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Schultheis North Carolina State University Department of Horticultural Science Raleigh, North Carolina firstname.lastname@example.orgTable of Contents: Table of Contents Introduction Seed Trays Soil Mixes Tray Preparation Seeding Germination Chambers Greenhouse GrowingIntroduction: Introduction Triploid (seedless) watermelon seed have more exact growing requirements than diploid (seeded) watermelon Failure to provide optimum growing practices can result in: reduced seed germination uneven seed germination and transplant size leggy/elongated transplants weaker plants resulting in yield reduction Slide4: Transplant production requirements are more precise with seedless watermelons than seeded watermelons. Note the reduced plant emergence and variable plant size in the transplant tray with a seedless variety (right) compared with the more complete uniform plant size in the transplant tray with a seeded variety (left) 5 days after sowing. Diploid or seeded cultivar Triploid or seedless cultivarSeed Trays: Seed Trays Choose trays that fit your particular set up and are economically feasible for your operation Use square cells when ever possible Make sure cell depth is at least 2” Remember, the smaller the cell diameter, the more attention to plant production is needed! Timely response to plant need is critical!!! Slide6: Choose trays that fit your particular set up and are economically feasible for your operationSlide7: Styrofoam “Speedling” grow tray - clean and re-use No. 242 cell tray Tray Dimensions: 13.5” x 26.5” Cell Dimensions: 2” Deep 1” squareSlide8: Styrofoam “Speedling” grow trays – for re-use Regardless of tray type, it is critical that the tray is disinfected/ treated with chloroxSlide9: Rigid plastic tray suitable for re-use after sterilization Re-usable Plastic Tray Tray Dimensions: 13.5” x 26.5” Cell Dimensions: 2” Deep 1.25” squareSlide10: TLC #128 tray Tray Dimensions: 11” x 21.5” Cell Dimensions 2” Depth 1.19” SquareSlide11: Use square cells when ever possible Round cells cause root girdlingSlide12: Remember, the smaller the cell diameter, the more attention to overall plant needs must be considered!! #288 Tray - Tray dimension 11” x 21.5” cell size -1.5” deep X .81” squareSoil Mixes: Soil Mixes Choose as coarse a mix as possible for the tray chosen. (Examples are: Metro-Mix 300, Fafard Professional No 2, Pro-Mix BX) Do not use a plug mix! -Plug mixes are too fine. -A fine mix makes it easy to over water making less oxygen available to the rootsSlide14: Soil mixes come in all makes and sizesSlide15: Soil mix ingredients may vary greatly in their contentTray Preparation: Tray Preparation 1. Fill trays 24 hours before seeding. 2. Wet trays to field capacity. 3. Let trays stand 24 hours before seeding to drain excess water. 4. If warm water is not available, place trays in area where temperatures of the mix are at least 850F before seeding.Slide17: Fill trays 24 hours before seedingSlide18: Wet trays to field capacity and let stand 24 hours before seeding to drain excess waterSlide19: If warm water is not available, place trays in area where soil mix temperature reaches at least 850F before seedingSeeding: Seeding 1. Place seeds at least one inch deep, preferably with the radicle end pointed up. 2. Cover tray with warm, moist mix or pinch the area closed around the seed. 3. DO NOT ADD WATER TO THE MOISTENED MIX! 4. Place trays back in the warm germination room ASAP!Seeding: Seeding 5. Stacking trays OK as long as air movement around trays is provided. 6. Remove trays after 48 hours (NOT 49!) - seed examination not necessary. (more than 48 hours will cause excessive hypocotyl growth). **If seedlings have visibly started to emerge you’re too late! Seeding: Seeding Seeders vary in shape, size, and capabilitiesSlide23: Place seeds at least one inch deep Radicle end pointed up if possible Slide24: Cover tray with warm, moist mix or pinch the area closed around the seedSlide25: DO NOT ADD WATER TO THE MOISTENED MIX AFTER SEEDING!Slide26: Place seeded trays back in the warm germination room Stacking trays is permissible with air movement around them Air circulation Air circulationSlide28: Germination Chambers No single perfect design Temperature and humidity control Moisture is maintained by a fog system Shelves to place the trays Best temperature control is by hot water pipes along baseboardsSlide30: “Home-made” germination chamber Temperature Controls Insulated SidewallsSlide31: Commercial vegetable cooler converted to germ room Heater and controlsSlide32: Uniform humidity controls is a must no matter what the size of chamber chosen!Germination Conditions: Germination Conditions Seed Germination Takes Place In Two Stages A. When The Root Emerges (Germ Rooms Only) B. When The Hook Appears (Greenhouse Only) Uniform Soil Temperature In Germ Room Must Be Maintained A. Seedless Need 850FGermination Conditions: Germination Conditions Germination Dependent On Moisture A. Too Much Inhibits Oxygen B. Too Little Prevents Seed Swell Apply A Cover Of Vermiculite, Plug Media, Sand, PerliteSlide35: Excellent seed germination after 48 hours in the germination room at 85oFSlide36: Seed germination beyond 48 hours at 85oF to 90oF Root elongation and initiation of root hairsSlide37: Seedling emerging through soil mixGreenhouse Growing: Greenhouse Growing 1. After 48 hours, move trays to the greenhouse. 2. Temperatures. -Set night temperature at 650F. -Cooling set to come on at 70-750F. -Too warm setting will cause hypocotyl stretching. 3. Do not water until signs of seed emergence appear. - Excess water will also cause hypocotyl stretching.Greenhouse: Greenhouse 4. Do not fertilize before appearance of first true leaf. (NOT the cotyledon leaf!) 5. At first true leaf - begin fertilization with a continuous feed of 50 ppm N or a 100 ppm twice per month. 6. Slow growing = quality transplants! 7. Four to six weeks needed from seeding to transplant.Slide40: Remove trays from germ room after 48 hours to the greenhouse!Slide41: Greenhouse Temperatures 1. Set night temperature at 650F. 2. Cooling set to come on at 70-750F. 3.Too warm setting will cause hypocotyl stretchingSlide42: DO NOT ADD WATER TO THE MOISTENED MIX UNTIL THE SEEDS HAVE FULLY EMERGED!Slide43: If seedlings have started to emerge in the germ room you’re too late! Hypocotyl extensionSlide44: Do not water until signs of seed emergence appear! Seed coat adherence caused by: Seed orientation Too fine a mixSlide45: Excess water and high temperatures in the greenhouse will also cause hypocotyl stretching!Slide46: Seedlings showing elongated hypocotyl growth caused by: 1. Over-watering 2. Temperatures above 75oF. Seedlings showing short hypocotyl growth caused by: 1. Controlled watering 2. Temperatures at 75oF or below.Slide47: Do not fertilize before appearance of first true leaf. NOT the cotyledon leaf! First true leaf.Slide48: At first true leaf - maintain fertilization with a continuous feed of 25 ppm N or 100 ppm twice per monthSlide49: Well formed root systems of watermelon transplants. Slow growing = quality transplants! Four to six weeks to quality transplants!Slide50: GOOD GROWING! You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.