Database Cycle


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Database Development Cycle:

Database Development Cycle Track 3: Managing Information Using Database


Objectives Database planning System Definition Requirements collection and analysis Database design DBMS selection Application design Prototyping Implementation Data Conversion and loading Testing Operational Maintenance

Life Cycle:

Database Planning Systems Definition Requirements Collection and analysis Database Design DBMS Selection Application Design Implementation Data Conversion and loading Testing Evaluation & Maintenance Prototyping Life Cycle Source: http://www.cs/

Database Planning:

Database Planning Current systems evaluation Development of Standards Technological feasability Operational feasability Economical feasability

Requirements Collection and Analysis:

Requirements Collection and Analysis identifying management information requirements, determining information requirements by functional area, and establishing hardware and software requirements Systems definition Data dictionary Metadata

Database Design:

Database Design Conceptual design Logical design Physical design

DBMS Selection:

DBMS Selection Costs Features and Tools Underlying model Portability DBMS hardware requirements

Application design:

Application design Application program design User Interface design


Prototyping Develop the working model Build the prototype Use and Test the prototype Review the prototype Decision Abandon application Implement Application Redevelop Application Begin new prototype


Implementation The physical realisation of the database and application designs the detailed model is converted to the appropriate implementation model, the data dictionary is built, the database is populated, application programs are developed and users are trained

Data Conversion and Loading & Testing:

Data Conversion and Loading & Testing Transferring any existing data into the new database and converting any existing applications to run on the new database Finding errors

Database Evaluation:

Database Evaluation Interviewing and polling users to determine whether any data needs are unmet.

Operational maintenance:

Operational maintenance preventive maintenance (backup) corrective maintenance (recovery)1 adaptive maintenance assignment of access regular monitoring & periodical check up

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Data & Database administration Data administration is the management of the data resources Database administration is the management of physical realisation of the database application

Database design methodology:

Database design methodology A structured approach that uses procedures, techniques, tools, and documentation aids to support and facilitate the process of design. Conceptual database design Logical database design Physical database design

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Entity, Attribute, Relationship Client Name Address Postcode Passport Passport No Exp.Data Itinerary Date City Contact Entity Attribute Relationship

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Conceptual Design Phase

Basic relationships:

Basic relationships One-to-One One-to-many Many to many HUSBAND WIFE is married to is married to TRACK PARTICIPANTS belongs to has Track is helds in holds Trainer

Logical design phase:

Logical design phase 1. REFINE THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL Conceptual E.A.R Model Refined Conceptual Model 2.APPLY THE RULES OF NORMALIZATION Logical Data Model

Refining the Conceptual model:

Refining the Conceptual model Refine the attributes example: Synonyms Hononyms

Physical Database Design:

Physical Database Design Logical Data Model Logical Process Model TR Track 01 Country Database creation CREATE DATABASE CREATE TABLE LOAD Physical Implementation Process

Critical Success Factors in Database Design:

Critical Success Factors in Database Design Work interactively with the users as much as possible. Follow a structured methodology throughout the data modelling process. Incorporate structural and integrity considerations into the data models. Combine conceptualisation, normalisation, and transaction validation techniques into the data modelling methodology.

Exercise (Conceptual design):

Exercise (Conceptual design) List 1 List 2 Track No: 1 Track name: Managing information using Database Participant code Participant name Age Position Country Address Country code Country name Participant code Participant name Track name Create a conceptual E.A.R model of the database for the following lists. (List up the necessary DATA ITEMS, set up ENTITIES and their ATTRIBUTES, and identify the relationship among the entities ) List 1 is the list of participants’ information by track List 2 is the list of participants’ information by countries


Answer Zero one or many Just one One or many Just one

Exercise: Primary and Foreign Key:

Exercise: Primary and Foreign Key Participant code Participant name Age Position Address Country code Country name Country code Track name Track code Participant code Please identify primary and foreign key. Primary key Foreign key

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Answer Participant code Participant name Age Position Address Country code Country name Country code Track name Track code Participant code

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