Alga-methane

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Microalgaebased Biomethane Production forCombating Global WarmingbyNutraville International Limited Nutraville

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Nutraville Nutraville Background Overview of Microalgae Overview of Biogas & Biomethane Algae Cultivation Algae Based Biomethane Production Outline

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Nutraville Background Nutraville

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Mr. V. Ramasamy, a returned Non-Resident Indian, had promoted Nutraville International Limited on 25th January 2000 as an Energy & Environment Company. As an exemplary innovative research minded Scientist, the founder Mr. V. Ramasamy had created the various portfolios of the Company in the light of his highly challenging and valuable domestic & global expertise. Currently, the Company is managed by the founder Mr.V. Ramasamy as Chairman & Chief Executive Officer to achieve the following vision: Nutraville Background Nutraville Creating Natures Freshness & Eco balanced Ecological Global Environment by profitably recycling Carbon through the adoption of Algal Biotechnologies & Algae based Biomethane Production which not only assists for effectively managing Wastewater & active CO2 Emissions but also for producing Algae based CBG - Biomethane for Industrial & Trasportation Sectors while enhancing Shareholders Values with a Smart Competitive Edge as an Alternate Energy Production Company by Abating Pollution & Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

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R&D Expertise – R&D Completed The following R&D was completed under the joint efforts of Nutraville, Elbitec & expert Consultants: Identification, Isolation & Optimization of Micro Algae for high yielding with rapid growth Optimal Nutrient Premix Liquid feed combining Photosynthetic Bacterias for enhancing Photosynthesis, Ultra CO2 – a Herbal extract Enzymes for enhancing uptake of CO2 and Bacterial Florescence for enhancing Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Management Protocol Designing cost effective & high productive High Rate Algae Ponds. Achieved a Production Rate of 500 Gms per Sq. Meter per Day in open shallow ponds for Blue Green Algae. Nutraville Nutraville Background

Overview of Microalgae : 

Overview of Microalgae Nutraville

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Nutraville Microalgae is a single celled microscopic organisms. Microalgae utilizes CO2 from atmosphere along with water & nutrients for its growth by photosynthesis to convert the sun's energy into chemical energy. Algae is much more efficient converters of solar energy than any known terrestrial plant. Algae Biomass generated through Photosynthesis by utilizing CO2, Water, Nutrients & Sunlight contains Lipids, Carbohydrates & Proteins which are of great Nutraceutical Value. Microalgae is an effective microorganism for CO2 mitigation in Flue Gas Emitting Stations viz: Coal, Gas & Oil based Power Plants, Cement Plants, Crude Refineries, Ethanol Distilleries, Sugar,Steel, Paper, Chemical & Fertilizer Manufacturing Plants. First, CO2 is separated from Flue Gas & trapped in a chemical medium. Then, trapped CO2 is fed into Algae Growing System which absorbs CO2 & releases oxygen in the atmosphere. What is & Why Microalgae? ….Cont

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Nutraville Apart from CO2 mitigation, Microalgae is equally an effective microorganism for remediation in Effluents Treatment because a wide range of toxic and other wastes can be treated with algae. Algae utilize the wastes as nutritional sources and enzymatically degrade the pollutants. The xenobiotics and heavy metals are known to be detoxified/ transformed/or volatilized by algal metabolism. Due to this phenomenon, pH is adjusted, Nutrients (N&P) are consistently removed thereby reducing TDS & Sludge Formation, Acidic & Metals are treated and Nutrient & Xenobiotic compounds are also removed in Effluents discharging Units viz:Dairy Farms, Fish Farms, Sugar Mills, Paper Mills, Breweries, Food Processing, Refineries, Distilleries, Chemicals & Dyeing Units. Tanneries, Sewage Stations, etc. What is & Why Microalgae? ….Cont

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Nutraville Microalgae is cultivated either in Seaside Coastal Land with Seawater or in Barren Land with any waste water. Cultivation of Microalgae is carried out in 10 cms deep shallow ponds stirred with Paddlewheel and covered with Solar Powered Green House by combining the best of Open Pond Techniques & Photobioreactor Techniques for a rapid growth. Trapped CO2 from Flue Gas is fed into the pond along with Water, Nutrients & Algae Cultures. The harvested Algae Biomass is dewatered & fed into Fermenter for Biomethane Production. What is & Why Microalgae?

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Nutraville What made Naturalgas & Crude oil? - Microalgae Today's atmosphere is very different from its prehistoric antecedents. Volcanoes formed the first atmosphere by spewing water vapour, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide into the air. Then primitive aquatic life forms evolved photosynthesis, which created the oxygen atmosphere that exists today. By-products of early photosynthesis are the crude oil and gas reserves we consume today.

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Nutraville Why produce Microalgae Biofuels? Like all biofuels: Low / neutral carbon footprint through sequestration of CO2 Valuable co-products Economics improve as fossil fuel prices increase The advantages of microalgae biofuels: R&D is faster and cheaper Modular technology that can be scaled-up relatively easily Can be combined with wastewater treatment and nutrient recycling High projected productivities can reduce environmental footprint

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Nutraville What are Microalgae Biofuels? Fuels derived from Microalgae Hydrogen Biodiesel (Transesterifcation; Thermocracking) Bioethanol (Fermentation) Biogas Key issues for Microalgae Biofuels Convert the Biomass to Biofuels Harvest the Algae Grow the Algae

Algae has multiple potential uses : 

Algae has multiple potential uses Nutraville Biodiesel & Bioethanol BioPolymers & Biolubricants Biofeeds & Biofertilizers Nutraceuticals & Pharmaceuticals BioPower & BioFuelcells Biocrudeoil & Biomethane

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Key Facts of Algae Algae are single celled microscopic organisms which, like plants, use photosynthesis to convert the sun's energy into chemical energy. Algae can be grown in large vats (bioreactors) that provide the algae with all the needs to maximise growth and oil production Algae can also be grown in Paddle Wheel Mixed Raceway Shallow Open Ponds Algae are much more efficient converters of solar energy than any known terrestrial plant, because they grow in suspension where they have unlimited access to water and more efficient access to CO2 and dissolved nutrients. ….Cont Nutraville

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Key Facts of Algae The oil content in algae can be up to 70% of their dry weight. Algae are capable of producing more than 30 times the amount of oil (per year per unit area of land) when compared to terrestrial oil seed crops. One Mt of Algae biomass will consume 1.6 Mt of Carbon dioxide and release 1,2 Mt of Oxygen. ….Cont ….Cont Nutraville

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Key Facts of Algae Established a Germplasm on Algae with 75% Hydrocarbon Biodiesel is a natural and renewable fuel alternative for diesel engines and biodiesel contains no petroleum, is non toxic and biodegradable. Algae are the fastest growing photosynthesizing organisms. They can complete an entire growing cycle every few days.. Algae production can be increased by increasing the carbon dioxide concentration in the water. ….Cont Nutraville

Storing the Sun’s Energy (Photosynthesis) : 

Storing the Sun’s Energy (Photosynthesis) What is needed Sunlight CO2 Nutrients Storage of Energy Lipids and oils Carbohydrates Nutraville

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Overview of Biogas & Biomethane Nutraville

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What is Biogas? Nutraville

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Nutraville Why Biogas?

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Nutraville Biogas Potential

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Electrical and/or thermal energy Biofertilizer Organic wastes Anaerobic digestion Biogas Solar energy Biomethane production Animal husbandry Crop harvesting Industrial processing Human consumption Photosynthesis H2O CO2 Biogas Cycle Energy crops Natural gas pipeline Cleaning & Upgrading Energy crops CO2

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Nutraville Methanogenesis Complex Organic Carbon Monomers & Oligomers Organic Acids Acetate – H2 / CO2 CH4 + CO2 Hydrolysis Acidogenesis Acetogenesis Anaerobic Digestion

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Nutraville COMPLEX ORGANIC MATTER SIMPLE ORGANICS ACETATE H2 / CO2 METHANE and CARBON DIOXIDE LOW ODOR EFFLUENT LIQUEFACTION PHASE GASIFICATION PHASE ACIDOGENS METHANOGENS

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Nutraville CLOSED LOOP DAIRY / FEEDLOT BIOETHANOL PLANT ANAEROBIC DIGESTER MANURE BIOGAS FEED STILLAGE

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Nutraville Natural gas compared to Biogas Very low impacts environment and health Are used for industry, electricity/heat generation and for vehicles Methane - fossil origin Methane – renewable energy Exist in every part of the world Is produced all over the world Bigger reserves than oil Big biomass potential 20-25 % less CO2 compare to oil CO2 neutral

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Nutraville Synergism biogas - natural gas - Possibility to produce domestic renewable fuel for vehicles Biogas can be up graded and mixed with natural gas Biogas can be distributed in the natural gas grid

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Nutraville Biogas up grading and injection in the natural gas grid Up grading equipment purifies the biogas up to 97-98% methane Better distribution of biogas Additional product for the NG companies Biogas can be distributed as “green gas” similar to “green electricity”

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Nutraville A bridge to the renewable fuels for the future H2 can be mixed with methane and used in vehicles H2 can be distributed in NG-grid H2 and CH4 can be produced in the same hydrogasification plant Knowledge of compressed gas (CNG/CBG) in the automotive and the energy industry can force the H2-technology development

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Nutraville Emissions Less or no greenhouse gases

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Nutraville With regard to Land use Point of view, Biomethane is an efficient Fuel compared to other Biofuels.

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Algae Cultivation Nutraville

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Nutraville . Algae species can be chosen on the following lines: As a source of Bulky Biomass As a source of High Protien As a source of High Carbohydrate As a source of High Lipid Content Towards Biomethane Production, Algae species should be selected as a source of Bulky Biomass Generation. On This scenario, Blue Green Algae is identified, isolated and optimized for Biomethane Production. Blue Green Algae is is a free living floating Microalgae – Prokaryotic Organism belonging to the family of Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria. What type of Algae – Choosing an Algae?

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Nutraville . What is & Why Blue Green Algae? Blue Green Algae is a free living floating Microalgae – Prokaryotic Organism belonging to the family of Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria which can yield 2,000 Kgs of Biomass per day per acre with Dry Matter content of 10% in Open Tank Cultivation to produce Biogas at 0.4 Nm3/Kg of DM i.e. 80 Nm3 of Biogas per day per acre or 40 Kgs of Biomethane per day per acre. The Algae is first identified, isolated & optimized under Lab conditions as Mother Culture. Then, The Mother Culture is inoculated in the Open Tank with Water & Nutrients. Within 10 days, the Algae will be ready for harvesting on every day continuously for six months. For optimum growing of Algae, Shade is required & No Direct Sunlight to the Tank. The Temperature is not to exceed 270 C and pH to be maintained between 5.5 & 7. The harvested wet Algae Biomass can be directly fed into an Anaerobic Microbial Fermenter for the production of Biogas and then to Biomethane & Biohydrogen.

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Nutraville . Algae Cultivation Algal Strain enhancement – Isolation, selection and inoculation system is deployed to enhance productivity and reliability

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Nutraville . Algae Cultivation Algal Strain enhancement – Isolation, selection and inoculation system is deployed to enhance productivity and reliability

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Nutraville . Algae Cultivation Algal Strain enhancement – Isolation, selection and inoculation system is deployed to enhance productivity and reliability

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Nutraville . Algae Cultivation Algal Strain enhancement – Isolation, selection and inoculation system is deployed to enhance productivity and reliability

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Nutraville . Algae Cultivation Algal Strain enhancement – Isolation, selection and inoculation system is deployed to enhance productivity and reliability

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Algae Cultivation Nutraville Algal Strain enhancement – Isolation, selection and inoculation system is deployed to enhance productivity and reliability

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Algae Cultivation Nutraville Algal Strain enhancement – Isolation, selection and inoculation system is deployed to enhance productivity and reliability

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Algae Cultivation Nutraville Algal Strain enhancement – Isolation, selection and inoculation system is deployed to enhance productivity and reliability

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Algae Cultivation Nutraville

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Algae Cultivation Nutraville

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Algae Cultivation Nutraville

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Algae Based Biomethane Production Nutraville

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Nutraville What is & Why Biomethane - CBG - Compressed Biogas? Biomethane is a Sustainable source of Renewable Energy which is highly cost effective compared to Petroleum Fuels, Biodiesel, Bioethanol & CNG. Biomethane is the cleanest & most efficient of all transport fuels and has the lowest gas emissions of any Biofuel. Biomethane is produced with 97% Methane content from Biogas which is generated from Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Material in a specially built Reactors. Biogas is of inflammable quality so that it can be used as Heat Energy for Industrial & Domestic Applications.Biomethane is a clean & upgraded version of Biogas. Raw biogas contains about 55-65% Methane (CH4), 30-45% Carbon dioxide (CO2), traces of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), fractions of Water Vapours. and Particulates. ….Cont

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Nutraville What is & Why Biomethane - CBG - Compressed Biogas? To be able to use the biogas as vehicle fuel or to distribute it in the natural gas grid the gas has to be cleaned and upgraded. The gas is cleaned from for instance particles, water and hydrogen sulphide to reduce the risk for corrosion. The gas is upgraded by removing carbon dioxide to raise the calorific value and create a gas with constant quality. Before the gas is used as vehicle fuel or distributed in the natural gas grid, it is odorised so that a possible gas leak can be identified. Biomethane to be used as vehicle fuel has to be compressed to at least 200 bar and is called as CBG - Compressed Biogas. ….Cont

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Nutraville What is & Why Biomethane - CBG - Compressed Biogas? The cleaned & upgraded Biogas can be now used in any applications that Natural Gas or LPG is used for. Such applications include distribution via the Natural Gas Grid, Industrial Process Heating, Electricity Generating & Biohydrogen Production. If compressed, it can replace Compressed Natural Gas - CNG for use in vehicles, where it can fuel an Internal Combustion Engine or Fuel Cells. It can also be used for running modified autorickshaws and two-wheelers including Tractors and Agricultural Equipments &Appliances. Besides, the excess raw Biogas can also be used to provide clean cooking fuel. Biogas burns with a blue flame without producing any smoke or soot. It is therefore an environmentally friendly cooking system. The Biogas usage in cooking prevents deaths of women & children caused by smoke & soot from burning fuel wood in traditional chulas. This markedly impacts the health of the people in the kitchen, mainly women, positively. Hence, Biogas is a true solution for rural house holds as cooking fuel.

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Nutraville Biomethane Composition Analysis Methane, CH4 - > 97% CO2 - < 2% H2S - < 0.1 ppm Inerts - < 1% Due Point - < - 80° C

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Nutraville Biomethane Production

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Nutraville International Limited 2A, Sara Apartments 6,4th Cross Street, C.I.T. Colony Mylapore, Chennai 600 004, India Phone: 91-44-24997411 Fax: 91-44-24995835 www.nutraville.com Contact: V. Ramasamy Chairman & CEO rianet@elbitec.com 91-9940 169 169 ? Questions Nutraville