Coherence 1

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By: thuyha (57 month(s) ago)

rather clear but could short down to get attention

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Mode/purpose: 

Mode/purpose Description What’s it like? Picture the setting, the scene Narration A trip made, key phases, recall the event Chronological (flashback/forward)

3. Exposition: 

3. Exposition Discussion, explain the nature, the idea, the theme; motivation, plans, tools, procedures Process (uses chronology); the plot (characters and conflicts) exposition, complication, suspense, resolution/dènouement Cause and effect (What, how, why) Comparison and contrast Definition and explanation

4. Argument: 

4. Argument A problem and a number of conflicting ways to solve it Opinions, reasoned (for and against) Thesis, antithesis, synthesis Persuasive or explanatory (or both?)

Coherence and cohesion: 

Coherence and cohesion I bought a Ford. The car in which President Wilson rode down the Champs Elyses was black. Black English has been widely discussed. The discussions between the presidents ended last week. A week has seven days. Every day I feed my cat. Cats have four legs. The cat is on the mat. Mat has three letters.

Coherence: 

Coherence In order to be understood, A text must be coherent Signalling, coherent linking of ideas Linking of utterances cohesion chunks are linked Coherence: The relationships which link the meanings of utterances in a discourse .

Topic and development: 

Topic and development it is the general aboutness, i.e., the topic development which provides a text with necessary integrity; even in the absence of overt links Watford Junction

Slide7: 

readers or listeners make sense of a text by following the connections between its parts, that is, by looking for macro patterns and clause relations. A: Phone!! B: I’m in the bath Watford Junction Jabberwocky

jabberwock : 

jabberwock ’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. “Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!”

Slide9: 

He took his vorpal sword in hand: Long time the manxome foe he sought— So rested he by the Tumtum tree, And stood awhile in thought. And, as in uffish thought he stood, The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame, Came whiffling through the tulgey wood, And burbled as it came! One, two! One, two! And through and through The vorpal blade went snicker-snack! He left it dead, and with its head He went galumphing back.

Slide10: 

“And, hast thou slain the Jabberwock? Come to my arms, my beamish boy! O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!” He chortled in his joy. ’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. By Lewis Caroll

Information chunks are linked: 

Information chunks are linked Jabbawock in a coherent order?… Superordinate Topic: What text is about Topic: main participants Subordinate topic: the details, relationships Who did what to whom

Could be Argumentative text structure: 

Could be Argumentative text structure Situation (introduces background material) Problem (the statement of the undesirable condition of things (claim, justification) Solution (statement of the desirable condition, induction) Evaluation (implementation)

Rhetorical purpose:: 

Rhetorical purpose: Jabberwock is a description of a situation? narration of events? A reasoned exposition of problem/solution? A well-argued account for/against? Or a mixture?

Situation (introduces background material) : 

Situation (introduces background material) ’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe.

Problem (the statement of the undesirable condition of things (claim, justification) : 

Problem (the statement of the undesirable condition of things (claim, justification) “Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!”

. Situation (introduces background material): 

. Situation (introduces background material) He took his vorpal sword in hand: Long time the manxome foe he sought— So rested he by the Tumtum tree, And stood awhile in thought And, as in uffish thought he stood, The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame, Came whiffling through the tulgey wood, And burbled as it came!

Solution: 

Solution One, two! One, two! And through and through The vorpal blade went snicker-snack! He left it dead, and with its head He went galumphing back

Evaluation: 

Evaluation “And, hast thou slain the Jabberwock? Come to my arms, my beamish boy! O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!” He chortled in his joy. ’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe.

Slide19: 

Coherence itself is the product of two factors — paragraph unity and sentence cohesion.

Paragraph unity: 

Paragraph unity must have a single generalization that serves as the focus of attention a topic sentence. every other sentence contains more specific information than the topic sentence and maintains the same focus of attention as the topic sentence. Check your essays.

Slide21: 

There are certain patterns by which texts are typically sequenced and typical ways that one clause, sentence, or part of a text is interpreted in relation to another:

Interpreting meaning: 

Interpreting meaning What is the underlying link between the 2 sentences? There is no formal cohesive signpost “Interest rates on mortgages have risen to over 10%. The number of house sales is on a downturn.” Cause-consequence

5 basic clause relations: 

5 basic clause relations Matching relation: Compare Contrast Hypothetical–real Logical Sequence Cause-consequence Instrument-Achievement

Matching relation: compare: 

. Matching relation: compare What is true of X is true of Y Mortgage rates fluctuated throughout the year in UK This was seen in New Zealand and Australia also

Matching: Contrast: 

Matching: Contrast What is true of X is not true of Y People with large mortgages will feel the effect immediately. Those with small mortgages will experience little effect in the short term.

Matching: Hypothetical–real: 

Matching: Hypothetical–real X is not true; Y is true Many believe that house ownership is a secure form of investment. In fact, it is little more secure than other forms of investment.

Logical sequence: Cause—consequence: 

Logical sequence: Cause—consequence Y is the consequence of X Mortgage rates are expected to remain high throughout the year and the number of new mortgages is expected to drop to pre-1999 figures.

Logical sequence: Instrument—achievement : 

Logical sequence: Instrument—achievement By doing X, Y occurs Take out a 'fast-track' repayment scheme. This way you can greatly reduce the amount of interest you pay to the bank.

Slide29: 

Coherence Macro patterns and clause relations. Development of an idea .. The plot The meaning Cohesion … Summary of Coherence …

Cohesion: 

Cohesion The grammatical and lexical relationships between the different elements of the text.

Sentence cohesion: 

Sentence cohesion I bought a Ford. The car in which President Wilson rode down the Champs Elyses was black. Black English has been widely discussed. The discussions between the presidents ended last week. A week has seven days. Every day I feed my cat. Cats have four legs. The cat is on the mat. Mat has three letters.

To achieve cohesion…: 

To achieve cohesion… Repetition. Synonymy. Antonymy. Pro-forms. Whole v part relations Transitions. Enumeration.

repetition: 

repetition Same unit repetition Simple Writers do not hesitate. Writers communicate thoughts Derived Writers do not hesitate. They write down their thoughts

English repetition: 

English repetition In addition, European investors financed much of America’s boom and have since suffered big losses. As the dollar falls, those losses will swell. In Italian: explicit relative clause introduced by che: Inoltre, gli europei hanno finanziato gran parte del boom ameriano, soffrendo notevoli perdite, che sono aumentate e aumenteranno con la caduta del dollaro

Slide35: 

In other words, Japan’s economy continues to shrink … may also damage Japan’s recovery Italian paraphrase In altre parole, l’economia del Giappone continua a contrarsi in termini nominali,.-..potrebbe danneggiare la ripresa del paese nipponico

Partial repetition: 

Partial repetition Starting with policy, the Bank of England is under a legal obligation to pursue an activist approach…the Bank treats economic weakness and … Italian superordinate (hypernym) and ellipsis. Per quanto riguarda la politica, la banca d’Inghilterra ha l’obbligo legale di di un approccio attivo…l’istituto considera una minaccia sia la debolezza economica

Different unit repetition: 

Different unit repetition Synonymy It’s healthy to exercise every day. After working out at the fitness centre I feel like a new man Simple They’ve built several bridges this year. This construction company is extremely efficient Derived Instantial relations The teacher laughed. I knew Kitty was a cheerful person

Opposites/Antynomy: 

Opposites/Antynomy Simple Now Mildred hates George. Well , you can’t love all the time that’s the top and bottom of it Derived What Mildred now feels is hatred but she used to like him

Pro forms Cohesive tie: 

Pro forms Cohesive tie Substitution Reference anaphoric: George likes Mildred, and she likes him cataphoric: That’s the beautiful Mildred ellipsis… Do you like her? No (I don’t like her) Why not? (Why don’t you like her?)

Whole v part relations: 

Whole v part relations Tropes/figures of speech – words used in other than literal meaning are based on similarity Similarity: the two referents physically resemble one another in some way: Face and hands (part of clock) look like Part of Human face (whole) Chip (part of potato) looks like part of of wood (whole)

Similarity - Simile: 

Similarity - Simile Direct comparison with like/ as Quiet as a mouse Mad as a hatter Metaphor Implied comparison, using a word to mean something similar to literal meaning Mousy smile Pig! Worm! Monster! Angel!

Othello: Emilia : 

Othello: Emilia Tis not a year or two but show us a man, they are all stomachs and we all but food; They eat us hungerly, and when they are full, They belch us. (iii, iv) • word: stomach • object: men

Part/whole: Contiguity: 

Part/whole: Contiguity Not “resemblance” but actual relation in real world: spatial, tigers are (part of) animals A mother has many mouths (of children) to feed All hands (of the people) on deck Boot (attached to foot, to kick with) someone out of the office 10 Downing Street (where the PM lives) issued a statement

Hyponomy: 

Hyponomy Not all birds sing – but cuckoos do the tiger is an endangered animal birds cuckoo animal tiger includes hypernym hyponym

Slide45: 

Meronymy actual part-whole relations Synedoche: part to describe much bigger entity Metonymy: figurative entity, attribute

Meronymy : 

Meronymy actual part/whole: Meronym actual relation, pure lexical tie: knob – door I tried the door, but couldn’t turn the knob I can’t use my hands. I’ve hurt my fingers.

Synedoche: 

Synedoche Part INSTEAD OF/to describe whole All hands on deck Very nice motor. How does she handle? Many mouths to feed

Figurative: attribute, proximity: 

Figurative: attribute, proximity Metonym figurative attribute, physical proximity The crown refering to the monarch (she wears it) At Number 10 the news was bad. The prime minister looked shocked. (He lives there)