Chronic Kidney Disease

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Chronic Kidney Disease:

Chronic Kidney Disease By Robert Richardson


A kidney contains about 1 million filtering units that are called nephrons Any disease that disrupt the nephrons can cause kidney disease Occurs when a disease or condition impairs kidney function . Autoimmune diseases like lupus can damage blood vessels and make antibodies against kidney tissue. Causes

Causes :

Diseases/Conditions that are common causes of chronic kidney disease: Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes High Blood Pressure Glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the kidney's filtering units) Polycystic kidney disease Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract (due to things such as enlarged prostate, kidney stones, and some cancers) Vesicoureteral reflux (condition that causes urine to get backed up in the kidneys) Recurrent kidney infection Causes


Symptoms of chronic kidney disease usually develop over time if the kidney damage is progressing slowly . Chronic Kidney Disease doesn't usually cause any symptoms until most of your kidney is already destroyed. Once the kidney is damaged, symptoms can include: Swelling around eyes, Swelling of legs, Fatigue, Shortness of breath, Nausea, Vomiting, Urine-like odor to breath, Bone pain, Abnormally dark or light skin, Ashen skin called uremic frost, Drowsiness, Mental cloudiness, Numbness in hands and feet, Restless leg syndrome, Brittle hair and nails, Itching, Weight loss, Easily bruising/bleeding, High blood pressure that is difficult to control Symptoms


Usually begins with a medical history. Family history of kidney failure, history of high blood pressure, and history of diabetes are all looked into. Some tests and procedures that may be done: Blood Tests: Level of waste products such as creatinine and urea are looked at in the blood Diagnosis


Urine Tests: Testing urine can reveal abnormalities that show chronic kidney failure and can also help to identify the cause of the chronic kidney disease Imaging Tests: An ultrasound may be used to assess the size and structure of kidneys. Biopsy : A biopsy where a long needle is inserted through the skin into the kidney may be performed. It takes a tissue sample from the kidney to be examined more closely. Diagnosis


Treating Chronic Kidney Disease: There is usually no cure for chronic kidney disease. Treatment mostly consists of ways to help control symptoms, reduce complications and reduce progression of the disease. Controlling underlying problems like hypertension and diabetes can slow the progress of the damage being done to the kidneys. Treatment


High blood pressure medications: These can decrease kidney function and change the levels of electrolytes so frequent blood tests are needed to monitor condition. Medications to lower cholesterol levels: Those with chronic kidney disease often experience high levels of bad cholesterol . Medications to protect bones: Calcium and Vitamin D supplements may be prescribed as to help prevent weakening of bones and the possible risk of fractures. Treatment


Medications to relieve swelling: Those with chronic kidney disease sometimes retain fluids. This causes swelling in the legs. Medications that are called diuretics or water pills help maintain the balance of the fluids in the body. A lower protein diet: This will help minimize waste product in the blood which will mean less work for the kidneys. Treatment


Lowering cardiovascular risk Keeping blood pressure under control Keeping blood sugar under control Avoid the development of high blood pressure and diabetes Lose excess weight Minimize the intake of sodium Exercise regularly Drink alcohol in moderation Follow instructions for over-the-counter medications Don't smoke /quit smoking Prevention


10% of the world's population is affected by chronic kidney disease . Over 2 million people currently receive treatment with dialysis or a kidney transplant in order to stay alive. Unfortunately, this number only represents 10% of people who actually need treatment to live. In many countries, people cannot afford treatment at all resulting in over 1 million people annually passing away from untreated kidney failure . Facts

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