cadez 05

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Physics in the vicinity of black holes: 

Physics in the vicinity of black holes Andrej Čadež, Massimo Calvani, Andreja Gomboc, Claudio Fanton, Uroš Kostić

Plan of the talk: 

Plan of the talk Black hole solutions Light-like and time-like orbits Astrophysical evidence Acreetion disks and line profiles Effects due to curved space-time and tidal interaction

Schwarzschild solution : 

Schwarzschild solution Transformation to Novikov coordinates; Introduce: and find that the metric Can be transformed into the above, where the coordinates are related as shown in next picture

Constant Schwarzschild coordinates are shown as colored curves and constant Schw. Time as black lines: 

Constant Schwarzschild coordinates are shown as colored curves and constant Schw. Time as black lines

Orbits in exterior Schwarzschild space-time: 

Orbits in exterior Schwarzschild space-time

Slide7: 

Types of lightlike geodesics in the outer region of the Schwarzschild space-time constants of motion: angular momentum, two components of orbit normal Timelike geodesics are similar, except that there are also precessing Kepler type orbits constants of motion: energy, angular momentum, two components of orbit normal All equations of orbits are analyticaly solvable in terms of elliptic functions (Čadež&Kostič,Phys.Rev.D72,104024(2005))

L/=10: 

L/=10 Left:fixed small angular momentum, increasing energy>c2 Right:fixed >c2 energy, decreasing angular momentum Down bound <c2 energy

Kerr metric: 

Kerr metric

Geodesic in the outer region of Kerr space-time are similar to those in the Schwarzschild space-time, except that orbital angular momentum is coupled to the angular momentum of the black hole, which induces a precession of the orbit about the black hole spin axis with the angular velocity proportional to 1/r3. As a result orbits can no longer be considered planar. For light-like orbits only two constants are known: angular momentum and Carter’s constant, which suffices to analytically express only the projection of the orbit equation on the r- “plane” (Fanton,Calvani,deFelice,Čadež:PASJ49,159-169(1997)), the  coordinate and the time are not known to be expressible analytically.: 

Geodesic in the outer region of Kerr space-time are similar to those in the Schwarzschild space-time, except that orbital angular momentum is coupled to the angular momentum of the black hole, which induces a precession of the orbit about the black hole spin axis with the angular velocity proportional to 1/r3. As a result orbits can no longer be considered planar. For light-like orbits only two constants are known: angular momentum and Carter’s constant, which suffices to analytically express only the projection of the orbit equation on the r- “plane” (Fanton,Calvani,deFelice,Čadež:PASJ49,159-169(1997)), the  coordinate and the time are not known to be expressible analytically.

Astrophysical evidence: 

Astrophysical evidence Stellar mass black holes are very small In order to find them, people were looking for binaries with one dark and very massive (more than 3 solar masses) component. A few were found, but it was very difficult to confirm the mass of the dark component, and, in particular, to exclude the possibility that the dark component is a neutron star. Quasars, the superluminous galaxies, that were known to have very small (at most a few light years or light months) central engines were theorized to be powered by massive (up to 109 Solar Masses) black holes. The first strong hint of the existence of galactic black holes came from Hubble space telescope:

Akrecijski disk okrog središča galaksije NGC6251 (posneto 1999): 

Akrecijski disk okrog središča galaksije NGC6251 (posneto 1999) Središče galaksije NGC9822a

Aktivne galaksije so podobne kvazarjem in iz njih brizgajo podobni ultrarelativistični curki, vidni v radijski svetlobi Spodaj radijska slika, levo optična: 

Aktivne galaksije so podobne kvazarjem in iz njih brizgajo podobni ultrarelativistični curki, vidni v radijski svetlobi Spodaj radijska slika, levo optična

Aktivna galaksija M87 radijsko in optično; doplerskahitrost kroženja v disku: 

Aktivna galaksija M87 radijsko in optično; doplerskahitrost kroženja v disku

Akrecijski diski okoli kompaktnih zvezd – tako si predstavljamo: 

Akrecijski diski okoli kompaktnih zvezd – tako si predstavljamo

Radijska slika SS433: 

Radijska slika SS433

Disks and jets are ubiquitous, but to prove that they are formed around a black hole, one must show that disk material is orbiting at a velocity close to speed of light and we do not have the resolution to distinguish between the approaching and receding part of the disk. When observing the disk at coarser resolution, the spectral contibutions from approaching and receding parts blend into a Doppler broadened spectral line. Doppler broadenings of a few 1000km/sec were observed in some active galaxies, but still far from the near speed of light velocity expected in a relativistic dics around the black hole. The reason is that the temperature in the disk increases toward the center and optical lines can no longer be produced in such hot regions. So must look at X-ray spectra. First observations by ASCA (launched 1993): 

Disks and jets are ubiquitous, but to prove that they are formed around a black hole, one must show that disk material is orbiting at a velocity close to speed of light and we do not have the resolution to distinguish between the approaching and receding part of the disk. When observing the disk at coarser resolution, the spectral contibutions from approaching and receding parts blend into a Doppler broadened spectral line. Doppler broadenings of a few 1000km/sec were observed in some active galaxies, but still far from the near speed of light velocity expected in a relativistic dics around the black hole. The reason is that the temperature in the disk increases toward the center and optical lines can no longer be produced in such hot regions. So must look at X-ray spectra. First observations by ASCA (launched 1993)

Assume thin, optically thick disk and deduce radial emisivity law; line shapes are consistent with the emitting region very close to the black hole : 

Assume thin, optically thick disk and deduce radial emisivity law; line shapes are consistent with the emitting region very close to the black hole Čadež, Calvani,New Astronomy 5,69,2000

x: 

x

The X-ray line shape does not strongly select between different viable models: 

The X-ray line shape does not strongly select between different viable models

Y Zaresna črna luknja Radijska slika galakticnega centra (NRAO, Jusef Zadek) levo in infrardeči blišč v SgrA* (Genzel et. All, Nature 425,934,2003 ): 

Y Zaresna črna luknja Radijska slika galakticnega centra (NRAO, Jusef Zadek) levo in infrardeči blišč v SgrA* (Genzel et. All, Nature 425,934,2003 )

b: 

b

Galactic center stars: 

Galactic center stars

Many flares in infrared and in X-rays have been observed in the Galactic center since, since the rate is close to 1 per day. A typical energy release per flare is of the order 1039.5erg = 3.5  1018gc2. Flares often exhibit periodic modultions on a time scale of 15 to 20 minutes and last a few thousand seconds. Can this modulation have something to do with the motion of a small source in the vicinity of the black hole? How would one see a point source of light falling down the black hole? (Sorry, movies must be played outside Powerpoint): 

Many flares in infrared and in X-rays have been observed in the Galactic center since, since the rate is close to 1 per day. A typical energy release per flare is of the order 1039.5erg = 3.5  1018gc2. Flares often exhibit periodic modultions on a time scale of 15 to 20 minutes and last a few thousand seconds. Can this modulation have something to do with the motion of a small source in the vicinity of the black hole? How would one see a point source of light falling down the black hole? (Sorry, movies must be played outside Powerpoint)

Tidal capture of a solar mass star by a galactic black hole (rg/c=20s) : 

Tidal capture of a solar mass star by a galactic black hole (rg/c=20s)

A simple fit to the infrared flare is possible if one assumes that an object of the size of an asteroid is critically captured by the black hole. This requires the object to continuously loose angular momentum and energy until it reaches the critical angular momentum for capture: 

A simple fit to the infrared flare is possible if one assumes that an object of the size of an asteroid is critically captured by the black hole. This requires the object to continuously loose angular momentum and energy until it reaches the critical angular momentum for capture

The effective potential as a function of time, felt by a gravitating body that is tidaly interacting with another body (the black hole); during the process energy is dissipated by tides and angular momentum is transfered between spin and orbit (Hut’s theory is well understood for classical stars, but still needs closer scrutiny in connection with black holes): 

The effective potential as a function of time, felt by a gravitating body that is tidaly interacting with another body (the black hole); during the process energy is dissipated by tides and angular momentum is transfered between spin and orbit (Hut’s theory is well understood for classical stars, but still needs closer scrutiny in connection with black holes)

authorStream Live Help