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Aircraft Safety :

Aircraft Safety

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Most accidents are caused by human carelessness Accidents in the work place are among the main causes of death and disability In accordance with The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992 All companies must ensure that all personnel receive adequate training in Health and Safety matters. Reminder of some of the general safety precautions which are necessary, when working in the aerospace industry Module contains Also concerned with the practices recommended for the safe and efficient maintenance of aircraft and aerospace components.

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Safety Precautions Aircraft, by their very nature and design, make for a dangerous working environment. The danger is further increased by the wide variety of machines, tools and materials required to support and maintain aircraft. Technicians should only operate equipment with which they are familiar and which they can operate safely. Hand tools should be kept in good working order. Any spillage of oils, greases and fuels should be immediately covered with absorbent material and cleaned up, to prevent fire or injury. Spillage should be prevented, from running into floor drains . All personnel know the location of the fixed points where fire fighting equipment and First Aid treatment are available

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Fire ALWAYS ENSURE THAT CORRECT FIRE PRECAUTIONS ARE OBEYED AND THAT ESCAPE ROUTES ARE NOT OBSTRUCTED Fire results from the chemical reaction that occurs when oxygen combines rapidly with fuel to produce heat, (and light). Three essentials of this process form the ‘Fire Triangle’

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Classes of Fire Four classes of fires Determined by the type of material that is being burned Class A : solid fires : materials such as paper, wood, textiles and general rubbish. Class B : liquid fires : materials fuels, alcohol, oils, greases and oil-based paints Class C : include fires involving flammable gases and electrical fires :fuse boxes, switches, appliances, motors and generators Class D : refer to fires of high intensity -such metals as magnesium, potassium, sodium, titanium and zirconium

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Fire Extinguishants &their uses Cooling the fuel Excluding the oxygen Separating the fuel from the oxygen The materials used in these extinguishers are: • Water (Water/Gas) • Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) • Dry Powder

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Fire Extinguishers Labels Extinguishant Band Colour Types of Fire Water (Water/Gas) Red Solids only, but NOT Electrical NOR Flammable Liquids Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) Cream Oil , Fats, Paint, Petrol, and Solids, but NOT safe on Electrical fires Carbon Dioxide ( CO 2 ) Black Gases , Electrical, Flammable Liquids and Solids but NOT Burning Metals Dry Powder Blue Burning Metals, Flammable Liquids, and Electrical (<1000 V, >1 m) fires

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How to use…

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Workshop and Hangar Safety When working in a workshop or in any hangar, there are a number of safety precautions that must be followed, if injury (or death) is to be avoided. Machine safety A machine can be defined as an ‘apparatus for applying power, having fixed and moving parts, each having a definite function’ Possible accidents from machinery include personnel (people): Coming into contact with the machinery Being trapped between machinery and material Being struck by machinery or being entangled in its motion Being struck by ejected parts or material Receiving electric shocks from the machinery

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Electricity The human body conducts electricity, electrical current, passing through the body, disrupts the nervous system and causes burns at the entry and exit points. The current, used in domestic 220-240 volt, 50Hz ac electricity, is particularly dangerous because it affects nerves in such a way that a person Voltage/Current Possible Outcome 50V ac or 100V dc May give rise to dangerous shocks 1 mA Harmless tingle 1 – 12 mA Painful , but can be released 12 – 20 mA Very painful, cannot be released 20 – 50 mA Paralysis of respiration > 50 mA Heart stoppage Harmful Values of Electricity

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There will be First Aid points where emergency kits. Eye washing equipment and call bells are installed. It is the responsibility of every person at work to know: The location of the First Aid Points The methods of calling for help The locations of alarm bells The identity of the trained First Aid personnel in their vicinity

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Major Causes Damaged wire Damaged socket Damaged plug Incorrect use of fuses

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Workshops, hangars and flight lines can be very noisy places of work Ear defenders, or ear plugs, are used at all times Loss of hearing, leading to deafness Ear protection is optional where noise levels are less than 85 dB, Mandatory when greater than 90 dB.

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High Pressure Gases Compressed gases are frequently used in the maintenance and servicing of aircraft The following rules apply for the use of compressed gases: • Eye protection must always be worn when handling compressed gases • Never use a cylinder that cannot be positively identified • When large cylinders are moved, ensure that they are securely attached to the correct trolley or vehicle • Use the appropriate regulator on each gas cylinder • Never direct high-pressure gases at a person • Do not use compressed gas or compressed air to blow away dust and • Release compressed gas slowly • Keep gas cylinders clean

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Most lubricating oils are flammable. When come contact with the skin or eyes, they can cause injury or blindness. If a spillage should occur, it must be cleaned up immediately Sweeping up gasoline spillage with a dry broom-------build up of static electricity Fire extinguishers must be in place Aviation Oils and Fuels Aviation oils, generally, are a fairly low-risk material when compared with the more volatile, higher distillates of petroleum such as the aviation fuels - petrol (gasoline) and kerosene.

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Lifting and Shoring Aircraft must often be raised from the hangar floor for weighing, maintenance or repair There are several methods but the maintenance manuals must be followed, during whichever method is used.   It is necessary to lift only one wheel from the floor, to change a wheel or to service a wheel assembly or brake unit. Never place the jack under the brake housing or in any location that is not approved by the manufacturer

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Other places are: Under the wings, at the main spar position Under the nose Under the tail assembly On the side of the front fuselage (in place of the nose jack) Most of the larger jacks have a screw-type, safety locking collar, to prevent the jack collapsing Trestles or ‘Steadies’ can be installed under the wings

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It can be necessary, on occasions, to lift either the major components of an aircraft or complete aircraft Slings must be produced or approved by the manufacturer of the aircraft Ensure that the centre of gravity of the component, is always directly beneath the lifting hook of the sling . Slinging

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Typical Aircraft Danger Areas 50 40 30 20 10 0 Distance (meters) Flight Line Safety

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Towing and Taxying If an aircraft requires moving and no pilot is available, then a tug and towing arm must be used Qualified tug driver, a supervisor, a ‘brake man’ and other personnel to keep a lookout A qualified pilot always does the taxiing of larger aircraft Driving in the vicinity of a parked aircraft must always be done with care Aircraft striking another object, due to a phenomenon known as ‘Swept Wing Growth’ Driving in the vicinity of a parked aircraft must always be done with care, especially if the driver is alone or visibility from the cab of the vehicle is limited

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Wing Tip Sweep Area Tail Sweep Area Path of Wing Tip Path of Tail Aircraft Turning To Left Swept Wing Growth

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Marshalling Some Basic Marshalling Signals for Fixed-Wing Aircraft Come Ahead Stop Emergency Stop Right Turn All Clear (OK) Left Turn Remove Chocks Slow Down Insert Chocks

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Parking A chock must be placed at the front and rear of a number of wheels, depending on the aircraft type The engine intakes and exhausts may need to be covered with special blanks The control surfaces may have to be locked in place with integral control or gust locks or, if these are not installed, external locks may be attached to all of the surfaces that could be damaged in high winds Other devices required could include blanks for the pitot tubes and static vents.

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