan is a proposal to double the use of ethanol, a corn-based fuel additive popular with farmers in midwestern states such as Iowa, South Dakota and Minnesota. The good news is that there is a better sense today of what it takes to end hunger. Among the practices being used to help the hungry include focusing on economic and agricultural growth, lowering population growth, lowering HIV infection rates, improving access to water for irrigation and creating social safety nets to ensure that those who can't grow or buy food still get enough to eat.


We discover physics by learning how to measure the quantities involved in physics. Among these quantities are length, time, mass, temperature, pressure, and electric current. Among the measures being discussed are installing security camera above the front door of every office or lab and asking students to be more alert to outsiders inside the chemistry building.


Among the proposals being considered by the administration was making permanent early reporting requirements to detect any big influx of steel into the United States. Among the hardest hit areas of the U.S. economy was manufacturing, already losing thousands of jobs each year to dramatically cheaper labor next door in Mexico and Latin America and across the Pacific to China and Vietnam, as well.


Among the experiments that led John Dalton to propose the atomic theory were his studies of mixtures of gases. Behind much of the opposition to the state visit by President Bush is a feeling among many Britons that while the part of the association based on shared language, history, culture and economy remains solid and enduring, the political and diplomatic costs have become too high.


But behind them lies a detention system that treats all prisoners as terrorists regardless of their supposed offenses, and makes brutal interrogations all too common. Also in question was exactly when Rumsfeld informed Bush of the extent of the abuse. The president is a man on whom falls a heavy responsibility, whether he likes it or not.


Following are the stories of how Warner, who will begin college in the fall, and Moore, who is headed to law school, arrived at their decisions. No less sobering, commanders said, were new reports of children playing roles in guerrilla attacks. Joining us now to talk more about this is Michael Rothman, senior energy market specialist at Merrill Lynch. And he joins us from his firm’s trading floor. Hi, Mike.


Joining me is Reginald Dumas, the United Nations' special adviser on Haiti. Lying beneath 20,000 feet of mud and rock, and topped by more than 6,000 feet of ocean, are oil and gas reserves that were previously inaccessible. More troubling to some experts is the likelihood of an accelerating loss of quality scientists.


Also contributing to the bullish sentiment early on was the economic data, which provided further support for the accelerating economy and boded well for the manufacturing sector and the state of the consumer. The counties in violation included most of California, a ring of states around the Great Lakes, and a concentration of Northeast states from the Washington, D.C., area to Boston. Also failing the federal test are parts of eastern Tennessee, Georgia, and North Carolina, as well as the Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio areas.


Fueling the spring rally has been the end of the Iraqi war, indications that the Federal Reserve will keep interest rates low for the foreseeable future and a few early signs that the economy may be picking up steam. Also newly recommended are a vaccine against hepatitis A, a booster shot for chickenpox, a booster shot against whooping cough, and yearly flu shots until a child’s fifth birthday instead of only until the second birthday.


Attached is the file you requested. Cut out of the process, as usual, was Colin Powell's State Department. So were military lawyers for the uniformed services. Set at the top two corners of the stage were huge lavender hearts outlined in bright white lights.


Displayed in the glass case was a rare emerald. Crushed in the collision of these two grandiose dreams are all the smaller dreams of fallen soldiers, to raise kids and watch baseball and grill hot dogs on the Fourth of July. Included in this study is the possible site location should the construction of such a facility be deemed feasible.


"Microsoft is at or nearing a stage of maturity. Analysts are expecting slower growth rates and so is the market," said Michael Cohen, director of research with Pacific American Securities. Although obesity can increase the risk of a host of health problems, skeptics argue, so do smoking and high cholesterol, which are not considered diseases.


As those wholesale prices went up, so did pump prices. As Microsoft goes, so does the PC sector. As violence deepens, so does pessimism.


As growth increases, so will the pressure for firms to expand their payrolls. If ethanol can be made cheaply from cellulose, so can a lot of other bulk chemicals.


Analysts say the cost of crude is now a less important factor in U.S. gasoline prices than are the high consumer demand, limited refining capacity and concerns about possible shortages in blending components for reformulated gasoline. Manual laborers are more strongly opposed to immigrants than are white-collar workers, whose jobs are not seriously threatened by outsiders that swarm into this country.


It was recently reported that many young parents today plan to have fewer children than did their parents or grandparents. Communication satellites transmit information more reliably than do ordinary short wave radios.


Henry James is as famous as is his philosopher brother William. They point out that the effects of the refinancing boom are beginning to wane, as are the effects of the tax cut. In addition to energy stocks, producers of other raw materials are classic hedges against inflation, as are companies that own valuable real estate.


Nearly 40 percent of engineering faculty members in the United States are foreign-born, as are a third of American Nobel Prize winners. The ambassador will be extremely influential, as will U.S. advisers who will remain attached to Iraqi ministries.


Being a leader in the new Iraq is a dangerous job. One member of the national Governing Council has been assassinated, as have the deputy mayor of Baghdad and judges in Najaf and Mosul. If protected properly, a sewing machine usually lasts as long as does a typewriter. Mr. Love plans to testify at today's hearing, as do a number of consumer advocates and members of AIDS groups who have protested Abbott's pricing of Norvir.


2. Half inversion Be + S; Do/Does/Did + S +V; Have/Has/Had + S + P.P. ; Modal + S + V Should the war drag on for a long time, it would have a disastrous effect. Had I been there, I could have done something to help.


Rarely have I eaten better food. Hardly ever does he come to class on time. Seldom do I sleep pass seven o’clock. There’s an old adage that no one in Washington can tell the difference between $1 million and $1 billion. Seldom has that Beltway learning disability been more vividly demonstrated than in the weeks since Katrina.


Not until then, he added, would the United States transfer authority from the American-led occupation to Iraq itself. Not once could President Bush admit to a concrete mistake on either the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, or the invasion of Iraq under false pretenses and the current deadly chaos there. "Not since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in 1948 has there been such a sustained attack on (its) values and principles," Khan told the press conference.


Never has one of my doctors said, "Sorry, I have to go, no more time." They have always been willing to talk with me as long as I need them. That is invaluable. Never will I do that again. The Maine lobstermen labor long on capricious seas, but these are their glory days. Never in modern times have they harvested so many red-clawed lobsters.


"Never has the Democratic Party been more united than it is today," Kerry said. "Never have we been more poised to win a victory in November.“ Never have stress levels for high school students been so high about where they get in, or about the idea that if you don’t get into a glamour college, your life is somehow ruined.


Never, other than during the two world wars, has there been such a concerted effort by opinion-forming institutions to indoctrinate Americans, 83 percent of whom now call global warming a " serious problem." No longer are a Porsche in the driveway, a country club membership and high-speed Internet access considered necessities.


Nowhere is the impact of this troubling pattern more evident than in the oil industry. Nowhere has this newfound confidence been on display more than in China’s rapidly improving international relations.


The principles of open competition, however, dictate that the company with the best product, marketed most effectively, ought to win. Nowhere would there be an asterisk that says if you can't win fair and square with customers, go complain to every court you can find until you snatch victory.


However, the chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee, John Scarlett, assured the ISC that he did not "at any time feel under pressure, nor was he asked to include material that he did not believe ought to be included in the dossier," Thursday's report said.


Bush's speech was not nearly as discouraging as some had feared, but nor did it move the Iraq controversy any closer to a viable solution. He did not speak, nor did he move.


Four Cabinet members, appearing at an unusual joint news conference, said the administration would not accept a petition filed last month by the AFL-CIO calling for stiff tariffs on Chinese imports to punish China for allegedly exploiting workers. Nor, they said, would they accept a petition readied by some industry associations that would threaten China with sanctions to force a rise in the value of the Chinese currency.


He would not say whether the United States agreed with Israel's contention that the site was a training camp for terrorists, nor would he say whether the Bush administration would veto a U.N. resolution condemning Israel's airstrike. "They were not involved in leaking classified information, nor did they condone it," McClellan said.


Citizen soldiers can no longer expect to do only the minimum training — one weekend a month and a two-week session each summer — nor expect to rarely, if ever, get called to active duty. "Occidental does not have the complications of a refining and marketing segment, nor is it of a scale that forces it to take multi-billion-dollar bets to see growth," Grubert said, as the majors have in places such as Russia and the Middle East.


Harlow said that "the committee has yet to take the opportunity to hear a comprehensive explanation of how and why we reached our conclusions," nor has it accepted an offer made Wednesday by Tenet to hear from him and senior intelligence officials.


"The president grieves the loss of every American soldier," said a White House spokesman. "He sends a note to the families, but beyond that he cannot issue a statement at the time every soldier dies, nor can he go to every memorial service that he'd like to go to.


Unlike the programs to eradicate smallpox and polio -- the only WHO efforts remotely comparable -- this goal is not one that when reached will allow public health officials to move on to other tasks. Nor is it achieved through bursts of intense effort, such as investigating disease outbreaks and mounting vaccination campaigns.


I don't have a lot of faith that they can expand their market share considerably, nor am I impressed with the demographics over the next five to 10 years. Bush offered no hint of his administration's preference for those leaders, nor did he say who would choose them.


There is nothing wrong with political passion. Nor is there anything wrong with criticizing the administration's conduct of the war. "We have set a deadline of June 30. It is important that we meet that deadline. As a proud and independent people, Iraqis do not support an indefinite occupation and neither does America," Mr. Bush said, warning any change in this deadline would fuel suspicion of American objectives in Iraq.


Not only are we concerned with apprehending those individuals who commit computer crimes but also in limiting the damage done by these criminals to private industry and the public. Not only do you need to be involved in a lot of different things, but you need to be the head because you need to show a commitment.


Not only does continued strife in the Middle East increase the possibility of a disruption in oil supplies, but cheap oil is steadily being used up. That means that over the next decade oil prices should inevitably rise. Not only is soy a rich source of high-quality protein, but it also contains complex carbohydrates that don't raise blood sugar as high as more processed carbohydrates. It has fiber, folic acid (a key B vitamin), healthy fat and antioxidants that help protect against cancer.


Not only did China design, build and launch the satellite for Nigeria, but it also provided a huge loan to help pay the bill.


Only then can they find a cure. Only yesterday did I understand his predicament. Only in this way can we learn English well. Only by working hard can we make substantial contributions to scientific discovery.


Only when the public were alerted to the problem by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) did industry suddenly find substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Reports in China have repeatedly hinted that only if China gets its way on chicken exports to the United States will Beijing lift its four-year-old ban on importing U.S. beef.


Last week, China urged the US to stop selling weapons to Taiwan and honor its commitment to the “One China” policy. “Only by doing so can the interests of both China and the US be safeguarded and peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait be maintained,” a foreign ministry spokesman said. Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled.


Only when people can be satisfied with what they have, will they be able to feel complete happiness. Only after these life stages (i.e., getting through school, getting married, having young kids, and then sending their kids to college) do "people start to think seriously about saving or putting money into their 401(k)s. The problem is if you put it off that long, then it's very hard to get big piles" of savings.


So diligently does he work that he often forgets to eat and sleep. So entrenched have hatreds become that neither side believes the other will ever accept their existence. So entranced with the video games do young students become that parents often have to restrict their children’s allowances to limit their play.


If you can keep a secret, so can I.

10f Ellipsis: 

10f Ellipsis In Illinois, there are seventeen such institutions; in Ohio, twenty-two; in Indiana, three. John elected to attend Stanford; Mary, Harvard. Some were punctual; others, late. One manager comes from UNC, another from Duke, and a third from GW.


From its inception, Lake Powell, the nation’s second-largest artificial lake, after Lake Mead in Nevada, was a powerful symbol across the West. Some saw it as a statement of human will and know-how, others of arrogance. The weather here gets more humid than (it gets) in my hometown.


This year, we’ve gotten much less rain than (we got) last year. Many children respond better to rewards than punishments. Our reaction was faster than (it was or we) anticipated. The war could last much longer than originally predicted.


In Lu's view, the shame, stigma and silence surrounding mental health treatment among Asian immigrants appears to be greater than among other ethnic groups. High school students who take this core curriculum – four years of English and three each of mathematics, science and social studies – are better prepared for college.


David likes winter as much as (he likes) summer. Our goal is (to) maximize the reaction yield. Your president (’s) calling us a rogue nation and disrespecting our 5,000 years of civilization is offensive. How many years of civilization do you have?

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