gender budgeting

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Gender Budgets: what should we do & why?: 

Gender Budgets: what should we do & why? Mohau Pheko

Outline : 

Outline Understanding Gender Budgeting Why gender budgeting? The Gender Budget tools Gender budget work Strategies used

Gender Budgets: 

Gender Budgets At first glance, the budget appears to be a gender-neutral policy instrument. It deals with financial aggregates: expenditures and revenues, the surplus or deficit. There is no mention of people at this level of policy. Yet policy-makers should not assume that government expenditures and taxes impact equally on men and women, since men and women generally occupy different social and economic positions. — Isabella Bakker

Gender Budgets: 

Gender Budgets Women’s budgets”, “gender budgets”, “gender-sensitive budgets”, and “gender responsive budgets” are all terms that are used to describe initiatives that have used gender as lens from which to analyze budgets at national, regional, and civic levels.

Understanding gender budgeting: 

Understanding gender budgeting A way and method of understanding how poor women and men benefit from government resources Are not separate budgets for women and men Involves gender-sensitive analysis of different impacts of budget priorities on men and women Focuses on reprioritization of policy and investment choices, rather than overall increase in government expenditure

Understanding Gender Budgeting: 

Understanding Gender Budgeting Budgets are not gender neutral. Budgets can either promote women’s equality or exacerbate women’s inequality — in other words, budgets can either increase income gaps and other forms of inequality between women and men, or they can lessen them. Budgets are one of the most influential policy documents governments have because without money a government cannot implement most other policies or programs. Gender budgets are however not simply about spending, they also examine government revenue — how a government gets the money it spends — and the implications of that for women and men.

Why Gender Budget: 

Why Gender Budget The most obvious outcome of gender budget initiatives is improving women’s economic equality. However, gender budgets are not simply about equality for women. Gender budgets can also improve effectiveness, efficiency, accountability, and transparency of government budgets. Gender budgets can reveal discrepancies between what a government says it is doing and the actual impact of government policies.

Why gender budgeting: 

Why gender budgeting Women and men access opportunities and resources differently Women and men have different roles ad responsibilities in the society Because, disparities persist in men’s and women’s access to and control of human, economic, political and social resources … gender-based inequality limits economic growth and diminishes the effectiveness of poverty reduction efforts.

Differences in Hours Worked Between Men and Women: 

Differences in Hours Worked Between Men and Women

Gender Composition of Mubende District Administration 2003: 

Gender Composition of Mubende District Administration 2003

Kokstad Budget 2002/03: 

Kokstad Budget 2002/03

Membership of Important District Committees and Boards By Gender 2003: 

Membership of Important District Committees and Boards By Gender 2003

Why Gender Budgeting: 

Why Gender Budgeting Gender budgets offer a practical way for governments to implement their obligations under international human rights agreements such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and the Beijing Platform for Action (PFA) which requires the, “integration of a gender perspective in budgetary decisions on policies and programmes, as well as the adequate financing of specific programmes for securing equality between women and men.” (PFA 345) and calls on governments to “facilitate, at appropriate levels, more open and transparent budget processes” (PFA 165i)

Why Gender Budgeting: 

Why Gender Budgeting Government budget’s functions are allocation of resources, distribution of income and wealth and stabilization of the economy. Government budget reflects the values of the country. In broadest sense, it shows total public expenditures (consumption, maintenance, investment) and revenues (tax money). Also, government different sectoral budgets show public expenditures and revenues for particular sectors (education, health, transport, agriculture, finance, defence, etc.). Budget is often done in gender blind economic framework with lack of socio-economic statistics, transparency and participation.

Why Gender Budgeting: 

Why Gender Budgeting Whole economics is study of how limited resources are distributed, allocated and used by people within the economy at the levels of global (world), macro (states), mezzo (sectors, communities), micro (households, firms, individuals). Any analysis of economy in feminist sense is grounded in an understanding of unequal power relations between women and men and about need to transform those power relations towards gender equality. Gender analysis in economics provides tools that can identify gender inequalities within economy; define gender objectives for economic policies; and develop gender indicators to monitor how gender objectives are met.

Why Gender Budgeting: 

Why Gender Budgeting Liberal feminist critiques focuses on the conditions of women within structures and institution and highlights ways in which women’s need and priorities are absent from descriptions of economy. Radical feminist critiques examines social structures and institutions and hierarchical gender relations; seeks to reduce existing disparities between women and men in income, resources and opportunities and challenges existing systems and institutions and underlying power relations.

Why Gender Budgeting: 

Why Gender Budgeting In both senses gender budgeting is only one strategy towards gender equality and should be a part of a broader strategy to address unequal power relations. Gender budget analysis is financial connection between economic development (economic growth, poverty reduction, investments and savings) and gender equity (female poverty and accesses to resources).

Analytical tools: 

Analytical tools Gender aware policy appraisal should analyze the policy objectives and shows are policies and their associated resources likely to reduce or increase gender inequalities. It is looking at the policy in relation with care economy and opportunity costs and follows its impact on gender lines.

Analytical tools: 

Analytical tools Gender disaggregated beneficiary assessments assume to find and to do the survey on the data in different studies to find out what are needs of women and children, their particular problems and gendered structure at the sectoral level (overview of sectoral inputs, outcomes and impact disaggregated to gender) always taking care economy and gender- differentiated cross-sectoral linkages into account.

Analytical tools: 

Analytical tools Gender-disaggregated public expenditure incidence analysis about budget itself to compare public expenditure for some programme with the distribution of expenditure between women and men, boys and girls to show who benefits (for example, percent of public spending for education for boys and girls).

Analytical tools: 

Analytical tools Gender disaggregated tax incidence analysis to examine both direct and indirect taxes paid by individuals and households, measuring gender difference in tax burden.

Analytical tools: 

Analytical tools Gender-disaggregated analysis of the impact of the budget on time use to examine the relation between the way time is used in the national budget and the households, taking into account care economy, time use studies, rural and urban differences and male and female children.

Analytical tools: 

Analytical tools Gender-aware medium term policy framework to incorporate gender into economic models and sectoral budgets Gender aware budget statement to ensure coordination through ministries of government, parliament and non-government organizations.

Analytical tools: 

Analytical tools Budget is the most important government political decision, because it assumes allocation and reallocation of the resources. Budgets are instruments for allocation of resources according to social priorities. Therefore budgets should follow the principles of efficiency and equity. Budget policy could follow patriarchal values of the society or it could make attempts to transform them towards the gender equality.

Indicators for Measuring Impact of expenditures on Women and Men: 

Indicators for Measuring Impact of expenditures on Women and Men Examples of indicators for measuring output of expenditures on men and women could be in: Health: # of pregnant women receiving pre-natal care # of children under 6 years receiving free healthcare Welfare: # of women and men receiving welfare grants (old age pension, disability) by type of grant # of women and men in old age homes Safety and Security: # of arrests for child abuse

What Can We Do?: 

What Can We Do? While experience has not produced a simple and uniform model for application in the production of gender sensitive budgets, lessons have been learned and a number of crucial ingredients have been identified: Transparency - In embarking upon a programme of reform aimed at equality proofing the national, regional or local budget it is vital that greater transparency of, and accountability for budget processes, becomes an established feature of the political process.

What Can We Do?: 

What Can We Do? Participation - Equally important is a commitment to engage in more participatory methods of governance and initiatives should take steps to incorporate as wide a range of views as possible, specifically including the views of those whose needs are often neglected in the policy design, implementation and evaluation process. Sustainability - The development and application of tools should build on existing budgetary mechanisms to ensure sustainability. A necessary first step in the process would be to establish how the budget is prepared and presented at national, regional or local level depending on the initiative.

What Can We Do?: 

What Can We Do? Long Term Strategy - The programme of reform should be viewed in the longer term with review and reporting mechanisms set in place to ensure continuous improvement. Country Ownership - As already mentioned, it is considered essential that countries develop their own specific set of procedures and case studies in implementing a gender sensitive approach to the national budget.


GENDER BUDGET INITIATIVE The Goal To advocate for gender sensitive national and district budgets that address the needs of poor women and men, girls and boys equitably and give full attention to other marginalised groups such as people with disabilities The objectives To gender analyse government policies and budget Train stakeholders in gender budget techniques Make women contribution to the economy feasible and their needs central to the budget debates To increase awareness of the importance gender budgeting


THE GENDER BUDGET STAKEHOLDERS The politicians who make laws The researchers who conduct the research The NGOs/CBOs who deal in economic advocacy The government technocrats who implements our recommendations The media who inform the public

Strategies used in our gender budget work: 

Strategies used in our gender budget work Capacity building Material development Training Manual Gender budget guidelines in the process Gender Budget M&E in the process Articles Gender budget analyses Sectoral budget analyses (education, health, Agriculture, finance and taxation) Review of government policy documents (the budget circular) Review of the budget act 2001 Radio and TV talk shows Collaboration with parliament The budget committee The parliamentary Budget Office Other committees of Parliament Networking Coordination of the gender Budget Coalition (GBC) Pioneer and chair of the East African gender Budget Network (EAGBN) Member of international working groups and Networks

Factors for a successful gender budget implementation.: 

Factors for a successful gender budget implementation. Political commitment Availability of gender disaggregated data Availability of expertise feminist economists Materials for reference Close collaboration among actors: governments, development partners, and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) Gender sensitive women and men.

Challenges faced : 

Challenges faced Lack of well qualified feminist economists Inadequate gender disaggregated data Opposition from economists. Constant economic reforms and programs SAPs, Privatization, Liberalization, PRSPs, MGDs Gender budget work is a slow and a challenging processes Defining the cope of gender budget work in order to get maximum impact Developing gender budget indicators High turnover of staff in government agencies How gender budget work begins and ends

Achievements so far : 

Achievements so far The Working for Water Programme in South Africa followed the government’s commitment to “integrate gender analysis into budgetary processes”. The Programme decided that 60 per cent of all wages should be paid to women, 67 per cent in rural areas and placed a special emphasis on flexible working time for single parents. Of the 42,000 jobs created in the first part of 1998, 55 per cent went to women.

Recommendations and lessons learnt: 

Recommendations and lessons learnt Limited capacity in gender and macroeconomics skills Working with all stakeholders Gender disaggregated data Slow process Contact persons from government Setting targets smaller Sustained gender awareness Close collaboration with ministry of finance

Gender Budgeting is Possible: 

Gender Budgeting is Possible Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development. Consumption Investment Cape Town: Energy Mismatch?

Gender Equality is Possible! It Starts with YOU: 

Gender Equality is Possible! It Starts with YOU

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