Columbia ch10

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Three Election Models Prospective (Responsible Party) Voting a. Voters—interested in & capable of deciding what government will do in the future b. Each party—cohesive & united c. Winning party, in office—do exactly what it said it would do


Three Election Models Electoral Competition Voting Model a. Unified parties take most popular positions in competing for votes b. Take positions that appeal to median voter c. Winning party enacts policies most voters want—democracy via competition


Three Election Models The Retrospective Model a. Voters judge how well “The Ins” have done and decide if they want them to continue in office b. Voters are purely retrospective in vision and vote to reward or punish “The Ins” c. Very simplistic; requires little of voters


The Nature of U. S. Elections More than any other democratic country Separate and independent of one another Fill fixed terms Fixed dates First past the post (plurality vs. majority)


Bully!!! I’m Theodore Roosevelt. To be elected, one must first be nominated. People are nominated five different ways. I’m not scowling for no reason. My tightie whities are too tightie. Self-announcement—most often used at the local level (city council, school board, etc.) Caucus—mostly used in the past; though in some states, like Iowa, caucuses are used to nominate candidates for president.


Convention—used in some states, but primarily used by the major parties to formally nominate presidential and vice-presidential candidates, who are actually chosen during primary elections and caucuses in the states beforehand. Petition—mostly used in special elections, such as how Californians decided to recall Governor Gray Davis. Primary election—the most common way for candidates to gain their party’s nomination for political office.


Hello. I’m Woodrow Wilson, and the people elected me president in 1912 and 1916. Nominations for the House and Senate and state and local offices occur through direct primaries. What are those? A direct primary is a primary election in which the winner is named the party’s nominee for the general election.


Now remember, primary elections for president are not direct primaries; again, the states have primary elections at different times, between February and June. Then, each party has a national convention in which state delegates cast votes for president based on their parties’ results in their states’ primaries.


Good morning, students. I am Richard M. Nixon, and the people elected me president in 1968 and 1972. Each state selects the type of primary election it will hold.


Who can define: closed primary, open primary, runoff primary and nonpartisan primary? Closed primary: members of a political party are permitted to vote only for candidates from their party. Most states have open primaries: they allow a registered voter to participate in either the Republican or Democratic nomination process but by choosing a party once he or she has entered the voting booth.


Sometimes in a primary, no candidate receives a majority of the votes. In those instances, some states sponsor runoff primaries. In runoff primaries, voters choose between the top vote recipients from the first election. The winner represents the party in the general election. In nonpartisan primaries—usually at the city and county level--all candidates appear on the same ballot.


I’m sure you students remember me. George H. W. Bush, elected president by the American people in 1988. Once a candidate is nominated—and certainly before as well—he or she engages in the campaign for election. Campaigns include candidates going door-to- door, campaign workers sending out literature about candidates and making phone calls, and people placing posters, called placards on their property.


Campaigns also include candidate speeches, large banners (above), candidate buttons (below), and candidate debates (left, 2000). Campaigns are very tiring for the candidates and very expensive—in 1996, Bill Clinton & Bob Dole spent $142 Mil.


Only about 25% of the American public are what political scientists call The Attentive Public. Know & understand how government works Vote regularly Read editorials and political articles Watch news shows & informational TV Know issues and talk politics On the opposite side, 35% of Americans have little to no interest in politics


And 40% of Americans are part-time citizens: vote sometimes, rarely read news stories, rarely discuss politics Hello, students. I am Dwight Eisenhower, a former General of the Armies, and the American people elected me president in 1952 & 1956. I’d like to talk to you about voter turnout.


As a person who fought for my country and sent many young men to die for their country, I am disgusted about the trends in American voter turnout since World War II. Voter turnout: General elections—average: 56% (1992: 55%; 1996: 49%) Primary elections—average: 25-32% Non-presidential general elections-- average: 36% (1/3 Senate, 1/3 governors; all members of the House)


So in terms of general elections, on the average over 90 million people eligible to vote do not do so. It is therefore safe to say that as a nation we tend to be very apathetic when it comes to political participation.


Oh, Mr. President and dear brother, you are so wrong. People do vote a lot in our country. Just look. ARRRRRGH!!! My Aunt Simone is hecka ugly!!!


Simone! Get real, although Americans do tend to care more about inane TV shows than they do about their government. But let’s get back to our topic. And sadly, the elections with the lowest turnout of all are elections that just focus on local offices and issues. A few years ago, when Blacks first got to vote in South Africa, almost 90% of eligible voters there voted, and many had to stand in line over 12 hours to cast their ballots.


Mr. President and Colonel Simoncini, your points are true. That is why the Cal ee for nee ah (California) recall election last year was so special; about 64% of the electorate—those people eligible to vote—voted in that election. In some counties, the turnout was more than 80% of those registered to vote—very unusual and very high.


Austria—91% Belgium—93% Germany—84% Italy—91% I am Alexis de Tocqueville, a Frenchman who observed American politics in the 1830s. Today in Europe, some countries experience between 80% and 90% turnout—or more--in almost all of their elections. But remember, most European elections are conducted on Sundays. Do you think American turnout would increase if you voted on Sundays?


I am John F. Kennedy, and the American people elected me president in 1960. What determines what people make up the Attentive Public? Zzzzzzz I wish this guy would finish up—I gotta go. The more education a person has, the more likely that person is to vote.


The higher a person’s income, the more likely that person is to vote. The older a person is, the more likely that person is to vote. Those with higher status careers or occupations are more likely to vote. Poor, young, less-educated people, African- Americans and Hispanic-Americans tend to be underrepresented in voting.


My fellow Americans, I am Lyndon Johnson and the American people elected me as president in 1964. In addition to low voting statistics, very few people participate in the American political process. Less than 25% of Americans try to influence how others vote. Only 5% of Americans work for a candidate or donate money to candidates


Only 25% of America’s taxpayers designate $3.00 on their Federal Income Tax returns to be sent to the Presidential Campaign Fund. I am Senator Robert Byrd from West Virginia. Every 6 years since 1958 the people of West Virginia have elected me to the United Stated Senate—I am now the longest serving member of the Senate. Here are some more facts.


Few Americans write letters to elected officials; even less attend party meetings or participate in protest marches. Politically, people are apathetic—they tend not to care. I am Andrew Jackson and the American people elected me president in 1828 and 1832. One of the reasons I was elected was because I had candidate appeal. Let’s discuss that issue.


But, y’all remember, the key to the American political system is the electoral process. So let’s talk about that for awhile. Hey, and who better to do that than my daddy. Hey Daddy, you’re on!


We have primary elections and general elections. Who can tell me what each of those types of elections are? My daddy really knows how to ask those zinger questions.


Mr. President, Governor Arnold knows that one. Primary Elections are elections for nominating a party’s candidate for office—here in Cal e for nee ah (translation--California) we have ours in March. Democrats vote for Democrats and Republicans vote for Republicans.


Mr. President, it’s Al again. We all know that I lost in the 2000 general election to your son. So the general election is one in which the voters actually choose their representatives and leaders. The general election is always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November, and for President it’s in the leap year. Yeah, and it made me leap right out of public life.


Candidate appeal means how a candidate looks, responds to issues and acts. For example, in the 1960 election campaign the candidates, John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon held our nation’s first televised presidential debate. Most experts said that Nixon knew the issues better, but Kennedy “looked more presidential.” Kennedy therefore won the debate and, later, the election.


Presidential candidates with appeal: Eisenhower Reagan Kennedy Clinton Eisenhower: popular as a general; personal charm; Reagan: strength and leadership; Kennedy: youth, exuberance, wit; Clinton: appealed to youth and looked like Kennedy


Presidential candidates lacking appeal Carter Ford McGovern Dewey Carter: wishy-washy; Ford: bumbler; McGovern: too liberal; Dewey: Catholic and a moustache


Advantages of incumbency: name recognition, franking privileges (free postage), and political “war chests”—built-up contributions from people, organizations and Political Action Committees (PAC)—committees focusing on particular issues that back political candidates. Most congressmen who run for re-election win. I am Warren G. Harding and the American people elected me president in 1920. In elections, particularly congressional elections, incumbents tend to have advantages such as those that follow.


Good morning, students. I am Franklin D. Roosevelt and the American people elected me president in 1932, 1936, 1940 and 1944. I was very specific during my campaigns about what I would do. But today, most politicians are very vague in what they promise they will do if elected.


In the 1968 presidential campaign, I, Richard Nixon, said that I had a plan to end the war in Vietnam, but gave no specifics. I won. The theory is to not confuse the people with facts. So politicians, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger in the 2003 recall election, speak in generalities rather than specifics.


Candidates also focus on emotional issues—especially people’s money. 1928: Herbert Hoover— “A chicken in every pot.” Won. 1932: Franklin Roosevelt– “All we have to fear is fear itself.” Ronald Reagan 1980— “Are you better off today than you were 4 years ago?”

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