ClarkeRussell

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Slide1: 

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Aerosol Chemistry, gas to particle conversion, size growth and internal mixing Primary – Secondary aerosol Organic Aerosol (Natural, Anthropogenic) Interactions and Cloud Processes Soot/Black Carbon Dust Optical Properties and Radiative effects Cloud Condensation Nuclei Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (Clarke/Russell) : Future activities meeting in Virginia Beach

HISTOGRAMS OF MAJOR MASS FRACTIONS FOR P, BB AND NON-PLUMES: INTEX-NA: 

HISTOGRAMS OF MAJOR MASS FRACTIONS FOR P, BB AND NON-PLUMES: INTEX-NA Pollution Plumes (P) and Biomass Burning (BB) Plumes identified for 17% of flight hours based upon 95 percentile exceedences of selected trace gas data. Remainder are regional non-plume data. Gamma determined from observed f(RH) Clarke et al., JGR 2007

The Influence of OC and Ions upon the humidity response of light scattering, Gamma: 

The Influence of OC and Ions upon the humidity response of light scattering, Gamma a) Gamma trends with total ions for pollution with weaker trend for BB. b) Gamma reduced by total OC mass fraction with lower values for BB. Most OC was weakly water soluble but not hygroscopic.

Ambient column AOD(550nm) vs. PM 2.5 for INTEX NA: 

Ambient column AOD(550nm) vs. PM 2.5 for INTEX NA Shinozuka et al., 2007 Ambient AOD closure over Aeronet sites Only 3 during INTEX NA, need greater effort to make similar network comparisons!

Slide5: 

PM2.5 about 55% of ambient AOD and Water contribution about 45% over during INTEX-NA [based upon in-situ f(RH)] As measured Assumes column effective RH = 80% Shinozuka et al., 2007

Ambient SSA is constrained and linked to MAEacc and Size: 

Ambient SSA is constrained and linked to MAEacc and Size Dry Ambient SSA = [ 1 – MAEacc / MSEacc ]^-1 Size, composition and water uptake are related such that the slope of Dry SSA vs. absorption per unit mass (carried in models) shows an expected size dependency that collapses to a simpler dependency under ambient conditions. Provides constraints on models and retrievals.

The wavelength dependence of absorption and its link to AMS (DeCarlo, Jimenez) organic mass fraction – MIRAGE & IMPEX: 

The wavelength dependence of absorption and its link to AMS (DeCarlo, Jimenez) organic mass fraction – MIRAGE & IMPEX PRELIMINARY

Slide8: 

Vertical Profiles April 10, 1999 April 6, 1999 Pollution Dust Subsiding Pollution provides enhanced CNN to stratus clouds and Dust provides soluble iron (limiting nutrient) mixing into MBL Number Mass

Slide9: 

C. McNaughton, A. Clarke, V. Kapustin, S. Howell, J. Zhou, Y. Shinozuka University of Hawaii (INTEX-B flights 11-13, DIAL Lidar, E.V. Browell, NASA, LaRC and aerosol vertical profiles), indicate the removal pathway for dust and pollution via subsidence into the marine boundary layer. Understanding mixing, transport, entrainment, cloud condensation nuclei, precipitation scavenging and associated radiative effects are critical to understanding aerosol cycles and impacts and to model paramaterizations of removal flux. WE NEED TO ADDRESS CLOUDS

Slide11: 

Cloud Related Research Issues Indirect effect - CCN and cloud microphysics and cloud radiative properties Warm Cloud Condensation Nuclei – CCN Ice Cloud Ice Nuclei (IN) Contrails Links between CCN and AOD ( PM1?, PM2.5?) Natural vs. Anthropogenic Components Aerosol and Influence on Hydrologic Cycle (Warm Clouds)– Precipitation Formation & Suppression, Amount, Location, absorption and scattering. Dust – Hurricane link etc.?? Are some aerosol fields and clouds coupled? Cloud Scavenging as Sink of Aerosol (model removal term uncertain) in-situ measurements linked to changes in satellite spectral AOD, precipitation, chemistry etc. Cloud Pumping (coupling MBL to FT chemistry) – influence on FT chemistry, key regions, altitudes, transport etc. Cloud Enhanced Chemistry (Aqueous Conversion, Surface Area Effects) ??? Airborne Sampling Issues (which clouds, what measured, new tools) liquid water sampling, droplet sampling (CVI), interstitial aerosol, artifacts

Need more new cloud sampling tools: 

Need more new cloud sampling tools

Slide13: 

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects Punch Line In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: Put the necessary instruments on A/C Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Slide14: 

Motivation: Simultaneous satellite and airborne aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds Nikolaeva et al., JQSRT, 2005 Cloud Halo – enhanced aerosol scatter near cloud Cloud edge enhanced radiance

Slide15: 

1) Aerosol direct effect: use of airborne sensors - support satellite cloud screening (possible cloud contamination) - 3-D effect of clouds on adjacent clear sky retrievals (much more easily done over-ocean; note that this is different from "classic" cloud contamination, by which a pixel contains an un-resolved cloud) - measure the spatial extent and properties of cloud halos - verify TOA and vertically resolved satellite-derived energy "fluxes" - validate Glory to be launched 2008 - check the consistency of AERONET retrievals of aerosol microphysics 2) Aerosol indirect effect: use of airborne sensors - support cloud screening (ensure spatial correspondence of cloudy and clear elements) - below-cloud and cloud-adjacent aerosol/CCN spectra/chemistry - validate satellite cloud properties (no AERONET-like network, therefore airborne validation may be relatively more important)

Slide16: 

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects Punch Line In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: Put the necessary instruments on A/C Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Slide17: 

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions J31 B200 DC-8 C-130 MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra POLDER/Parasol OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY

Slide18: 

Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectra from OMI on Aura, MODIS on Aqua, & AATS Sunphotometer on J-31 Preliminary Livingston, Redemann, Torres, … UV 17 Mar 2006 INTEX-B

Slide19: 

Preliminary Livingston, Redemann, Veefkind, Viehelman Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectra from OMI on Aura, MODIS on Aqua, & AATS Sunphotometer on J-31 17 Mar 2006 INTEX-B

Slide20: 

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects Punch Line In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: Put the necessary instruments on A/C Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Slide21: 

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions J31 B200 DC-8 C-130 MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra POLDER/Parasol OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY

Slide22: 

Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo Spectra Derived from simultaneous measurements of Radiative flux and aerosol optical depth Aerosol Amount, AOD(499 nm) Jetstream 31 (J31) Bergstrom et al., JGR, 2004 12 April 2001, ACE-Asia  UV-Vis-SWIR  Covers l range of OMI-UV, OMI-MW, MISR, MODIS, CALIPSO, HSRL, Glory ASP, RSP, POLDER, …  Coalbedo (1-SSA) varies by factor 4, l = 350-900 nm

Slide23: 

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions J31 B200 DC-8 C-130 MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra POLDER/Parasol OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY

Slide24: 

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects Punch Line In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: Put the necessary instruments on A/C Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Slide25: 

Surface albedo effect? Comparison of OMI, AATS, & AERONET AOD at T0 (Mexico City), 19 Mar 2006 AERONET, T0 AATS-14, T0

Slide26: 

Jetstream 31 (J31) Early Results from INTEX-B (2006) Specially modified by NASA to measure atmospheric constituents and surfaces via their effect on the solar energy that drives climate Preparing for Glory, RSP measured polarized surface reflectance & aerosols over ocean & Mexico City [Cairns et al.] AATS is testing aerosol retrievals by OMI, MODIS & MISR on Aura, Aqua & Terra, and by HSRLidar on B200, preparing for AEGIS [Redemann, Livingston, Russell, Torres, Remer, Martins, Kahn, Hostettler, Ferrare, Clarke et al.]

Slide27: 

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions J31 B200 DC-8 C-130 MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra POLDER/Parasol OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY

Slide28: 

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects Punch Line In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: Put the necessary instruments on A/C Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Slide29: 

Climate Change Science in INTEX-A/ICARTT Measurements of Aerosol Effects on the Solar Energy that Drives Climate Solar energy [W m-2] Aerosol Amount, AOD(499 nm) Jetstream 31 (J31) Forcing Efficiency [W m-2] Case Slope = Aerosol Radiative Forcing Efficiency Case 2, 21 Jul 2004 Scientific Conclusions The gradients (spatial variations) in AOD that occur frequently off the US East coast provide a natural laboratory for studying effects of aerosol particles on solar energy, and hence on climate. For the average aerosol optical depth of ~0.5 in the 10 cases shown above, aerosols on average reduced the incident visible solar radiation energy flux by (near midday) 40 W m-2 (= 0.5 x -80 W m-2; see right frame above); demonstrating significant regional aerosol climate forcing. Redemann et al., JGR, accepted 2006

Slide30: 

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects Punch Line In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: Put the necessary instruments on A/C Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Slide31: 

J31: Specially modified by NASA to measure atmospheric constituents and surfaces via their effect on the solar energy that drives climate

Slide32: 

End of Presentation Remaining Slides are Backup

Slide33: 

1) Aerosol direct effect: use of airborne sensors - support satellite cloud screening (possible cloud contamination) - 3-D effect of clouds on adjacent clear sky retrievals (much more easily done over-ocean; note that this is different from "classic" cloud contamination, by which a pixel contains an un-resolved cloud) - measure the spatial extent and properties of cloud halos - verify TOA and vertically resolved satellite-derived energy "fluxes" - validate Glory to be launched 2008 - check the consistency of AERONET retrievals of aerosol microphysics 2) Aerosol indirect effect: use of airborne sensors - support cloud screening (ensure spatial correspondence of cloudy and clear elements) - below-cloud and cloud-adjacent aerosol/CCN spectra/chemistry - validate satellite cloud properties (no AERONET-like network, therefore airborne validation may be relatively more important)

Slide34: 

Motivation: Simultaneous satellite and airborne aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds Nikolaeva et al., JQSRT, 2005 Halo effect – enhances aerosol scatter near cloud Cloud edge enhanced radiance

M. Schoeberl Thoughts on Satellites to 2010: 

M. Schoeberl Thoughts on Satellites to 2010 Aura should be still flying with OMI aerosol information Aqua will probably still be going with MODIS Terra - not so sure - that would remove MISR CALIPSO will probably be dead Glory with APS will be flying in the A-train Maring: will need science/cal/val missions Cloudsat will probably be working PARASOL will probably be dead or out of the A-train due to lack of fuel. NPP will be up with VIIRS and OMPS nadir - but OMPS aerosol capability is uncertain.

Slide36: 

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions J31 B200 DC-8 C-130 MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra POLDER/Parasol OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY

Slide37: 

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions Models of: - Chem & Trans - Rad Effects Current: Potential: GLORY

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