PowerPoint Presentation: Welcome- Introduction : Introduction Plant Breeding- A science an art and Science and technology which deals with genetic improvement of crop plants in relation to their economic use for mankind. Art, science and technology: Art, science and technology Art refers to human imagination, creativity and skill. Plant breeding is an art because selection of superior plant requires human skill, imagination and experience. Science- development of superior varieties involves genetic principles, sequential steps and experimentation to genetic makeup of crop plant. Technology – development of useful commercial product involving scientific principles and human skill. Field of plant Breeding : Field of plant Breeding Germplasm - total variability found in plant species Breeding Techniques- General breeding method Special breeding method Seed production techniques Branches of plant breeding: Branches of plant breeding Agricultural plant breeding Horticultural plant breeding Tree breeding Medicinal plant breeding Stress breeding Quality breeding Mutation breeding Transgenic breeding Molecular breeding Maintenance breeding Plant genetic resources Physiological crop breeding OBJECTIVES OF PLANT BREEDING : OBJECTIVES OF PLANT BREEDING Plant breeding aims to improve the characteristic of plants so that they become more desirable agronomically and economically. Thus the chief objective of plant breeding is to develop such improved varieties of crop plants that will be commercially successful. PowerPoint Presentation: 1. Higher Yields Most of the breeding programmes aim at higher crop yields. This is achieved by developing more efficient genotypes, e.g., hybrid varieties of maize (z mays ), sorghum (S. bicolor), bajra (P. glaucum ), etc. PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Improved Quality The quality of plant produce determines its suitability for various uses. Therefore, quality is an important aspect for plant breeders. Quality characters vary from one crop to another, e.g., Grain size, colour , milling and baking qualities in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), Cooking quality in rice ( Oryza sativa), Malting quality in barley ( Hordeum vulgare , Size, colour and flavour of fruits, Keeping quality of vegetables, Protein content in cereals and legumes, Lysine content in cereals, Methionine and tryptophan contents in pulses etc. PowerPoint Presentation: 3. Disease and Insect Resistance Resistant varieties offer the cheapest and the most convenient method of disease and insect management. In some cases, they offer the only feasible means of control, e.g., rusts in wheat. Resistant varieties not only increase production but also stabilize it. PowerPoint Presentation: 4. Change in Maturity Duration It permits new crop rotations and extends the crop area. Development of wheat varieties suitable for late planting has permitted rice-wheat rotation. Thus breeding for early maturing crop varieties, or varieties suitable for different dates of planting may be an important objective in many cases. PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Agronomic Characteristics Modification of agronomic characteristics, such as, plant height, tillering , branching, erect or trailing habit etc., is often desirable. For example, dwarfness in cereals is generally associated with lodging resistance and fertilizer responsiveness. PowerPoint Presentation: 6. Photo-insensitivity Development of photo-insensitive and thermo-insensitive wheat, and photo-insensitive rice varieties has permitted their cultivation in new areas. Rice is now cultivated in Punjab, while wheat is a major rabi crop in West Bengal. PowerPoint Presentation: 7. Synchronous Maturity Synchronous maturity is highly desirable in crops where several pickings are necessary e.g mungbean , pigeon pea, cotton, etc . 8. Non-shattering Characteristics It would be of great value in a crop like mung , castor, wheat, etc. where shattering is a major problem in case of many commercial varieties. PowerPoint Presentation: 9. Determinate Growth Development of varieties with determinate growth is desirable in crops like mung , pigeonpea , cotton, etc . 10. Dormancy In some crops, seeds germinate before harvesting if there are rains at the time of maturity, e.g., mung , barley, Spanish groundnut, etc. A period of dormancy in such cases would check the loss due to germination. In some other cases, however, it may be desirable to remove dormancy. PowerPoint Presentation: 11. Varieties for New Seasons Traditionally, maize is a kharif crop. But scientists are now able to grow maize throughout the year. Similarly, mung is now grown as a summer crop in addition to the main kharif crop. PowerPoint Presentation: 12. Moisture Stress and Salt Tolerance Development of varieties for rainfed areas and for saline soils would be helpful in increasing crop production. The major proportion (about 70%) of the cropped area in the country is rainfed . The estimates of salt-affected (saline) soils in the country vary from 7 to 20 million hectares, of which about 2.8 million hectares are alkaline soils. Most of these areas are spread in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. PowerPoint Presentation: 13. Elimination of Toxic Substances Some crops have toxic substances which must be eliminated to make them safe for consumption. For example, khesari ( Lathyruys sativus ) seeds have a neurotoxin , ß-N- oxalylarnine alanine (BOAA) that causes paralysis. Similarly, brassica oil has erucic acid, which is harmful to human health. Removal of such toxic substances would increase the nutritional value of these crops. PowerPoint Presentation: 14. Wider Adaptability Adaptability refers to suitability of a variety for general cultivation over a wide range of environmental conditions. Adaptability is an important objective in plant breeding because it helps in stabilizing the crop production over regions and seasons. SIGNIFICANT ACHIVEMENTS: SIGNIFICANT ACHIVEMENTS Improvement in yield. Improvement in quality. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stress Earliness Adaptability GOALS OF PLANT BREEDING: GOALS OF PLANT BREEDING Increased yield . Disease resistance. Physiological efficiency. Varieties for new agricultural areas. Improvements of plants in agronomic or horticultural characteristics. Varieties tolerant to heat, cold or drought. PowerPoint Presentation: Thank you….!