Mode/purpose: Mode/purpose Description
What’s it like? Picture the setting, the scene
A trip made, key phases, recall the event
3. Exposition: 3. Exposition Discussion, explain the nature, the idea, the theme; motivation, plans, tools, procedures
Process (uses chronology); the plot (characters and conflicts)
exposition, complication, suspense, resolution/dènouement
Cause and effect (What, how, why)
Comparison and contrast
Definition and explanation
4. Argument: 4. Argument A problem and a number of conflicting ways to solve it
Opinions, reasoned (for and against)
Thesis, antithesis, synthesis
Persuasive or explanatory (or both?)
Coherence and cohesion: Coherence and cohesion I bought a Ford. The car in which President Wilson rode down the Champs Elyses was black. Black English has been widely discussed. The discussions between the presidents ended last week. A week has seven days. Every day I feed my cat. Cats have four legs. The cat is on the mat. Mat has three letters. Coherence: Coherence In order to be understood,
A text must be coherent
Signalling, coherent linking of ideas
Linking of utterances cohesion
chunks are linked
The relationships which link the meanings of utterances in a discourse
Topic and development: Topic and development it is the general aboutness, i.e., the topic development which provides a text with necessary integrity; even in the absence of overt links
Watford Junction Slide7: readers or listeners make sense of a text by following the connections between its parts, that is, by looking for macro patterns and clause relations.
B: I’m in the bath
Jabberwocky jabberwock : jabberwock ’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. “Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!” Slide9: He took his vorpal sword in hand: Long time the manxome foe he sought— So rested he by the Tumtum tree, And stood awhile in thought. And, as in uffish thought he stood, The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame, Came whiffling through the tulgey wood, And burbled as it came! One, two! One, two! And through and through The vorpal blade went snicker-snack! He left it dead, and with its head He went galumphing back.
Slide10: “And, hast thou slain the Jabberwock? Come to my arms, my beamish boy! O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!” He chortled in his joy. ’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe.
By Lewis Caroll
Information chunks are linked: Information chunks are linked Jabbawock in a coherent order?…
Superordinate Topic: What text is about
Topic: main participants
Subordinate topic: the details, relationships
Who did what to whom
Could be Argumentative text structure: Could be Argumentative text structure Situation (introduces background material)
Problem (the statement of the undesirable condition of things (claim, justification)
Solution (statement of the desirable condition, induction)
Evaluation (implementation) Rhetorical purpose:: Rhetorical purpose: Jabberwock is
a description of a situation?
narration of events?
A reasoned exposition of problem/solution?
A well-argued account for/against?
Or a mixture?
Situation (introduces background material): Situation (introduces background material) ’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. Problem (the statement of the undesirable condition of things (claim, justification): Problem (the statement of the undesirable condition of things (claim, justification) “Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!” . Situation (introduces background material): . Situation (introduces background material) He took his vorpal sword in hand: Long time the manxome foe he sought— So rested he by the Tumtum tree, And stood awhile in thought And, as in uffish thought he stood, The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame, Came whiffling through the tulgey wood, And burbled as it came! Solution: Solution One, two! One, two! And through and through The vorpal blade went snicker-snack! He left it dead, and with its head He went galumphing back Evaluation: Evaluation “And, hast thou slain the Jabberwock? Come to my arms, my beamish boy! O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!” He chortled in his joy.
’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. Slide19: Coherence itself is the product of two factors — paragraph unity and sentence cohesion.
Paragraph unity: Paragraph unity must have a single generalization that serves as the focus of attention
a topic sentence.
every other sentence
contains more specific information than the topic sentence and
maintains the same focus of attention as the topic sentence.
Check your essays. Slide21: There are certain patterns by which texts are typically sequenced and typical ways that one clause, sentence, or part of a text is interpreted in relation to another:
Interpreting meaning: Interpreting meaning What is the underlying link between the 2 sentences? There is no formal cohesive signpost
“Interest rates on mortgages have risen to over 10%. The number of house sales is on a downturn.”
Cause-consequence 5 basic clause relations: 5 basic clause relations Matching relation:
Matching relation: compare:
. Matching relation: compare What is true of X is true of Y
Mortgage rates fluctuated throughout the year in UK This was seen in New Zealand and Australia also Matching: Contrast: Matching: Contrast
What is true of X is not true of Y
People with large mortgages will feel the effect immediately. Those with small mortgages will experience little effect in the short term.
Matching: Hypothetical–real: Matching: Hypothetical–real
X is not true; Y is true
Many believe that house ownership is a secure form of investment. In fact, it is little more secure than other forms of investment.
Logical sequence:Cause—consequence: Logical sequence: Cause—consequence
Y is the consequence of X
Mortgage rates are expected to remain high throughout the year and the number of new mortgages is expected to drop to pre-1999 figures.
Logical sequence:Instrument—achievement: Logical sequence: Instrument—achievement By doing X, Y occurs
Take out a 'fast-track' repayment scheme. This way you can greatly reduce the amount of interest you pay to the bank.
Macro patterns and clause relations.
Development of an idea ..
Summary of Coherence … Cohesion: Cohesion The grammatical and lexical relationships between the different elements of the text.
Sentence cohesion: Sentence cohesion I bought a Ford. The car in which President Wilson rode down the Champs Elyses was black. Black English has been widely discussed. The discussions between the presidents ended last week. A week has seven days. Every day I feed my cat. Cats have four legs. The cat is on the mat. Mat has three letters.
To achieve cohesion…: To achieve cohesion…
Whole v part relations
repetition: repetition Same unit repetition
Writers do not hesitate. Writers communicate thoughts
Writers do not hesitate. They write down their thoughts English repetition: English repetition In addition, European investors financed much of America’s boom and have since suffered big losses. As the dollar falls, those losses will swell.
In Italian: explicit relative clause introduced by che:
Inoltre, gli europei hanno finanziato gran parte del boom ameriano, soffrendo notevoli perdite, che sono aumentate e aumenteranno con la caduta del dollaro Slide35: In other words, Japan’s economy continues to shrink … may also damage Japan’s recovery
In altre parole, l’economia del Giappone continua a contrarsi in termini nominali,.-..potrebbe danneggiare la ripresa del paese nipponico Partial repetition: Partial repetition Starting with policy, the Bank of England is under a legal obligation to pursue an activist approach…the Bank treats economic weakness and …
Italian superordinate (hypernym) and ellipsis.
Per quanto riguarda la politica, la banca d’Inghilterra ha l’obbligo legale di di un approccio attivo…l’istituto considera una minaccia sia la debolezza economica Different unit repetition: Different unit repetition Synonymy
It’s healthy to exercise every day. After working out at the fitness centre I feel like a new man Simple
They’ve built several bridges this year. This construction company is extremely efficient Derived
The teacher laughed. I knew Kitty was a cheerful person
Opposites/Antynomy: Opposites/Antynomy Simple
Now Mildred hates George. Well , you can’t love all the time
that’s the top and bottom of it
What Mildred now feels is hatred but she used to like him
Pro forms Cohesive tie: Pro forms Cohesive tie Substitution
anaphoric: George likes Mildred, and she likes him
cataphoric: That’s the beautiful Mildred
Do you like her? No
(I don’t like her)
(Why don’t you like her?)
Whole v part relations: Whole v part relations Tropes/figures of speech – words used in other than literal meaning are based on similarity
Similarity: the two referents physically resemble one another in some way:
Face and hands (part of clock) look like
Part of Human face (whole)
Chip (part of potato) looks like part of
of wood (whole)
Similarity - Simile: Similarity - Simile Direct comparison with like/ as
Quiet as a mouse
Mad as a hatter
Implied comparison, using a word to mean something similar to literal meaning
Pig! Worm! Monster! Angel! Othello: Emilia : Othello: Emilia Tis not a year or two but show us a man,
they are all stomachs and we all but food;
They eat us hungerly, and when they are full,
They belch us. (iii, iv)
• word: stomach
• object: men
Part/whole: Contiguity: Part/whole: Contiguity Not “resemblance” but actual relation in real world: spatial,
tigers are (part of) animals
A mother has many mouths (of children) to feed
All hands (of the people) on deck
Boot (attached to foot, to kick with) someone out of the office
10 Downing Street (where the PM lives) issued a statement Hyponomy: Hyponomy Not all birds sing – but cuckoos do
the tiger is an endangered animal birds cuckoo animal tiger includes hypernym hyponym Slide45: Meronymy actual part-whole relations
Synedoche: part to describe much bigger entity
Metonymy: figurative entity, attribute Meronymy : Meronymy actual part/whole:
Meronym actual relation, pure lexical tie:
knob – door
I tried the door, but couldn’t turn the knob
I can’t use my hands. I’ve hurt my fingers.
Synedoche: Synedoche Part INSTEAD OF/to describe whole
All hands on deck
Very nice motor. How does she handle?
Many mouths to feed
Figurative: attribute, proximity: Figurative: attribute, proximity
Metonym figurative attribute, physical proximity
The crown refering to the monarch (she wears it)
At Number 10 the news was bad. The prime minister looked shocked. (He lives there)