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twist drill

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Twist Drills :

Twist Drills Session 8

Twist Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Twist Drills End-cutting tools Used to produce holes in most types of materials Two helical grooves, or flutes, are cut lengthwise around body of drill Provide cutting edges and space for cuttings to escape during drilling process

Twist Drill Parts:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Twist Drill Parts Most made of high-speed steel Replaced carbon-steel drills for two reasons Can be operated at double the cutting speed Cutting edge lasts longer Stamped with letters H.S or H.S.S. Carbide-tipped drills Speeds for production have increased up to 300% over high-speed drills

Three Main Parts of a Drill:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Three Main Parts of a Drill Shank Body Point

Drill Shank:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Drill Shank Straight-shank drills Held in drill chuck Up to ½ in. in diameter Tapered-shank drills Fit into internal taper of drill press spindle Tang provided on end to prevent drill from slipping

Drill Body:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Drill Body Portion of drill between shank and point Consists of number of parts for cutting Flutes Two or more helical grooves cut around body of drill Form cutting edges, admit cutting fluid, allow chips to escape hole Body Clearance Undercut portion of body between margin and flutes

Drill Body:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Drill Body Margin Narrow, raised section on body of drill Extends entire length of flutes Provides full size to drill body and edges Web Thin partition in center of drill, extends full length of flutes Forms chisel edge at cutting end of drill

Drill Point:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Drill Point Consists of chisel edge, lips, lip clearance, and heel Chisel edge Chisel-shaped portion of drill point Lips Cutting edges formed by intersection of flutes Must be of equal length and have same angle So drill run true and not cut hole larger than drill

Drill Point:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Drill Point

Lip Clearance:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Lip Clearance The relief ground on point of drill extending from cutting lips back to the heel

Drill Point Characteristics:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Drill Point Characteristics Control size, quality and straightness of drilled hole Control size, shape and formation of chip Control chip flow up flutes Increase strength of drill's cutting edges The use of various point angles and lip clearances, in conjunction with thinning of the drill web, will allow:

Drill Point Characteristics:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Reduce rate of wear at cutting edges Reduce amount of drilling pressure required Control amount of burr produced Reduce amount of heat generated Permit use of various speeds and feeds for more efficient drilling Drill Point Characteristics

Conventional Point (118º):

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Conventional Point (118 º) Most commonly used drill point Gives satisfactory results for most general-purpose drilling Lip clearance of 8 º to 12 º for best results Too much weakens cutting edge and causes drill to chip Too little results in use of heavy drilling pressure

Long Angle Point 60º - 90º:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Long Angle Point 60 º - 90 º Used on low helix drills for drilling of nonferrous metals, soft cast irons, plastics, fibers, and wood Lip clearance generally from 12 º to 15 º Flat may be ground on face of lips to prevent drill from drawing itself into the soft material

Flat Angle Point 135º -150º:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Flat Angle Point 135 º - 150 º Used to drill hard and tough materials Lip clearance on flat angle point drills only 6 º to 8 º to provide as much support as possible for cutting edges Shorter cutting edge tends to reduce friction and heat during drilling

Four Systems of Drill Sizes:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Four Systems of Drill Sizes Fractional Number Letter Millimeter (Metric)

Four Systems of Drill Sizes:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Four Systems of Drill Sizes Fractional Range from 1/64 to 4 in. (steps of 1/64 th )

Four Systems of Drill Sizes:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Four Systems of Drill Sizes Number Range from #1 (.228 in.) to #97 (.0059 in.)

Four Systems of Drill Sizes:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Four Systems of Drill Sizes Letter Range from A to Z (A = .234 in., Z = .413 in.)

Four Systems of Drill Sizes:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Four Systems of Drill Sizes Millimeter (Metric) Straight-shank standard (0.5 to 20 mm)

Types of Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Types of Drills Wide variety manufactured to suit specific drilling operations and materials Design of drills vary Number and width of flutes Amount of helix or rake angle of flutes Shape of land or margin Shape of flute: straight or helical Whether helix is right-hand or left-hand

Twist Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Twist Drills Manufactured from four main materials Carbon-steel drills High-speed steel drills – Uncoated High-speed steel drills – Coated High Cobalt Content Cemented-carbide drills

Twist Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Twist Drills Carbon-steel drills Used in hobby shops not for machine shop work Lowest cost of all drills Cutting edges wear down quickly

Twist Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Twist Drills High-speed steel drills - Uncoated Used extensively in machine shop work Replaced High Carbon Steel Drills Cutting edges withstand more heat and wear Most commonly used

Twist Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Twist Drills High-speed steel drills - Coated Used extensively in machine shop work Supplements uncoated High Speed Steel Drills Cutting edges withstand much more heat and wear Black Oxide Titanium Nitride

Twist Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Twist Drills High Cobalt High-Speed Steel drills Used in machine shop work 5% Cobalt allows cutting edges to withstand more heat and wear

Twist Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Twist Drills Cemented-carbide drills Operated at high speeds, withstand higher heat, and can drill hard materials Carbide Tipped Solid Carbide

General-Purpose Drill:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 General-Purpose Drill Has two Helical flutes Designed to perform well on wide variety of materials, equipment and job conditions Can be made to suit different conditions and materials by varying point angle, speeds and feeds Straight-shank drills called general-purpose jobbers length drills

Low-Helix Drill:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Low-Helix Drill Developed primarily to drill brass and thin materials Used to drill shallow holes in some aluminum and magnesium alloys Can remove large volume of chips formed by high rates of penetration

High-Helix Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 High-Helix Drills Designed for drilling deep holes in aluminum, copper, die-cast material, and other metals Material where chips have tendency to jam High helix angle (35 º to 45º) Wider flutes assist in clearing chips from hole

Core Drill:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Core Drill Three or four flutes Used to enlarge cored, drilled, or punched holes Produced in sizes from ¼ to 3 in.

Oil Hole Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Oil Hole Drills Have one or two oil holes running from shank to cutting point Compressed air, oil, or cutting fluid can be forced through when deep holes being drilled Cutting fluid cools drill's cutting edges and flushes chips out of hole

Straight-Fluted Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Straight-Fluted Drills Recommended for drilling operations on soft materials such as brass, bronze, copper and various types of plastic Straight flute prevents drill from drawing itself into material while cutting

Deep Hole (Gun) Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Deep Hole (Gun) Drills Used for producing holes from approximately 3/8 to 3 in. in diameter and as deep as 20 feet Consists of round, tubular stem, on end is fastened flat, two-fluted drilling insert Cutting fluid forced through center of stem to flush chips from hole

Spade Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Spade Drills Cutting end is flat blade with two cutting lips Easily replaced or sharpened Available in wide range of sizes Micro to 12 inch diameter

Hard-Steel Drill:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Hard-Steel Drill Used for drilling hardened steel Made from heat-resistant alloy As brought into contact with workpiece, fluted, triangular point softens metal by friction and then removes softened metal

Step Drills:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Step Drills Used to drill and countersink or drill and counterbore different sizes of holes in one operation Usually has two or more diameters Each size or step separated by square or angular shoulder

Saw-Type Hole Cutter:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Saw-Type Hole Cutter Cylindrical-diameter cutter with twist drill in center to provide guide for cutting teeth on hole cutter Made in various diameters Used for drilling holes in thin materials Little burr produced

Procedure to Grind a Drill:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Procedure to Grind a Drill Wear approved safety glasses Check grinding wheel and dress it to sharpen and/or straighten wheel face Adjust grinder tool rest so it is within .060 in. of wheel face Examine drill point and margins for wear

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Hold drill near point with one hand, other hand hold shank of drill slightly lower than point Move drill so it is approximately 59 º to face of grinding wheel Hold lip or cutting edge of drill parallel to grinder toolrest Bring lip of drill against grinding wheel and slowly lower drill shank

Drilling Facts and Problems:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Drilling Facts and Problems Excessive speed Excessive clearance Excessive feed Insufficient clearance Cutting lips with unequal angles Cutting lips with unequal in length Loading and galling

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Excessive speed will cause wear at outer corners of drill. This permits fewer regrinds of drill due to amount of stock to be removed in reconditioning. Discoloration is warning sign of excess speed.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Excessive clearance results in lack of support behind cutting edge with quick dulling and poor tool life. Despite initial free cutting action. Clearance angle behind cutting lip for general purposes is 8 º to 12 º.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Excessive feed sets up abnormal end thrust, which causes breakdown of chisel point and cutting lips. Failure induced by this cause will be broken or split drill.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Insufficient clearance causes the drill to rub behind the cutting edge. It will make the drill work hard, generate heat, and increase end thrust. This results in poor holes and drill breakage.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 The web is the tapered central portion of the body that joins the lands.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Cutting lips with unequal angles will cause one cutting edge to work harder than the other. This causes torsion strain, bellmouth holes, rapid dulling, and poor tool life.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Cutting lips unequal in length cause chisel point to be off center axis and will drill holes oversize by approximately twice the amount of eccentricity.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Loading and galling is caused by poor chip removal with insufficient dissipation of heat so that material anneals itself to the cutting edge and flute. This condition frequently results from using wrong drills for the job or inadequate cutting fluid application.

Characteristics of a Properly Ground Drill:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Characteristics of a Properly Ground Drill Length of both cutting lips equal Angle of both cutting lips be the same Lips should be free from nicks or wear No sign of wear on margin Note: Resharpen drill if it does not meet all of these requirements.

When to Regrind:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 When to Regrind Color and shape of chips change More drilling pressure required Chips turn blue because of excessive heat Top of hole out of round Poor finish produced in hole Drill chatters when it contacts metal Drill squeals and may jam in hole Excessive burr left around drilled hole

Factors Causing Premature Dulling of Drill:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Factors Causing Premature Dulling of Drill Drill speed may be too high for hardness of material being cut Feed may be too heavy and overload cutting lips Feed may be too light and cause lips to scrape rather than cut May be hard spots or scale on work surface

More Factors:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 More Factors Work or drill may not be supported properly, resulting in springing and chatter Drill point may be incorrect for material being drilled Finish on lips may be poor

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rattandeep singh (Mechanical engg.)Email:-rsrattanvirdi@gmail.com contact no 9876866320 Remove drill from wheel without moving position of body or hands, rotate drill one-half turn, and grind the other cutting edge Check angle of drill point and length of lips with drill point gage Repeat operations 6-10 until cutting edges are sharp and lands are free from wear nicks More Factors

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