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Perspectives and issues Management and planning Impact of eventsWhat makes an event ?: What makes an event ? An event = “anything that happens, as distinguished from anything that exists” (dictionary definition) “An occurrence, especially one of great importance” Events are things of significance, that happen An event is generally about celebrating or commemorating a special occasionThe nature of events – settings and scales: The nature of events – settings and scales There are many different types of event, taking place in different settings, and on very different scales Personal events (e.g., 21st birthday party) Private events (e.g., company events) Commercial events (e.g., trade shows) Public events (e.g., festivals, exhibitions, galas) The nature of events – settings and scales: The nature of events – settings and scales Local village events Regional events National events International events Global events Some definitions(Wilkinson): Some definitions (Wilkinson) “A special event is a one-off happening designed to meet specific needs at any given time” “Local community events may be defined as an activity established to involve the local population in a shared experience to their mutual benefit” Some definitions(Goldblatt): Some definitions (Goldblatt) “A special event recognises a unique moment in time with ceremony and ritual to satisfy specific needs”Diversity of events(Leisure, tourism and related fields – Watt, 1998): Diversity of events (Leisure, tourism and related fields – Watt, 1998)Perspectives and issuesSome aspects to consider – all inter-related: Perspectives and issues Some aspects to consider – all inter-related Events are complex – many aspects to consider Conceptualising events Type and scale of events Planning events Human resources – events personnel Marketing and forecasting demand Budgeting and financial management Sponsorship Management and evaluationOrigins and HistoryPrehistory: marking time and commemoration: Origins and History Prehistory: marking time and commemoration Natural events recognised since the start of time: Changing of the seasons Phases of the moon Eclipses The eternal cycle: birth, life and death Renewal each spring Some of the earliest events related to these – e.g., Summer Solstice celebrationsOrigins and HistoryEarly Folk Festivals and Historic Rites: Origins and History Early Folk Festivals and Historic Rites Early Folk Festivals: Plough Monday, May Day, Midsummer Day, Harvest Home (cf. today, Harvest Thanksgiving/Festival) Ancient Greece: Dionysian rites China: Chinese New Year Europe: Carnivals (since Middle Ages) More recent annual events: Hallowe’en, Guy Fawkes, Christmas, New YearOrigins – celebration, commemoration and orientation: Origins – celebration, commemoration and orientation The wish to celebrate and commemorate is in part innate Marks rites of passage (coming-of-age; Jewish bar mitzvah) Also key events used as time markers: Second World War – ‘the war’, ‘before the war’ ‘The Depression’ (1920s) The MillenniumThe events traditionOrigins and types of event: The events tradition Origins and types of event Rich traditions and distinctive cultural heritage, in UK and its four component countries Rituals and ceremonies extending over thousands of years Some very old - stem from charters and privileges granted by the Crown The Lord Mayor’s Show (1215) Scarborough Fayre (1161) Nottingham Goose Fayre (1284) Origins – industrialisationCelebration of industrial / imperial achievement: Origins – industrialisation Celebration of industrial / imperial achievement Traditional fairs were replaced by large-scale industrial exhibitions Royal Society of Arts: London (1760, 1791) Great Exhibition (1851) Crystal Palace, then in Hyde Park - attracted 6 million visitors (25% of population) Generated profits of over £180,000 Origins – industrialisationCelebration of industrial / imperial achievement: Origins – industrialisation Celebration of industrial / imperial achievement Exhibition halls were built in London shortly thereafter to host similar events indoors: Royal Agricultural Hall (1861) (now BDC) Alexandra Palace (1873) Olympia (1886) Earls Court (1887, present building 1936) Later industrial festivals / venues: Later industrial festivals / venues Empire Exhibition (Bellahouston, Glasgow) (1938) – attracted 12.6 million visitors Festival of Britain (1951) (South Bank, and elsewhere in UK). (100 yrs of Great Exhibition) Infrastructure investment: National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham (1976) Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, Glasgow (1985) Commercial multi-purpose arenas: Newcastle, Manchester, Sheffield, London, Glasgow, BelfastOrigins – sporting events: Origins – sporting events Sport provides many of the UK’s most significant and enduring events Attract large crowds and media attention Help create a national identity Have tourism appeal Considerable economic benefit Most originated in the 18th/19th Century Many enjoy Royal patronageOrigins – sporting events: Origins – sporting events Equestrian events Royal Ascot (1711) The Derby (Epsom) (1780) The Grand National (Aintree) (1839, name adopted 1847) Water-based events Cowes Week (Isle of Wight) (1826) Henley Royal Regatta (1839, name adopted 1851) Americas Cup (1851) Origins – sporting eventsTraditional sports: Origins – sporting events Traditional sports The Open Championship (Golf) (1860) The FA Cup (Football) (1872) The All-England Lawn Tennis Championships (Tennis – Wimbledon) (1877) Test Match Cricket (1882, England vs. Australia) Origins – artistic eventsThe English choral tradition: Origins – artistic events The English choral tradition Early choral festivals: Three Choirs Festival (Hereford, Gloucester and Worcester) (1713) Norfolk and Norwich Festival (1789) Royal National Eisteddfod of Wales (1176, revived 1880) Originally sacred music, followed later by secular choral works (Handel, 1784) Multicultural influences: Multicultural influences Increasingly multicultural UK population (since late 1940s) First immigrants from former colonies (India, Pakistan, Caribbean) brought rich cultural traditions with them Developed their own events, which became established and immensely popular Best known – Notting Hill Carnival – West Indian culture – London, since 1964Cultural eventsMore recent information: Cultural events More recent information Can take the form of arts or musical festivals, varying in scale from local, to national (Aldeburgh, Chichester) to international (Edinburgh) Can be integrated programmes aimed at achieving urban regeneration and cultural renewal (Glasgow, Sheffield, Birmingham) Can be used to promote tourism May result in significant improvement in the arts infrastructure (concert halls, galleries)Types of arts festival(South East Arts, 1998) - seven basic categories: Types of arts festival (South East Arts, 1998) - seven basic categories High profile arts celebrations (national) Festivals celebrating a particular location (local) Festivals focused on a particular arts form (genre) ‘Community of interest’ arts festivals (e.g., disabled people, women - ‘target group’) Calendar arts festivals (linked to cultural or religious anniversaries) Amateur arts festivals (some competitive) Commercial music festivals (hugely popular)Cultural eventsUseful reference source: Cultural events Useful reference source Evans, G (2001) Cultural planning: an urban renaissance? London: Routledge (Learning Centre and Key Texts) Also see website: www.artsfestivals.co.ukBusiness events: Business events Very large and significant sector UK companies spend £330 Million annually on a range of events Exhibitions (36%), sporting events (14%), corporate hospitality (11%), road shows (9%), trade shows (9%) and product launches (8%) Main aims: To maintain relationships To raise brand awarenessTypes of business event: Types of business event Conference and exhibition market (£6 billion per annum) Incentive travel (inbound tourism to business events) (£150 million per annum) Exhibitions (£964 million per annum) Agricultural shows Consumer shows Specialist trade shows and exhibitions Private exhibitions Scale of events: Scale of events Mega-events Global events Special events Hallmark events Major events Festivals Minor and small-scale events These categories overlap and are not hard and fastMega Events: Mega Events Events so large that they affect whole economies Are reported in the global media Highly prestigious Are usually developed following competitive bidding - countries / cities vie with one another to host them Can have major impacts, both positive and negativeMega Events – some examples: Mega Events – some examples Olympic Games Paralympic Games Commonwealth Games FIFA World Cup (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) IAAF World Championships (International Association of Athletics Federations) World Fairs and Expositions Mega Events – definition(Getz, 1997): Mega Events – definition (Getz, 1997) “Mega events, by way of their size or significance, are those that yield extraordinarily high levels of tourism, media coverage, prestige, or economic impact for the host community or destination . . . their volume should exceed 1 million visits, their capital costs should be at least $500 million, and their reputation should be of a ‘must see’ event”. Mega Events – definition(Hall, 1997): Mega Events – definition (Hall, 1997) “Mega-events such as World Fairs and Expositions, the World Soccer Cup Final or the Olympic Games, are events which are expressly targeted at the international tourism market and may be suitably described as ‘mega’ by virtue of their size in terms of attendance, target market, level of public financial involvement, political effects, extent of television coverage, construction of facilities, and impact on economic and social fabric of the host community”.Global Events: Global Events Mega-events which gain worldwide television and media coverage Includes “telethons” – e.g., LiveAid (1985) For famine relief in Ethiopia Appeal to an audience of 1.5 billion people in 160 countries Resulted in £200 million being raisedSpecial Events: Special Events Specific rituals, presentations, performances or celebrations Consciously planned and created to mark special occasions Or to achieve particular social, cultural or corporate goals and objectives Can include: National days and celebrations Important civic occasions Unique cultural performances Major sporting fixtures Corporate functions Trade promotions Product launchesSpecial Events(Getz, 1997): Special Events (Getz, 1997) Getz suggests that special events are best defined by their context A one-time or infrequently occurring event, outside normal programmes or activities of the sponsoring or organising body To the customer or guest, an opportunity for a leisure, social or cultural experience outside the normal range of choices, or beyond everyday experience Special Events(Getz, 1997): Special Events (Getz, 1997) Attributes that create and define the sense of “specialness” and make the event particularly memorable include: Festive spirit Uniqueness Quality Authenticity Tradition Hospitality Theming SymbolismHallmark Events: Hallmark Events Those events that become so closely identified with the ethos of a town, city, or region that they become synonymous with the name of the place Gain widespread recognition / awareness Confer competitive advantage in tourist market Carnival in Rio Tour de France Oktoberfest, Munich Edinburgh International Festival Mardi Gras, New Orleans Mardi Gras, Sydney Major Events: Major Events Events that by their scale and interest are capable of attracting: Significant visitor numbers Considerable media coverage Substantial economic benefits Many, but not all, are sporting eventsFestivals – origins(Policy Studies Institute, 1992): Festivals – origins (Policy Studies Institute, 1992) Traditionally a time of celebration, relaxation and recuperation Often followed a period of hard physical labour, sowing or harvesting of crops Essential features: celebration, reaffirmation of community or culture Artistic content variable; many were religious or ritualistic Music, dance and drama were important features of the celebration in many cases Function of events – summary(See Jago & Shaw paper in Readings Eight): Function of events – summary (See Jago & Shaw paper in Readings Eight) Some functions will depend on scale: To celebrate or commemorate To mark an occasion And possibly: To promote tourism (special / mega) To bring economic benefits (mega / hallmark) To attract publicity (special / mega / hallmark) To develop a themeEvent stakeholdersAnyone who has a legitimate interest in the event: Event stakeholders Anyone who has a legitimate interest in the event PRIMARY STAKEHOLDER The host organisation (body putting on the event) Local government department? Corporate/commercial organisation? Community organisation? SECONDARY STAKEHOLDERS Sponsors Media organisations The events team members – co-workers Participants and spectatorsManagement and planning: Management and planning Four key stages – form a cycle Conceptualisation Realisation Implementation EvaluationManagement and PlanningSome questions to ask at the outset (Watt, 1998): Management and Planning Some questions to ask at the outset (Watt, 1998) Why do we need/want to hold an event? What is the precise nature of the event? When / where will it be held? How can it be achieved? What cost is involved? Who will organise / attend / watch / participate / pay? How will the event be publicised? Will it interest the media? Attractive to sponsors? Any political implications? Any similar events? (cf. uniqueness) What happens afterwards? What is the next step?Objectives of a major event – exampleThe World Student Games (Sheffield, 1991): Objectives of a major event – example The World Student Games (Sheffield, 1991) To play an integral part in the economic regeneration of the area To heighten Sheffield’s profile, nationally and internationally To identify Sheffield’s potential as a major sporting venue To encourage local participation in sport and collaboration in the games To promote relocation to Sheffield for seminars and conferences To leave the city a legacy of world-class facilities for the next MillenniumObjectives of a major event – exampleThe Commonwealth Games (Manchester, 2002): Objectives of a major event – example The Commonwealth Games (Manchester, 2002) “The Inclusive Games” Many spin-offs and economic benefits intended for the city and local companies Permanent legacy – Manchester Velodrome, Manchester Aquatics Centre More than 4,000 permanent new jobs generated Also significant temporary employment (build up to and duration of games Notice, in each case, the importance of National Lottery funding in making much of this possible Impact of events: Impact of events Major events have significant impacts. Four categories: Social and cultural Physical and environmental Political Touristic and economic Social and cultural impacts of events: Social and cultural impacts of events POSITIVE IMPACTS Shared experience Revitalising traditions Building community pride Assisting community groups Increasing participation Introducing new and challenging ideas Expanding cultural perspectives NEGATIVE IMPACTS Community alienation Manipulation of community Negative community image Bad behaviour Substance abuse Social dislocation Loss of amenity Physical and environmental impactsof events: Physical and environmental impacts of events POSITIVE IMPACTS Showcasing the environment Providing models for best practice Increasing environmental awareness Ensuring an infrastructure legacy Improved transport and communications Urban transformation and renewal NEGATIVE IMPACTS Environmental damage Pollution Destruction of heritage Noise disturbance Traffic congestionPolitical impacts of events: Political impacts of events POSITIVE IMPACTS International prestige Improved profile Promotion of investment Social cohesion Development of administrative skills NEGATIVE IMPACTS Risk of event failure Misallocation of funds Lack of accountability Propaganda purposes Loss of ownership and control Legitimisation of political ideologyTouristic and economic impacts of events: Touristic and economic impacts of events POSITIVE IMPACTS Destination promotion Increased tourist visits Extended length of visitor stay Higher economic yield Increased tax revenue Permanent and temporary job creation NEGATIVE IMPACTS Community resistance to tourism Loss of authenticity Damage to reputation Exploitation Inflated prices Opportunity costsMarketing and Sponsorship: Marketing and Sponsorship Events require marketing skills developed to the highest level Events are very high profile – effective communication and highest standards of professionalism are essential Major and special events of unique significance to sponsors Sponsorship in events is likely to be on the basis of an ‘exchange relationship’ (a two-way process)Exchange relationship in sponsorship: Exchange relationship in sponsorship EVENT SEEKS: Financial investment Media exposure In-kind services SPONSOR SEEKS: Increased awareness Image enhancement Product trial Sales or hospitality opportunitiesLT1001N - Keeping ahead !WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE DONE BY NOW (Week 8): LT1001N - Keeping ahead ! WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE DONE BY NOW (Week 8) Downloaded Lectures 1- 8 from the website Revised these lectures and made your own supplementary notes Prepared Readings Seven (Tusa; Urry / Foley & McPherson; Deuchar / Terry-Chandler) for this week’s seminar Currently working on Portfolio Section Four (‘The Arts, Culture and Heritage Domain’) You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.