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Start With A Question Information Literacy from 11-19 Anne-Marie Tarter and Lynn Barrett ELG Cambridge, April 2005

IL in the Secondary School : 

IL in the Secondary School Issues to Consider Transition from Key Stage 2 Defining a set of transferable skills Across subject areas and teaching styles All staff need to agree on a defined IL model Progression of skills development Age range from 11-19 year olds Range of abilities and preferred learning styles Assessment of impact on learning Curricular attainment Key Stage development (KS 3 Strategy, Literacy, Citizenship, ICT, etc)


CILIP defines as ‘Knowing when and why you need information, where to find it, and how to evaluate, use and communicate it in an ethical manner.’ DfES context: Information literate person has the ability to be a lifelong learner and to reflect on what they do

Transition from Key Stage 2: 

Transition from Key Stage 2 Differing prior experiences with IL skills Impact of KS2 Literacy work More familiar with ways to find information Using text guides etc Using the Internet Quite good at group work and comfortable with project work Need to consolidate and to move those skills on to higher level Demands of secondary curriculum and timetable Higher level thinking skills - extending the range at which they work Requiring more independence and decision making

In order for it to work Teachers need to…: 

In order for it to work Teachers need to… Understand that IL skills have to be taught Embedded into the curriculum, not an ‘add-on’ View IL as transferable across the curriculum Must be taught in a variety of curricular subjects and in a variety of learning experiences (not an ‘English’ skill!) Teachers need to feel that they can adapt it to their style of teaching (applicable in a variety of contexts) Set work that requires thinking skills not treasure hunts Ask the right kinds of questions! (More later!) Emphasize that process (as well as product) is important Both must be evaluated and marked/ feedback given

In order for pupils to benefit…: 

In order for pupils to benefit… Pupils need to be able to experiment, reflect upon and modify the skills to suit their own ways of working Support decision making and development of individual strategies Pupils of different abilities or with differing learning styles can differentiate for themselves when they are put in charge of their own learning IL can present pupils with a truly student-centered approach to learning

The Librarian’s Role in all of this….: 

The Librarian’s Role in all of this…. Serve as a partner both to the teacher and pupils Serve as leader in IL skills development in the school Help provide the body of resources to support the work Help to determine the framework of delivery and assessment Help both staff and pupils to assess process Monitor progress on IL development across curricular contexts

Which IL Model ?: 

Which IL Model ? Many different models of exactly what skills are involved (PLUS, Big 6, Marland, etc. ) All focus on Questioning and Decision Making Hierarchy of thinking skills (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation) Self-assessment INDEPENDENCE! The important thing is that the school agrees upon (or develops) the model best suited to its own needs. Consistency across the curriculum

The IL Skills Framework (*PLUS - a circular rather than a linear model): 

The IL Skills Framework (*PLUS - a circular rather than a linear model) Planning the work (determining purpose,timetable, rubrics for success etc, brainstorming on topic in general, preliminary question development, initial reading round the topic, modification of questions and formation of keywords) Locating information to use (selection based upon specific criteria ) Using Information (skimming and scanning techniques, note-taking using various methods, analysis of information, synthesis, drafting) Self-evaluating (part of every step of the way…leading to modification, strategy building, aiding synthesis…plus a final assessment moving towards planning future work


1. Question 2. Plan 3. Identify & Evaluate 4. Organise Key Information 5. Synthesise 6. Reflect and review What Do I Need to Know questions What do I already know? Big & Little questions On what will I be assessed? Check criteria. What sources to use? How to organise findings? KWHL grid? Source & Question grid? Inspiration / Mindmanager? Arrange, rearrange, mix & match information until patterns or an answer emerges. Summary box for each section Return to big questions and sub questions. Mindmanager summary of themes Have I answered the question? Consult marking scheme How could I improve? Which is the best section & why? What would I do differently next time & why? Are my sources noted? Peer marking - work with friends 7. Communicate Is there a required layout / format? Does it meet assessment criteria? How will I organise my ideas? Sections / Paragraphs / Slides? Bibliography / Footnotes/ Appendices What are my conclusions? What did I learn? Do I need different information? How much do I need? Do I need different questions? What note taking style / shape? Hi lighting, boxes, arrows & links to cross ref, colours etc Index cards Check big questions Are sources reliable, valid & current? Only what is relevant? Have I noted my sources? Handling Information For Independent Learning (Focus on the big question)


The end of the traditional Library Lesson ! In order for Information Literacy to be effective it needs to be Seen as an essential learning skill by management Embedded into the curriculum Transferred across the age range Believed in by the whole school Taken out of the Library (this threatens some librarians!)


The Librarian as a critical partner in a school wide process In partnerships with teachers Sharing expertise in IL and in pedagogy Helping with differentiation by ability AND learning style Creating rubrics (structured assessment that guides pupils to gain successful outcomes) Supporting learning with appropriate resources In partnerships with pupils Encouraging peer support and team work Encouraging independent learning - supporting pupils as they determine the level and pace of learning through self-evaluation (reflection, modification, synthesis) Facilitating a variety of opportunities for IL skill development Assessing their IL in different curricular context and beyond the curriculum if possible

One Model of KS3 Work: 

One Model of KS3 Work Context of KS3 Strategy at Ripon Grammar School Librarian as Literacy Coordinator Sept and July assessment Weekly lessons at year 7 Autumn - general introduction to information resources Spring - introduction to IL delivered as part of English topics Summer - independent research delivered through joint Physics - ICT - English project Years 8 and 9 A further 6-10 projects - some formal and some informal Each project is assessed for curricular attainment and IL skills development

Information Literacy and Partnerships at Dixons CTC: 

Information Literacy and Partnerships at Dixons CTC Established need-formally and informally Developed assessment and delivery strategies Worked progressively with departments and age groups Reported regularly to SMT & Governors Trained departments and new teachers, thus creating new partnerships all the time Devolved skills teaching Evolution of common understandings and application across the institution Improved achievement & motivation – NAO survey Improved results recognised by NTA A continuous process. We never gave up!


Evaluating the Learning How can the school know if IL skills development makes an impact on the overall teaching and learning of the school? Observation of behaviors (in and out of lessons) Assessment of process over time and in different curricular contexts Measuring curricular attainment Assessment ‘tests’ September and July model


Imperatives for Collaboration DfES Five Year Strategy - Support progression - High quality partnerships between providers - Individualised learning plans and choices 14-19 Education and Skills White Paper - Wide choice of learning opportunities - Different types of learning in a range of settings - Optimise match between individual student and programme - Optimise use of expertise and resources - Ensure effective progression

Information Literacy and the evolution of the 14-19 curriculum: 

Information Literacy and the evolution of the 14-19 curriculum Acquire & demonstrate a range of research, planning, analytical, critical and presentational skills required in employment & higher education Develop a range of knowledge, skills and attributes, such as self-awareness, self-management, working with others, international awareness and personal and interpersonal skills Undertake an extended project or personal challenge at Level 3 (A-level)


research and analysis; problem solving; team-working; independent study; presentation; functional literacy; communication skills; critical thinking Extended projects or personal challenges should ensure that all learners, over time, develop and demonstrate a range of generic skills including:


Common misconceptions: Post 16 students should have already developed good information handling skills, so the skills do not need to be taught to this group Students’ ability to handle information is age-related Therefore the older the student, the more capable they will be of independent learning.


Assessing Skills Progression


Start With a Question Why are questions important? - How does questioning focus thinking? - Does thinking without questioning lead to learning? - What is a Big Question? One that doesn’t have a single answer; one that matters - What is a Thesis? Provocative, contestable


Mapping a Big Question with MindManager

What is Learning?: 

What is Learning?

Surface Learning: 

Surface Learning

Strategic Learning: 

Strategic Learning

Deep Learning: 

Deep Learning


Developing an Argument with Inspiration


© Dixons CTC


Do the following lead to thinking and learning? - Calculating - Storing - Abstracting - Grasping - Memorising - Incorporating - Condensing What is the difference with these? - Rejecting - Challenging - Persuading - Judging - Wondering - Predicting - Inventing - Creating Shaping assignments for learning

Post-16 research findings: 

Post-16 research findings Process of note taking aids understanding Selecting and categorising relevant information difficult Research consists of accessing sites, reading text, taking notes, writing up in own words Synthesis the most difficult skill. Don’t know what to leave out Heavy reliance on criteria and teacher direction Perception that the only difference between research at KS4 and Post-16 is the number of sources used

Learning points: 

Learning points Expand note taking techniques Use mapping to improve questioning, selection and orgainsation skills Develop assignment criteria to encourage analysis, evaluation and synthesis Use prompts to develop higher order questioning skills


Assessment for Learning - QCA Develops the learner’s capacity for self-assessment so that they become reflective and self-managing Promotes commitment to learning goals and a shared understanding of the assessment criteria Focuses on how students learn so that they become as aware of the ‘how’ of their learning as they are of the ‘what’ Research shows that pupils achieve more if they are fully engaged in their own learning process


The biggest questions of all -- Where do your teaching and partnership strengths lie? Where do you need to develop them?


Implies desire When to teach?

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