The Importance of Microbiology in Public Health

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Cover Page:

Cover Page Name of Project: Basic Microbiology of Public Health Importance. Student Name: Azam Anderson Mohammed CRN: 23784 Course Code: ENVH 223 Name of Lecturer: Dr. Deryck D. Pattron . Campus: City Campus

Basic Microbiology of Public Health Importance:

Basic Microbiology of Public Health Importance By Azam A. Mohammed

Focus:

Focus To explain microbiology in terms of public context. To explain the use of microbes in various fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, environmental health and public health. To indicate the relationship between microorganisms and human beings.

What is Microbiology:

What is Microbiology This is the biological study of organisms on the microscopic level. These organisms can not be detected with the naked eye. Can be seen with the aid of microscopes (both electron and light) It covers several disciplines such as :-

What is Microbiology:

What is Microbiology Bacteriology- The study of bacteria Virology- The study of viruses Mycology- The study of fungi Parasitology - The study of parasites

Definition of Public Health:

Definition of Public Health The science and art of preventing diseases, ailments and detrimental health conditions and prolonging life. This is done through health education and health promotion. Medicine is based on cure, public health is based on prevention.

Implementation of Microbiology in Public Health:

Implementation of Microbiology in Public Health Most illnesses are caused by microorganisms. The study of these microorganisms can help combat them. Laboratory test is used to study these organisms. Samples of a patient’s body fluid are tested to determine whether the cause of their ailments are results of bacteria,viruses , nematodes, fungi etc.

Implementation of Microbiology in Public Health:

Implementation of Microbiology in Public Health Microbiology finds its way into public health in the study of food poisoning cases for individuals affected by gastrointestinal ailments. Mild forms of microorganisms are intravenously placed in the body to induce immunity as in the case of smallpox, measles, poliomyelitis and yellow fever. This is used in vaccination, one of the most important aspects of Public Health.

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Bacteria Virus Nematodes Fungi Protozoa Algae Archae

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Bacteria 0.1-10 micrometre in size Unicellular Can be seen with aid of microscope Occupies non-living things ( soil,dust,water,air etc.) Occupies living things ( man,animals and plants) Some are beneficial to man, others are harmful Some are even found in high temperature hot springs. -The diagram in the next slide shows a classification of bacteria that are of public health concern.

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Bacteria -Some bacteria common to Man include the following: Corynebacterium diphtheriae that causes diphtheria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causative agent for tuberculosis. Bordetella pertussis , that causes whooping cough. Treponema pallidum (a spirochaete ), the causative agent of syphilis. Clostridium tetani , the caustive agent of tetanus. For the growth of bacteria, an adequate supply of food, oxygen (if aerobic) and water is needed

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Viruses Smallest living organisms (20 nm to 300 nm) Simple structure consisting of a length of genetic material( either DNA or RNA) Can not be detected with a light microscope. Detected with electron microscope. Not capable of reproducing outside its host cell (i.e. they are parasitic)

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Viruses -All cause diseases by switching off the host’s DNA and using their own DNA or RNA , instructs host cells to duplicate the virus. -Examples of viruses include: HIV and H1N1. -The table in the next slide shows the various types of viruses

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Nematodes (Helminthes) -Class: Animal -Bilaterally symmetrical -Cylindrical. - Unsegmented -Anterior end shows a degree of cephalisation Male is smaller than female. Parasites to Man. Can be found in the intestines. Also found in undercooked meat.

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Fungi -Large group of microorganisms (about 80,000 named species). -The majority can be seen with the naked eye. -They are eukaryotes that lack chlorophyll. -They are heterotrophic like animals. -Unlike animals, they are non-motile and have rigid cell walls like plants.

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Fungi -Reproduce by emission of spores. -Both sexual and asexual reproduction are present in them. -Many are beneficial to man and the environment as in decomposition. -The diagram in the next slide shows different classes of fungi.

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Algae -They are from the plant kingdom. -Unlike plants,some are unicellular e.g., Chlamydomona s . -Not all possess vascular tissues (i.e. xylem and phloem). -Not much of them are a public health treat but it causes an environmental problem called eutrophication . -Some are edible and some are toxic for consumption. -The photo in the next slide shows an example of algae, lichens.

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Protozoa -The largest unicellular microorganisms. -Seen with a light microscope. -Posses a nucleus well defined by a nuclear membrane. -Different types are distinguished by their method of locomotion. -Ciliates: Move by cilia that covers cell membrane. -Amoebae: Move by bulging and retracting cytoplasm, e.g. amoeba

Classes of microorganisms:

Classes of microorganisms Protozoa -Flagellates: Possess one or more flagella that gives them a lashing motility. - Apicomplxa : No special structures for locomotion. Examples are Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium. - An example of the structure on a protozoa (amoeba) is on the next slide.

Contact With Microorganisms:

Contact With Microorganisms Bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes etc. can come into contact with human beings through many means: - Direct physical human contact, such as the bacteria, Neisseiria gonorrhoeae from sexual contact with an infected individual. Vectors, such as arthropods (ticks, mosqutitoes ) that are vectors of the arbovirus that causes malaria.

Contact With Microorganisms:

Contact With Microorganisms Water borne (contaminated with faecal matter) such as the bacteria, Vibrio cholerae . Foodborne - E.g., Salmonella spp .,from infected poultry or meat. Airborne such as the myxovirus that causes influenza Soil borne such as the fungus Apergillius fumigatus that cause apergillosis .

Beneficial uses of some microbes:

Beneficial uses of some microbes -Not all microbes cause harm. -Bacteria and fungi have been used by man in medicine, environmental health and manufacturing -Antibiotics:- Penicillin is produced by various species of fungi of the Penicillium species such as P. notatum and P. chrysogenum . - Griseofulvin is another antibiotic from the Penicillium species, P. griseofulvin .

Beneficial uses of some microbes:

Beneficial uses of some microbes - Medicine:- In the pharmaceutical industries, the fungus , Aspergillius niger is used to produce citric acid ( 2-hydroxypropane,1,2,3, tricarboxylic acid) used in various tablets. Bacteria and fungi are used to manufacture cheese and yogurt.

Beneficial uses of some microbes:

Beneficial uses of some microbes Sewage disposal:- Saprophytic fungi are used in filter beds in sewage works. The decomposition of organic waste in landfills is done by bacteria. Fungi is used to manufacture yeast.

Susceptible groups to microorganism:

Susceptible groups to microorganism Young Old Pregnant Immunocompromised Everyone Microorganisms target everyone however the YOPIs are more affected due to their weaker immune system. They are more likely to die from a bacterial infection or virus.

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms:

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms The American Public health Associations has listed 171 diseases of public health importance. These diseases are caused by the zoonoses of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi. Extreme infection from any of these microbes can lead to death in the infected person.

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms:

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms Bacteria Tetanus -Cholera Bacterial dysentery Sore throats Abscesses Pneumonia Tuberculosis Typhoid Fever Hemolytic uremic syndrome Brazilian purpuric fever Malaria Botulism Meningitis (B & C) Leptospirosis

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms:

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms Viruses Influenza Common cold Smallpox (now eradicated) Rubella HIV Ebola Human T-Cell Lymphotropic virus (HTLV) Hanta viruses Lassa fever Avian influenza Chicken pox

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms:

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms Fungi -Ringworm -Thrush -Athletes foot -Yeast infections -Allergic reactions - Actinomycosis - Asergillosis - Sporototrichosis

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms:

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms Nematodes Elephantiasis Sleeping sickness Gastric worms (hookworm and tapeworm) Filiarisis Trichinosis Enterobiasis Ascariasis Gnathostomiasis Thelaziasis Strongyloidiasis Trichostrongyliasis Esophagostomiasis

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms:

Diseases and health conditions caused by microorganisms Protozoa - Diarrhoea -Amoebic dysentery -Gastroenteritis - Giardasis -Kala- azar

Cases of microbiological attacks:

Cases of microbiological attacks Microorganisms always waged war on humanity and eventually leading humans and other animals to their demise if not treated. Vibrio cholerae bacteria have destroyed lives since the 19 th century England. In World War 2, Clostridium tetani killed 50,000 soldiers of the Axis powers.

Cases of microbiological attacks:

Cases of microbiological attacks The following table shows the case fatality ratio for diseases caused by microorganisms in Ghana,1970. Disease Case –Fatality Ratio/ % Malaria 2.3 Pneumonia 40 Pertusis 1 Diphtheria 7

Cases of microbiological attacks:

Cases of microbiological attacks The table below shows the number of deaths caused by bacterial infections in the year 1990. Disease Deaths/ thousands Tuberculosis 1960 Measles 1058 Tetanus 542

What is needed to combat microorganisms:

What is needed to combat microorganisms Although the miniature organisms have succeeded in bringing humanity to its downfall, humans’ complex reasoning power gave the ability to fight these microorganism to an extent. The use of antibiotics, antiseptics, ointments and immunization are weapons against these microscopically deadly creatures.

What is needed to combat microorganisms:

What is needed to combat microorganisms Immunization -This is artificial active immunity. -Developed two hundred years ago by Dr. Edward Jenner in the 18 th Century. -He transferred cowpox from a dairy maid’s pus wound to a small boy. -The boy was immuned to the cow pus. -This occurred because he produced antibodies to the cowpox (the antigens) -For immunity to occur, an antibody must come in contact with an antigen. The antigen is then destroyed by the antibodies

What is needed to combat microorganisms.:

What is needed to combat microorganisms. Antibiotics -These are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. They are normally prescribed by the physician in courses. The courses must be adhered to, or else there will be bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotics. This implies that a person must finish the medicine even if he/she feels better. They are not used against viruses.

What is needed to combat microorganisms:

What is needed to combat microorganisms Antiseptics and disinfectants -Derived from two Ancient Greek words ‘anti’ meaning ‘against’ and ‘ septikos ’ meaning ‘putrefactive’. -First antiseptic used was phenol (known as carbolic in the 19 th Century.) in 1867. -Phenol was used to kill germs during surgery in the Victorian Era. -Some common antiseptics used are iodine,alcohol,boric acid (mostly against yeast infections), hydrogen peroxide, Manuka honey and sodium bicarbonate. -Some effective disinfectants include Detol , sodium hypochlorite and Savlon . -Disinfectants and antibiotics rupture the cell walls of the bacteria and eventually kill the bacteria.

What is needed to combat microorganisms:

What is needed to combat microorganisms Proper sanitation and personal hygiene. The simple acts of washing the hands after using bathroom facilities with antibacterial soap can deter many microbes by ceasing faecal -oral contact. Food manufacturers must have proper GMPs in place to prevent contamination of food and hence prevent illness to a population. Kitchen counters should be sanitised before and after food preparation. In the medical profession, latex gloves, masks and antiseptic should be used before at all times. Gloves and masks should be disposed immediately after working.

Conclusion:

Conclusion Size does not matter. These particle-sized organisms are not to be taken for granted. Microorganisms are both beneficial and harmful. Some can improve life and some can destroy an entire human population. Humanity are always seeking to wage war on bacteria, viruses, fungi,nematodes and other pathogens with the weapons of medicine such as antibiotics, antiseptics,ointments etc.

Conclusion:

Conclusion There are probably more microorganisms than humans in the world. Who is going to win the war? It is hoped that individuals will do everything in their power to combat or prevent themselves from being inflicted with an illness that is caused by viruses,bacteria,protozoa,helminths and fungi.

References:

References Green, N.P.O, Stout,G.W.,Taylor,D.J . (1986 ). Biological Science 1 : Organisms, Energy and Environment . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Koo,I .(2009,April 17). About.com Infectious Diseases . February, 11, 2012 from http://infectiousdiseases.about.com/od/glossary/g/Microbiology.htm . Basch,P.F .(1999). Textbook of International Health. New York: Oxford University Press. Bradfield,P.,Dodds,J . Taylor, N. (2002). A2 Level Biology . Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Morello,J.,Mizer,H . and Granato , P.(2006). Laboratory Manual in Microbiology: Application to Patient Care . New York: McGraw-Hill.

References:

References Mader,S . (2006). Student Study Art Notebook: Human Biology . New York : McGraw Hill Higher Education. Pittash Productions.(2004). Workers Health Centre . February, 12, 2012 from: http://www.workershealth.com.au/facts028.html Discovery Fit and Health.(2011). How Can Light Kill Viruses. February,12 2012 from: http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/modern-technology/light-virus.htm Kazim,E . (1993). Further Essays on Islamic Topics. St. Clair (Trinidad): Islamic Academy. Science Photo Library http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/13737/enlarge

References:

References Concept art created by Azam Anderson Mohammed using Adobe Photoshop CS2 with images from sciencephoto.com. www.sciencephoto.com

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