geography and history of ancient greece

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The Geography and History of Ancient Greece: 

The Geography and History of Ancient Greece

Three important factors:: 

Three important factors: 1. The sea. Mediterranean influenced development The Adriatic on west, Aegean on east, Peloponnesian peninsula Many islands and coast of Asia were Greek

2. The mountains: 

2. The mountains Separated city-states (polis) from each other -- Encouraged diversity

3. The climate: 

3. The climate Climate is “Mediterranean” Arid and hot in summer Cool and rainy in winter Cold and snowy in mountains

Lifestyle affected by geography:: 

Lifestyle affected by geography: Outdoor lifestyle—marketplace, etc. Clothing simple Dryness made people live in villages for water Farming fairly easy – usually enough food for all Seafaring—fishermen and traders Traveled all over Mediterranean

Lifestyle: 

Lifestyle Most Greeks were farmers, some craftsmen, fishermen Life hard and short – 35 yrs. Slavery was widely practiced Male-dominated society Women had no political rights

Religion gave rise to culture:: 

Religion gave rise to culture: Polytheistic – large pantheon of gods – the “Olympians” Gods represented natural forces and human behavior Anthropomorphic – “man-form”

Survey of Greek History:: 

Survey of Greek History: Importance of archeology First Greek-like civilization was the Minoan – island of Crete Excavated by Sir Arthur Evans, 19th c.

Minoan culture – c. 3000-1450 B. C. E.: 

Minoan culture – c. 3000-1450 B. C. E. Capital was Cnossos (Knossos) High level of culture Beautiful architecture, etc. From them comes legends of Theseus and the Minotaur

Mycenean Culture- 1600-1200: 

Mycenean Culture- 1600-1200 Conquered Minoans around 1400, capital was Mycenae People who fought the Trojan Wars (Iliad, Odyssey) Had an aristocractic form of gov’t – many small kingdoms

Mycenae excavated by Heinrich Schliemann– 1870’s: 

Mycenae excavated by Heinrich Schliemann– 1870’s Also excavated Troy They had a written language Eventually conquered by northern invaders – the Dorians Greece enters the Dark Ages

The Dark Ages—1100-700: 

The Dark Ages—1100-700 Primitive times—few foreign contacts Established their characteristic culture By 700 alphabet from Phoenicians

Dark Ages: 

Dark Ages Homeric epics written (Troy falls in 1250 B. C.) --Iliad, Odyssey c. 800-700 B. C. Polis (city-states) are forming First Olympic games held 776 B. C.

Age of Colonization/Expansion—700-500 B. C.: 

Age of Colonization/Expansion—700-500 B. C. Establishment of colonies all over Mediterraean Pan-hellenic Centers established – Olympia, Delphi, etc. “Hellenes”

Delphi – dedicated to Apollo: 

Delphi – dedicated to Apollo “The navel of the world” People/polis consulted oracle about important questions

Art flourished in this age: 

Art flourished in this age Hesiod – Theogony (the birth of the universe and gods); Works and Days 700 B. B. Homer – Iliad and Odyssey— Tales of the Trojan wars The great heroes – Achilles, Odysseus

Two city-states emerged as leaders – Athens and Sparta: 

Two city-states emerged as leaders – Athens and Sparta Very different Athens a democracy Sparta a military dictatorship (Sparta conquered most of Peloponnesian peninsula in 500’s)

Classical Era– 499-400 : 

Classical Era– 499-400 Greece reached her pinnacle of culture and power Athens military and cultural leader Flowering of art, architecture, philosophy, science

Persian Wars begin Classical Era : 

Persian Wars begin Classical Era Series of battles from 490-479 B. C. led by Athens Little Greece conquers mighty Persia under Darius, Xerxes Battles such as Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis are still studied

Classical Age: 

Classical Age After war Delian League formed – controlled by Athens in extensive empire Purpose was to prevent Persia from returning

Classical Era: 

Classical Era Often called “Age of Pericles” Supported extensive building in Athens Supported drama productions Athens colonized all over

Classical Era ended by Peloponnesian War-431-404: 

Classical Era ended by Peloponnesian War-431-404 Other polis alarmed at Athens’ domination Sparta formed coalition Athens eventually defeated War extremely bloody and long

Sparta – Athens’ rival: 

Sparta – Athens’ rival A military dictatorship Warriors lived to fight, lived apart from families in barracks Sparta controlled surrounding peoples -- serfs Eventually defeated in 371

The Fourth Century—399-300 : 

The Fourth Century—399-300 Era of political confusion Foreign wars/revolutions Great era for culture, philosophy flourished – era of Plato and Socrates

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle: 

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Each made his contributions Socrates Plato’s teacher Plato Aristotle’s teacher Socrates executed by Athens in 399

Rise of power in Macedonia : 

Rise of power in Macedonia Athens still the leader, but weaker Philip I of Macedonia extends power Athenian leaders warn of danger Battle of Chaeronea ends Greek independence, conquered by Philip and his 18 yr. old son Alexander

Hellenistic Age – 336-30 B. C.: 

Hellenistic Age – 336-30 B. C. Alexander, the Great (336-323) conquered most of known world, extended Greek civilization Conquered as far as Persia, India

Alexander, the Great: 

Alexander, the Great Great military leader and ruler Was educated, student of Aristotle Reorganized govt’s of conquered areas, “Hellenized” these areas

After Alexander’s death:: 

After Alexander’s death: Empire divided among generals Greece never independent again Greece culture continued to spread Rome conquers Greece in 30 B.C.

Hellenistic Culture: 

Hellenistic Culture Greek art, drama, philosophy, literature, etc. continued to dominate Roman religion similar to Greek Greek culture influenced Christianity

Hellenistic Art: 

Hellenistic Art More emotional, ornate than “Classical” More humanistic Some great contributions from this era

The End: 

The End