brazil BSES diBella dec 06 amended

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SRDC TRAVEL & LEARNING PROJECT- TO INVESTIGATE NEW HARVEST TECHNOLOGIES: 

SRDC TRAVEL & LEARNING PROJECT- TO INVESTIGATE NEW HARVEST TECHNOLOGIES

Facts about Brazil: 

Facts about Brazil Population 175 million people Sao Paulo city population: 20 million Wealthiest Sth. American country Has 40% of the world’s water Is the world’s largest exporter of: Sugar Ethanol Cattle Soybean Orange juice Sao Paulo city

Facts about Brazil: 

Facts about Brazil Very ethnic diverse community consisting of: Native South American Indians Portuguese Italian Spanish German Dutch Chinese Japanese Africans Billboard along the highway in Brazil

Facts about the Brazilian sugar industry: 

Facts about the Brazilian sugar industry Currently harvesting 386 million tonnes of cane (2006) Expected growth to 800 million tonnes of cane by 2020 Strong support from government What drives the Brazilian sugar industry? ETHANOL Sao Marthino Mill and Ethanol

Ethanol: 

Ethanol Brazil wants to be the new Mid East (without the war) to supply the world of fuel The government actively supports the ethanol program Production levels: 15 413 151 cubic metres- 2004-05 15 935 882 cubic metres- 2005-06 17 050 000 cubic metres- 2006-07 (projection) Sao Jose da Estiva Mill

Ethanol: 

Ethanol The Brazilian government has 25% mandate on fuel Flex- car are the most popular in Brazil and most other cars run on a percentage of ethanol based fuel Ethanol is usually half the price of gasoline fuels Flex car- Ford Eco Sport (Escape)

Facts about the Brazilian sugar industry: 

Facts about the Brazilian sugar industry The industry is: Technology driven Business orientated Innovative Progressive High motivated Well organised Canavalis tissue culture lab

Issues facing the Brazilian industry: 

Issues facing the Brazilian industry Increased labour costs Decrease in manual labourers Loss of skilled labour to building & construction & other industries High costs associated with factory to port Rapid expansion of industry Dependant on viable sugar and ethanol industry

Facts about the Brazilian sugar industry: 

Facts about the Brazilian sugar industry 30% of crop harvested mechanically and increasing rapidly Moving towards GCTB system due to implementation of mechanical harvesting Santal Harvester- Santa Elisa

Facts about the Brazilian sugar industry: 

Facts about the Brazilian sugar industry CCS levels similar to Australia Size of farms varies, however predominately very large farms. Some farms harvesting up to 7 million tonnes Santa Elisa farm

Productivity: 

Productivity Productivity is generally increasing throughout the region Average yield- 85-100 tcph Examples: Sao Marthino mill (good red soil) 1980’s- 70 tcph Now- 92 tcph Sao Jose de Estiva (sandy red soil) 1980’s- 85 tcph Now- 100 tcph

Productivity: 

Productivity Why the increase in productivity: Use of new technologies Improved varieties GCTB Crop rotations Nutrient monitoring Use of compost Implementation of controlled traffic Excellent weed control Improved harvesting techniques Floating basecutters Improved row profiles Sao Martinho farm

Soil types: 

Soil types There are predominately 2 major soil groups in the region New cane areas are high in aluminium, low in P and pH. Voltron at UNESP

Season Length: 

Season Length The average season length is 170-200 days Does it rain during the harvest season? – YES Average rainfall- ~1500mm / year Mills commence harvesting in early April Mills conclude crushing in November Industry believes in starting early to: Maximise capital infrastructure Allow for sufficient time for crops to maximise full yield potential during peak growing periods in December- March Prepared to sacrifice CCS (PCC) to obtain other benefits Improved varieties and use of crop ripeners has reduced the impact of the early start

Environment: 

Environment No land is currently being cleared for the sugarcane expansion; most land is grazing land Government policy requires the following: No cane burning by 2020 20% of land owned by a grower will be native vegetation or revegetated No pollution of waterways with waste water

Crop rotations: 

Crop rotations It is a common practice to rotate cane with: Soybean Peanuts Sunhemp Sunhemp- Ribeirao Preto area

Planting : 

Planting Planting is done by hand or through the use of billet planters Most billet planters are double row Row spacing: 1.4- 1.85m Billet planting is a 12- 24 hour operation Guaira Mill- time: 8pm

Controlled traffic: 

Controlled traffic There is a move to CT systems Appears to be a positive impact Sao Marthino & Sao Jose de Estiva moving towards a 3m system Sao Joao has a 1.85m system (6,000 hectares of dual row) Having difficulties with dual rows Considering 1.85m single row Sao Martinho Mill farm

Nutrient applications: 

Nutrient applications Plant cane: 50-70 kg N/ha 120 kg P/ha 120 kg K/ha Ratoon cane: 100-120 kg N/ha 20 kg P/ha 100-120 kg K/ha Micronutrients applied as required or supplied by dunder or compost applications

Nutrient applications: 

Nutrient applications Nutrients are applied as: Granulated fertiliser In compost Dunder Liquid fertilisers Lime and gypsum application Applied by large swath applicators: 2-9 rows Sao Joao farm

Nutrient applications- Compost: 

Nutrient applications- Compost Composition of compost: Mill mud (dried to 40%) Lime Gypsum Dunder Sao Carlos and Santa Luiza mills

Weed control: 

Weed control Is of a very high standard Long residual pre-emergent and post emergent herbicides are used effectively Spray residual herbicides in burnt and green cane systems Large swath application equipment used Spray herbicides throughout the season Low costs for application and herbicides Sao Martinho mill farm- 13 row applicator

Weed control- plant: 

Weed control- plant Herbicides commonly used for plant cane weed control: Hexazione/ Duiron (Velpar)@ 1.5kg/ha + Clomazone (Gamit)@ 1.5 L/ha or Kristmat @ 1.5 kg/ha or Tebultiuron (Combine) @1.5L/ha (pre-emergent up to 2 leaf stage) Sulfentrazone (Boral) @ 1.5L/ha + Clomazone @ 1.5 L/ha (pre-emergent) Ametryn/ Clomazone (Sinerge) @ 4-5 L/ha

Weed control- ratoon: 

Weed control- ratoon Herbicides commonly used for ratoon cane weed control: Amicarbonoze (Dynamic) @ 1.5-2 kg /ha (overtop) Imazapic (Flame) @ 300-400 mls/ha (before ratoons emerge) Sulfentrazone (Boral) @ 1.5L/ha + Ametryn @ 3L/ha (overtop and contols nutgrass) Hexazione/ Duiron (Velpar) @ 2.5kg/ha (overtop up until 2 leaf stage of ratoon) Velpar @1.5 kg/ha + Tebultiuron (Combine) @1.5L/ha (before ratoon emergence) Hexazione / Clomazone (Ranger) @ 2-2.5 kg/ha (up to 4 leaf stage of ratoon) Ametryn @ 3L/ha + Krismat @ 2 kg/ha (overtop and contols nutgrass)

Weed control- broadleaf: 

Weed control- broadleaf Herbicides commonly used for over the top broadleaf weed control: Amicarbonoze (Dynamic) @ 1.5-2 kg /ha (overtop) 2,4-D @ 1-1.5 L/ha + Tordon @ 0.75-1.5 L/ha 2,4-D @ 1-1.5 L/ha + Atradex @ 2.2 kg/ha 2,4-D @ 1- 1.5L/ha + Krismat @ 2 kg/ha (does nutgrass also) 2,4-D can be mixed with residual herbicides like: Velpar, Clomazone, Sulfentrazone Carfentrazone (Aurora) @ 50-70 mls/ha Note: Is a replacement for 2,4-D

Weed control- headlands: 

Weed control- headlands Herbicides commonly used for control of weed on headlands: Glyphosate + Imazapic (Flame) Glyphosate + Clomazone (Gamit) Glyphosate + Sulfentrazone (Boral) Industry believes in weed free headlands prevent the spread of problem weeds (like cough and Guinea grass) Glyphosate + Gamit- Santa Luiza mill area

Weed control: 

Weed control Velpar + Krismat- 120 DAP (plant cane) Dynamic – 100 DAP (ratoon overtop)

Pest and disease: 

Pest and disease Major pests: Cane grubs (RF) Cicarda (RF) Cane borer (SF) Termites (SF & RF) Sfenofulos (RF) Abbreviations: RF- Root feeder SF- Stalk feeder Cicarda

Pest and disease: 

Pest and disease Control measures: IPM programs in place Insecticides used in some cases Bio-control of: Cicarda Cane borer Sfenofulos Some mills have there own labs. Bio-control production- Sao Martinho

Crop ripeners: 

Crop ripeners Crop ripeners are used extensively throughout the industry 2000 hectares /yr- Santa Luiza 10 000 hectares /yr- Sao Martinho Moddus, Curavial and Roundup are used Moddus is the preferred ripener Ripeners are used predominately early in the season, however some late applications do occur Industry see the products as a useful management tool Industry is considering a risk-share arrangement similar to Australia

Crop ripeners- Moddus: 

Crop ripeners- Moddus Moddus is the preferred crop ripener because it is the most reliable and is crop safe Rate- 0.8L/ha, however there are a few variations under particular situations Response to Moddus- similar to Australia Application time- Feb., March and April Yield response: Losses may occur (1-5 tcph) when sprayed Feb. and March, because the crop has not yet reached full yield potential

Crop ripeners- Moddus: 

Crop ripeners- Moddus Benefits of Moddus: Increased CCS Allows for an extension of the season length Improved sugar quality (better colour) Improved ratooning Possibly an additional ratoon (Santa Luiza Mill comment) Reduction in flowering (when applied early) Better maturation to the total stalk, especially tops Improved cane root system Better water and nutrient uptake Better tolerance to drought

Harvesting : 

Harvesting Harvesters owned by millers Very well maintained and operated Average harvesting speed: 5-7 kms/hr (which is set by mill management) Average throughput per day: 500-800 tons Emphasis on cane quality Average age of fleet <7years old Santa Elisa Mill farm

Harvesting : 

Harvesting Tonnes harvested annually per machine: 150 000- Sao Joao 145-170 000- Sao Martinho 140 000- Guaira All harvesting operations 24 hour, with 3 shifts. New John Deere 3510- Sao Jose de Estiva Mill

Harvesting technology: 

Harvesting technology Advanced block recording systems in place Yield mapping has commenced Basecutter height sensing a commercial reality Fan speed and feedtrain automation currently being researched and trialled in field Guieria Mill area

Harvesting equipment: 

Harvesting equipment New designed basecutter knives

Basecutter height systems: 

Basecutter height systems Are a commercial reality Systems available: Tech Agro John Deere (CAMECO) Case CTC Above: Tech Agro basecutter- Santa Elisa Left: CTC basecutter- Santa Luiza

Basecutter height systems: 

Basecutter height systems Advantages: Less blade wear Decreased cane pick up Less driver fatigue Operates on most soil types and conditions Improved sugar quality (CCS, colour) Less soil intake into the: Harvester Haulouts Mill Above: JD3510 operator Left: Ground job- Sao Jose de Estiva

Tech Agro: 

Tech Agro Cuban based company operating in Brazil Offers: Floating basecutter system GPS yield mapping Sugar mill automation systems Research underway: Automation of the harvester feedtrain and forward speed control (infield- 2007) Variable rate nutrient and herbicide application equipment (in trials at Nova America)

Cane transport: 

Cane transport Road transport is used throughout the region The system appears effective shifting cane quickly from harvesters. Santa Elisa Mill farm

Milling: 

Milling There are over 350 mills in Brazil and increasing Lots of new high tech mill due to the expansion Tonnes harvested range 1.5M- 7M Mill efficiency varies Examples: Sao Martinho- 94% and Sao Jose de Estiva- 96% Sao Jose de Estiva Mill

Milling- locations: 

Milling- locations

By-products: 

By-products Most mills produce numerous by-products like: Ethanol Electricity Solvents Food additives Stockfeed

Research & Development: 

Research & Development The industry has very strong R&D programs The industry is investing significant amounts of money The industry values R&D

Sao Marthino: 

Sao Marthino The world’s best display of industry best practice in all sectors One of the Brazilian industry leaders Sao Marthino Mill

Sao Marthino: 

Sao Marthino Tonnes crushed: 7M (2005) & 6.74M (2006) PCC (CCS): 14.47 (2006) Average cane yield: 92 tcph (2006) Mill efficiency: 94% Season length: 180- 200 days

Sao Marthino: 

Sao Marthino Very good farming practices Farm layout is optimised CT, GCTB and IPM programs in place Weed management practices- excellent Large swath operations

Sao Marthino: 

Sao Marthino Harvester throughput: 120-170 000 tons per year Harvester throughput: 1800 tonnes per day All harvesters fitted with dataloggers and CTC floating basecutter system Row profiles are good

Opportunities for the Australian industry : 

Opportunities for the Australian industry Further increase farming, harvesting and milling efficiencies Investigate increasing swath for planting, cultivation, fertilising, weed control and harvesting operations Adoption of sustainable farming systems (like: crop rotations, CT, improved weed and nutrient management) Investigate new harvesting technologies (ie. GPS, floating basecutters, yield mapping, crop ripeners, etc)

Opportunities for the Australian industry : 

Opportunities for the Australian industry Support and invest in research and development Improved capital utilisation Investigate opportunities for value adding (like: ethanol, stockfeed, bio-fuels, etc) WE CAN DO IT !

Are we still in the race?: 

Are we still in the race? YES. We need to work smarter. Reduce costs further. Be competitive. Do not become complacent. Invest in the future. Work together for the whole of industries common good. WE CAN DO IT OUR WAY & BE IN RACE!!

Special thanks: 

Special thanks To: SRDC Andrew Wood (CSR Sugar) Tech Agro Our partners, families and business partners BSES HCPSL BPS QMCHA Edison Baldan (Junior) Our Brazilian hosts Lawrence & Junior