logging in or signing up 57011 Week1 Slides Rafael Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINTLite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 100 Category: Entertainment License: All Rights Reserved Like it (1) Dislike it (0) Added: November 26, 2007 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: priya3265 (33 month(s) ago) how we download Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide1: Communications and Control II 57011 Kevin Paulson Department of Engineering, University of Hull, firstname.lastname@example.org Slide2: Overview Communications & Control II 57011 Communications Kevin Paulson Control Ming Hou & Ron Patton Digital Modulation Information Theory Slide3: Modulation If you have a signal containing only low frequencies e.g.speech, and you need to transmit it over a communications channel that works at much higher frequencies e.g. radio, then you use modulation. Signal Carrier Wave Modulated Signal Modulation DemodulationSlide4: Modulation A carrier wave can be modulated by changing its: Amplitude Frequency Phase In the coming weeks we will revisit AM, FM and PM and look at their application to digital signalsSlide5: Digital Signals Analogue signals are continuously variable i.e. they can take any value over some range, and change all the time. Digital signals can only take discrete values (often only two) and change at specific times. There are three stages in the digitisation of a signal: Sampling: the signal value is sampled at specific times Quantisation: the signal value is approximated by the nearest allowed value Coding: the approximation is expressed as a sequence of a small number of digits. Slide6: Digital Signals Periodic sampling of an analogue signalSlide7: Digital Signals Quantisation of a sampled signalSlide8: Example The analogue signal is sampled at times , quantised to the nearest integer and then expressed as a 3-bit binary. The digital signal to transmit would then be 001010011100.Slide9: Problem The analogue signal is sampled at times , quantised to the nearest integer and then expressed as a 3-bit binary. The digital signal to transmit would then be ??????110??? Slide10: Problem The analogue signal is sampled at times , quantised to the nearest integer and then expressed as a 3-bit binary. The digital signal to transmit would then be 000011110111. Slide11: Nyquist-Shannon Theorem The Nyquist-Shannon Theorem states that an analogue signal with a highest frequency B can be completely recreated from its sampled form provided it is sampled at a rate s equal to at least twice this frequency. We will prove this in a few weeks and use this result a lot. Slide12: Example Question An 8-bit ADC is used to sample speech (maximum frequency 4KHz) at the Nyquist rate. What is the data rate? Answer The Nyquist rate is twice the highest frequency i.e. 8KHz. At 8-bits per sample the data rate is 8x8 KHz = 64 Kbps Slide13: Problem What communications networks could you be connected to in your home? Slide14: Problem Slide15: Convergence In the very near future all communications: voice, audio, video, data, documents, commands etc, will be carried over the same networks in the same format. TV, phone, stereo, computer, diary may all be the same piece of equipment. One government organisation overseas communications: Ofcom.Slide16: Communication Channel Slide17: High fidelity. The discrete nature of digital signals makes their distinction in the presence of noise easy. Very high fidelity transmission and regeneration are possible. Time independence. A digitised signal is a stream of numbers. Once digitised a signal may be transmitted at a rate unconnected with its recording rate. Source independence. The digital signals may be transmitted using the same format irrespective of the source of the communication. Voice, video and data may be transmitted using the same channel. Signals may be coded. The same transmitted message has an infinite number of meanings according to the rule used to interpret it. Digital Advantages Slide18: Increased complexity and expense Digital Disadvantage You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.