COMPOSITE MATERIALS - Introduction

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Introduction to comp[osites

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COMPOSITE MATERIALS:

COMPOSITE MATERIALS Composite is a mixture of two or more distinct constituent or phases. Both constituents have to be present in reasonable property, say 5 %. The constituent that is continuous and is often but not always, present in the greater quantity in the composite is termed as matrix . The second constituent is referred to as the reinforcing phase or reinforcement as it reinforces the mechanical properties of matrix . The reinforcement is harder, stronger and stiffer than matrix in most causes.

ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS :

ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS High strength to weight ratio High stiffness Low density High Young’s modulus & tensile strength Increase in the toughness

TYPES OF COMPOSITES :

TYPES OF COMPOSITES Metal Matrix composites Ceramic Matrix composites Polymer Matrix composites

METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES(MMC) :

METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES(MMC) Matrix - Aluminium, Copper, Nickel based alloys, Iron etc Reinforcement – Carbon, Silicon Carbide( SiC ),Aluminium oxide(Al 2 O 3 ), Tungsten carbide etc.

APPLICATIONS OF MMC:

APPLICATIONS OF MMC Carbide drills -tough cobalt matrix with hard WC particles inside . Brake discs use MMCs. Modern high-performance sports car-rotors made of carbon fibre within a silicon carbide matrix because of its high specific heat and thermal conductivity. Aluminum matrix insert for strengthening cast aluminum disc brake calipers. Aluminum metal matrix composite is used as cylinder liners in some engines, Monofilament silicon carbide fibre in a titanium matrix is used for a structural component of the jet's landing gear. Bicycle frames have used aluminium MMC compounds

APPLICATIONS OF AL/SiC MMC::

APPLICATIONS OF AL/ SiC MMC: Automotive - Reciprocating and static engine components , braking systems Aerospace - Struts , undercarriage, guided weapons, satellites Rail Engineering - Engine and braking components Military - Gun barrel overwraps, missiles ( aerofoils and fins, bodies and blast pipes ), military, diesel components Electronic - Substrates and packaging, thermal management , racking , power sources and storage Marine - Propellers , impellers, pressurized hulls, marine diesel components Industrial - Reciprocating and high speed machinery, precision equipment Sport/Leisure - Rackets , cycles and frames , motor racing, golf clubs

Ceramic Matrix Composites(CMC): :

Ceramic Matrix Composites(CMC ): In case of CMC ceramic materials are used as matrix. Some of the ceramic materials used are Silicon carbide Alumina Glass ceramics Carbon Advantages: Co efficient of thermal expansion of ceramics is low Thermal and electrical conductivity is less than MMC CMC can withstand high temperature and can provide high strength than MMC

APPLICATIONS :

APPLICATIONS Aerospace - After burners, brakes, heat shields , nozzles Automobile - Brakes Manufacturing - Thermal insulation, cutting tools , wire drawing dies Medical - Fixation plates

POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES: :

POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES : Types of polymers: Thermosets Thermo plastics-Crystalline and Non-crystalline Rubber Advantages: Low strength Low strength than MMC & CMC Low fracture toughness Disadvantage: Low working temperature Low coefficient of thermal expansion Dimensional instability

APPLICATIONS :

APPLICATIONS Industrial - Solar collectors, Electrostatic precipitation plates, Fan blades, Water tanks Recreational - Canoe paddles, Television antennas, Snow mobiles Construction - Seating , bath tabs, roof sections, bus shelters Aerospace - Wing ribs, helicopter blades, landing gears, cockpit hatch covers, escape doors Automobile - Crash members, leaf springs, car bodies Electrical - Panels , housings, switch gear Chemical - Pipes , tanks, pressure vessels, hoppers, valves, pumps

CONSTRUCTION :

CONSTRUCTION

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