TGchapter6 Concepts

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THE GEOGRAPHY OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS Chapter 6 – Urban Transportation CONCEPTS Copyright © 1999-2007, Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, 11549 USA. Jean-paul.Rodrigue@hofstra.edu You may use the figures within for educational purposes only. No modification or redistribution permitted. For more information: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans

Concept 1: 

Concept 1 Transportation and Urban Form

World Urban Population, 1950-2005 with Projections to 2020 (in billions): 

World Urban Population, 1950-2005 with Projections to 2020 (in billions)

The 15 Largest cities in the world, 1975-2015 (millions): 

The 15 Largest cities in the world, 1975-2015 (millions)

Cities with more than 5 Million People, 2000: 

Cities with more than 5 Million People, 2000

Percentage of Urban Population by Region, 1950-2030: 

Percentage of Urban Population by Region, 1950-2030

Urban Population by Region, 1950-2030 (in millions): 

Urban Population by Region, 1950-2030 (in millions)

Transportation, Urban Form and Spatial Structure: 

Infrastructures Modes Users Transportation, Urban Form and Spatial Structure Transportation Urban Form Spatial imprint Urban Spatial Structure Spatial interaction

Nodes, Linkages and Urban Form: 

Nodes, Linkages and Urban Form Accessibility node Economic node Built area Road / transit linkage Rail linkage Maritime linkage Air linkage CBD Port District Manufacturing District

One Hour Commuting According to Different Urban Transportation Modes: 

One Hour Commuting According to Different Urban Transportation Modes Streetcar line Freeway Walking Streetcar Cycling Automobile Automobile with freeways 10 km

Evolution of the Spatial Structure of a City : 

A B C Core activities Central activities Peripheral activities Evolution of the Spatial Structure of a City Central area Major transport axis

Possible Urban Movement Patterns: 

Possible Urban Movement Patterns Monocentric Polycentric Organized Disorganized Primary flow Secondary flow

Evolution of Transportation and Urban Form in North American and European Cities : 

I - Walking-horsecar era (1800-1890) II - Streetcar era (1890-1920) III - Automobile era (1920-1945) IV - Highway era (1945-) II III IV Evolution of Transportation and Urban Form in North American and European Cities II III IV I I Streetcar line Highway North America Europe

Evolution of Transportation and Urban Form in European Cities (to be redesigned) : 

Built up area prior to introduction of mechanical transport Development consequent on steam railways Development consequent on tramways Development consequent on motor buses Development consequent on private car Evolution of Transportation and Urban Form in European Cities (to be redesigned)

Evolution of Urban Densities in North America and Europe : 

Density Distance North America I II III IV Density Distance Europe I II III IV I - Prior to mechanized transport II - Early forms of mechanized transport (tramways) III - Diffusion of motor vehicles (buses, automobiles) IV - Suburbanization Evolution of Urban Densities in North America and Europe r(NA) r(E)

Density and Car Use in North American Cities, 1991: 

Density and Car Use in North American Cities, 1991

Average Journey to Work Travel Time, 1990: 

Average Journey to Work Travel Time, 1990

Service Attributes of Urban Transportation Modes: 

Service Attributes of Urban Transportation Modes

Urban Form, Hempstead, Long Island, New York: 

Urban Form, Hempstead, Long Island, New York Road (11.9%) Parking (21.8%) Building (5.3%) Other (61.0%)

Rings of Mobility: 

Rings of Mobility Pedestrian Road and parking Cycling Transit Terminal Density A B C

Performance by Urban Transport Mode: 

Performance by Urban Transport Mode

The Rationale of a Ring Road : 

Secondary Center City Center Avoiding the congested central area Structuring Suburban development The Rationale of a Ring Road Spatial Structure Accessibility 5 10 10 5 5 10 10 5 A B A to B = 30 A B 5 10 10 5 5 10 10 5 10 10 10 10 A to B = 20 Before After

Type I - Completely Motorized Network: 

Main Road Highway Activity center Type I - Completely Motorized Network

Type II - Weak Center: 

Main Road Highway Activity center Transit line Type II - Weak Center

Type III - Strong Center: 

Main Road Highway Activity center Transit line Type III - Strong Center

Type IV - Traffic Limitation: 

Type IV - Traffic Limitation Main Road Highway Activity center Transit line

Scale and Urban Spatial Structure: 

Scale and Urban Spatial Structure City District Community Highway and transit systems Major transport terminals (ports and airports) Streets Basic services Residences Main roads Employment zones Scale Components of the spatial structure

Suburban Development along an Highway Interchange : 

Retail Office Industrial Residential Highway Railway Core Suburban Development along an Highway Interchange

Concept 2: 

Concept 2 Transportation and Land Use

Under construction: 

Under construction Spatial Accumulation Residential Production / Distribution Retailing Administrative

Transportation, Activity Systems and Land Use: 

Infrastructures Modes Users Transportation, Activity Systems and Land Use Transportation Urban Form Spatial imprint Urban Spatial Structure Spatial interaction Labor Customers Suppliers Activity Land Use Pattern Spatial location

Formal and Functional Land Use: 

Formal and Functional Land Use Road Parking Building Other Formal Land Use Functional Land Use Road Parking Residential Other Commercial Institutional Industrial

Relationships between Land Uses: 

Relationships between Land Uses C F E B D A D A B C E F G G Passengers Freight Land Use Relationships

Transport Infrastructure and Activity Location: 

Transport Infrastructure and Activity Location Roads Highways Bus routes Metro and passenger rail Freight based Population based Mixed Mixed

Transportation / Land Use Interactions: 

Transportation / Land Use Interactions Transportation Land Use Accessibility Activity Patterns

The Transport / Land Use System: 

Land Use Transport System Spatial Interactions Accessibility Traffic assignment models Transport capacity Economic base theory Location theory Traffic generation and attraction models Spatial interaction models Distance decay parameters Modal split Infrastructures (Supply) Friction of Space (Impendence) Spatial Accumulation (Demand) The Transport / Land Use System

Von Thunen's Regional Land Use Model : 

Isolated State Modified Conditions Livestock farming Three-field system Crop framing, fallow and pasture Crop farming without fallow Firewood and lumber production Market gardening and milk production Navigable river Central city Von Thunen's Regional Land Use Model Sub-center

Inference of Von Thunen’s Model to Continental United States: 

Inference of Von Thunen’s Model to Continental United States Vegetables Dairy Cotton and Tobacco Corn and Soybeans Wheat Beef Cattle and Sheep Forest Corn and Soybeans Wheat Beef Cattle and Sheep Cotton and Tobacco Forest Specialty Crops Specialty Crops Dairy Vegetables Assumptions 1. New York City the only market 2. Crops ranked by rent paying ability 3. No terrain or climatic variation Assumptions 1. New York City the only market 2. Crops ranked by rent paying ability 3. No terrain variation 4. Climatic variation considered A B

Burgess’ Urban Land Use Model : 

IV - Working class zone V - Residential zone VI - Commuter zone I - Loop (downtown) II - Factory zone III - Zone of transition LOOP Little Sicily Apartment Houses Bungalow Section Single Family Dwellings Residential District Ghetto Two Plan Area Second Immigrant Settlement Model Chicago, 1920s Black Belt Burgess’ Urban Land Use Model

Sector and Nuclei Urban Land Use Models : 

2 3 4 4 5 3 3 1 3 3 3 1 CBD 2 Wholesale and light manufacturing 3 Low-class residential 4 Middle-class residential 5 High-class residential 1 2 3 4 5 3 3 6 7 8 9 6 Heavy manufacturing 7 Sub business district 8 Residential suburb 9 Industrial suburb Sector Nuclei Sector and Nuclei Urban Land Use Models 2

Hybrid Land Use Model: 

Hybrid Land Use Model Center Industrial / Manufacturing Commercial Residential Transport axis

Transportation and the Constitution of Urban Landscapes: 

Railways Centers Roads Suburb Towns Suburb New suburb Main roads Highways CBD A B C D E Transportation and the Constitution of Urban Landscapes Walking Horsecar

Land Economics : 

Price Quantity of Land Supply Demand Towards downtown Towards the periphery Q1 Q2 Q3 P1 P2 P3 Land Economics

Land Rent Theory and Rent Curve: 

Land Rent Theory and Rent Curve 1 km 5 km 10 km S = 3.14 S = 75.40 S = 235.62 1/S ΔD Δ1/S S = π D2 Rent

Land Rent and Land Use : 

Rent Distance A- Retailing B- Industry/ commercial C - Apartments D - Single houses 1 – Bid rent curves Land Rent and Land Use 2 – Overlay of bid rent curves City limits

Contemporary Modifications of the Land Rent Theory: 

Contemporary Modifications of the Land Rent Theory Rent A – Conventional CBD B – Commercial / industry C – High to medium density residential D – Sub center E – Suburbia A B C D E

Land Use Value by Activity Sector in Function of the Distance from the CBD: 

Land Use Value by Activity Sector in Function of the Distance from the CBD Distance from CBD Land Use Value Commercial Multi Family Residential Single Family Residential

Basic Urban Dynamics: 

Basic Urban Dynamics Transport Investment Terminals Infrastructures Modes Accessibility Passengers Freight Information Economic Performance Economic growth Agglomeration / clustering Productivity Employment Investment Feedback

Dynamics of Urban Change: 

Dynamics of Urban Change Land Use Network Commuting Freight Transport Employment Workplaces Housing Population Very Slow Very Fast Fast Slow Very Slow Pace of Change

Concept 3: 

Concept 3 Urban Mobility

Transit Technology and Urban Development, Late 19th – Early 20th Century: 

Transit Technology and Urban Development, Late 19th – Early 20th Century City Center Urban Development New Urban Development Commercial Strips Rail Station Intercity Railroad Streetcar Line 30 Minutes Walk

Public Transport Market Share in the United States, 1900-2005: 

Public Transport Market Share in the United States, 1900-2005

Components of an Urban Transit System: 

Components of an Urban Transit System X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Metro station Transfer X Transit rail station Bus stop Express stop Shuttle stop Paratransit Taxi service boundary

Private Vehicle and Public Transport Market Share, 1990/91: 

Private Vehicle and Public Transport Market Share, 1990/91 Asian Cities European Cities American Cities

Trips by Public Transport in the United States, 1970-2004: 

Trips by Public Transport in the United States, 1970-2004

Transit and Urban Form: 

Transit and Urban Form Adaptive Cities Adaptive Transit Hybrids

Transit and Urban Land Use Impacts: 

Transit and Urban Land Use Impacts Accessibility Convergence Integration Low Average High Transit Use

Accessibility along a Transit Line: 

Accessibility along a Transit Line a b c d e 5 min. 10 15 20 25 25 min. 20 15 10 5 30 min. 5 min. a b c d e Stops

Types of Urban Movements: 

Types of Urban Movements

Income and Urban Transport Demand: 

Income and Urban Transport Demand Income Trips / Capita / Day Work Shopping Social Business

Main Purposes of Urban Trips : 

Main Purposes of Urban Trips

Typical Urban Day Trips by Modes, Origins and Destinations: 

Typical Urban Day Trips by Modes, Origins and Destinations Home Work School (drop off child) Restaurant Shopping mall 8:00 AM Carpool 8:15 AM Drive alone 12:30 PM Walk 1:30 PM Walk 5:30 PM Drive alone 7:00 PM Drive alone 8:30 PM Drive alone Passengers Freight 7:00 AM Garbage pickup 1:30 AM Delivery 2:30 AM Return 10:30 PM Delivery 10:45 PM Return 10:00 AM Parcel Drop off 10:05 AM Parcel Pickup

Urban Travel by Purpose and by Time of the Day in a North American Metropolis: 

Urban Travel by Purpose and by Time of the Day in a North American Metropolis

Time of Departure for Home to Work Trips, United States: 

Time of Departure for Home to Work Trips, United States

Typical Truck Trips Distribution by Time of the Day: 

Typical Truck Trips Distribution by Time of the Day

International Journey to Work Travel Times by Population Density, 1990: 

International Journey to Work Travel Times by Population Density, 1990

Home-to-Work Trips Modes, United States, 1985-2005: 

Home-to-Work Trips Modes, United States, 1985-2005

Modal Split for Global Cities, 1995: 

Modal Split for Global Cities, 1995

Modal Split for Some Cities, 1990: 

Modal Split for Some Cities, 1990

Modal Split for Some Asian Cities, 1990s: 

Modal Split for Some Asian Cities, 1990s

Mode Share for Commuting, New York, 1980-2000: 

Mode Share for Commuting, New York, 1980-2000

Metropolitan Job Decentralization, United States, 1993-1996: 

Metropolitan Job Decentralization, United States, 1993-1996

Accessibility to Employment in Urban Areas : 

Mobility deprived population Mobile population Employment center Transit Car Accessibility to Employment in Urban Areas

Annual VMT by Age Group and Gender, United States, 1995: 

Annual VMT by Age Group and Gender, United States, 1995

Destination for Work-Related Movements in the United States : 

(27.4%) Central City (16.7%) (6.4%) Suburban Area (33.8%) (1.5%) (1.4%) (4.1%) (0.9%) Destination for Work-Related Movements in the United States

Percentage of Workers Using Public Transportation, Selected Urban Areas, 2000: 

Percentage of Workers Using Public Transportation, Selected Urban Areas, 2000

Concept 4: 

Concept 4 Urban Transport Problems

Percentage of Households by Number of Vehicles, 1977-2005: 

Percentage of Households by Number of Vehicles, 1977-2005

Land Area Consumed by the Car in Selected Countries, 1999: 

Land Area Consumed by the Car in Selected Countries, 1999

Geographical Paradoxes behind Urban Transport Problems: 

Geographical Paradoxes behind Urban Transport Problems Impacts Specialization Agglomeration Road Imprint Congestion Automobile dependency Monofunctional North American Suburb European City Japanese City

Key Issues in Urban Freight Transportation: 

Key Issues in Urban Freight Transportation

Factors Contributing to the Growth of Driving in the United States: 

Factors Contributing to the Growth of Driving in the United States

Levels of Automobile Dependency: 

Levels of Automobile Dependency Automobile Dependency Transportation alternatives Car only 50% 75% Low Medium High

Space / Time Relationships and Modal Choice: 

Space / Time Relationships and Modal Choice SPACE TIME Concentrated Dispersed Automobile Dependency Mixed Transit Congestion Low Density High High Low Best case Worst case

The Vicious Circle of Congestion : 

Congestion Public pressures to increase capacity New capacity Movements are easier Urban sprawl is favored The average length of movements increases The number of movements increases The Vicious Circle of Congestion

Average Number of Hours of Delay per Peak Commuter per Year, Selected American Cities, 1982-2003: 

Average Number of Hours of Delay per Peak Commuter per Year, Selected American Cities, 1982-2003

Average Daily Commuting Time, European Countries, 2002 (in minutes): 

Average Daily Commuting Time, European Countries, 2002 (in minutes)

Urban Density and Driving Speed, Selected Global Cities: 

Urban Density and Driving Speed, Selected Global Cities

Traffic Conditions in Major American Cities, 1982-2003: 

Traffic Conditions in Major American Cities, 1982-2003

Parking Accumulation by Land Use by Time of the Day: 

Parking Accumulation by Land Use by Time of the Day

Recurring Congestion: 

Recurring Congestion Unused Capacity Congestion

Average Hourly Traffic on George Washington Bridge, 2002: 

Average Hourly Traffic on George Washington Bridge, 2002

Home-to-Work Commute Profile, United States, 1983-2003: 

Home-to-Work Commute Profile, United States, 1983-2003

Roadway Congestion Index, Selected Cities, United States, 1982-2000: 

Roadway Congestion Index, Selected Cities, United States, 1982-2000

Transit Use and Car Ownership in Selected Cities, 1993: 

Transit Use and Car Ownership in Selected Cities, 1993

Largest Subway Systems in the World by Annual Ridership and Metropolitan Population, 2000: 

Largest Subway Systems in the World by Annual Ridership and Metropolitan Population, 2000

Estimated Ridership of the World’s Largest Public Transit Systems, 1998: 

Estimated Ridership of the World’s Largest Public Transit Systems, 1998

Mean Travel Time to Work for Selected American Cities (in minutes), 1980-1990: 

Mean Travel Time to Work for Selected American Cities (in minutes), 1980-1990

Source of Revenue for Bus Operations, Europe, 2002: 

Source of Revenue for Bus Operations, Europe, 2002

Challenges of Urban Transit: 

Challenges of Urban Transit High density transit city Low density suburb Decentralization Main transit line Connectivity Travel patterns serviced by transit Travel patterns not serviced by transit Fixity

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