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INNOVATIVE TEACHING THEORIESeducational technology : 

INNOVATIVE TEACHING THEORIESeducational technology Rebecca Pleasant EME 5054 Foundations of Educational Technology Fall 10

“The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.” ---W.A. Ward : 

“The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.” ---W.A. Ward


EDUCATIONALTECHNOLOGY Helping people to learn is the primary and essential purpose of educational technology. Januszewski & Molenda, page 15

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As with most things, the concepts about learning have changed over the years. Early 20th century, education focused on reading, writing and arithmetic.

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Now however, education must also focus on critical thinking and the application of knowledge to complex problems in order to be competitive in today’s workplace (Bransford).

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The goal of education today ….is helping students develop the intellectual tools and learning strategies needed to acquire the knowledge that allows people to think productively …to become self-sustaining, lifelong learners. (Bransford)

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In order to understand the development of educational technology, we must first understand the development of the framework of knowledge of how people learn. So we will begin with paradigms.


PARADIGMS Defined: A philosophical and theoretical framework of a scientific school or discipline within which theories, laws, and generalizations and the experiments performed in support of them are formulated. Merriam-Webster, page 898.




PARADIGM SHIFT There has been an educational paradigm shift since 1963. This shift has focused from what the instructor is doing in front of the class to what activity the learner is engaged in to enhance their own learning. Januszewski & Molenda, page 12.


PARADIGM HISTORY Behavorism Cognitivism Constructivism Critical Theory Eclecticism


BEHAVORISM Paradigms: postpositivism & objectivism Behaviorism – Theory based on idea that learning causes behavior changes. Behavioral patterns are repeated until it becomes automatic. (Perspectives) *Learning occurs when person makes an association between the stimulus and the response

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Pavlov’s dogs revealed this type of learning. As you probably recall, the bell rang and the dog’s were fed. Subsequently, the bell rang, the dogs would salivate in anticipation of the food, and the dog’s were fed. Eventually, the bell would ring and the dog would salivate in response to the bell.

Respondent Learning : 

Respondent Learning Theory Stimulus + additional action = consequences Learned through Classical Conditioning Results in: additional action = Involuntary actions (respondents) Leash + walk = happy dog Jingle of leash + walk = happy dog. Jingle of leash = happy dog

Operant Learning : 

Operant Learning Stimuli precedes a response (antecedent) The resulting response (operant) What follows a response (consequences) Theory Hammer enters and wants to interact (antecedent) Nail accepts invitation (operant) Nail gets stuck in wood (consequence) Nail refuses to interact in future (Learned behavior)


CONTRIBUTIONS OF BEHAVIORISM Drill and practice Programmed instruction Computer assisted instruction Tutorials Personalized system of instruction click on >

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What was your immediate response? Did you ‘twitch’ to jump up and get the code cart or respond to the code? This is learned behavior.

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As a nurse you have gone through many of these behavior learning in your career. Example: Switchboard operator announces “Code Blue”. Nurse doesn’t ‘hear’ this until someone tells them to get up and get the code cart. This happens numerous times until the nurse hears the “Code Blue” announcement, processes it and gets up and gets code cart. It eventually reaches the behavior that “Code Blue” is announced, and without thinking, the nurse gets up and gets the code cart.

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How can you utilize this learning in your clinical setting? You and student remove gloves - you wash your hands and remind student to wash their hands. You do this consistently until student removes gloves and washes their hands without prodding. Can you identify other ways that you can incorporate behaviorism theory into your teaching?


COGNITIVISM Paradigms: Postpositivism/objectivism;interpretivism/constructivism/relativism Theory Link long time memory <- --> link to short term memory Schema theory (Piaget) = organize knowledge as network of mental structures that represent our understanding of the world. Mental models = combines mental representation (schema) with a process for manipulating the information in the schema Internal mental process Meta cognition = thinking about how we think Changes in behavior are observed and learner decides whether to implement them. (Perspectives)

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A response to behaviorism, cognitivist theory believes that people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli; people are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking. (Learning-Theories) Changes in behavior are observed, but only as an indication of what is occurring in the learner’s head. (Learning-Theories)

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Cognitivism uses the metaphor of the mind as computer: information comes in, is being processed, and leads to certain outcomes. (Learning-Theories)

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Teaching better study habits is an example of utilizing cognitive theory. Inform students about how to develop better study habits. Students determine if, when and which ones they will implement.

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The same can happen with assessment. Student enters patient room. After a few moments you ask student to turn away from patient and tell you about his patient. Eventually, if students determines that this is a valuable skill to possess, whenever student enters room, he will do a patient assessment. Can you identify other ways that you can incorporate cognitive theory into your teaching?


CONTRIBUTIONS OF COGNITIVISM Concept mapping Organization of information Retain & transfer knowledge Information processing Filled vs Empty technologies


CONSTRUCTIVISM Paradigms: interpretivism/ constructivism/relativism Theory: Learning by doing/experiential Knowledge connection Exploration/engaged learning Reflection Social process/negotiation Exploration/ownership Authentic

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Constructivism theory – people adjust their thinking to apply it to new situations. Trying to make sense of the information. (Perspectives)


CONTRIBUTIONS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM Case-based instruction Collaborative learning Multiple intelligences Mindtools Simulations Telecollaborative activities

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Using simulations and scenarios where the information continues to vary depending upon the students decisions allows the student to adjust their thinking and apply it to new situations.

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Constructivism assumes that all knowledge is constructed from the learner’s previous knowledge, regardless of how one is taught. Thus, even listening to a lecture involves active attempts to construct new knowledge. (Learning-theories)

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How can you utilize this learning theory: Give the student different situations to work within. Provide scenarios where the information that the student needs is imbedded in the scenario and the student must make sense of the information and determine interventions. Alter the scenarios and allow student to determine new interventions. Can you identify other ways that you can incorporate constructivism theory into your teaching?


CRITICAL THEORY Paradigm: critical theory Theory: Empowerment & emancipate/negotiation Deconstructivism Produce critically active students Merges Political, Educational and Cultural Built on skepticism/questioning

Critical Theory : 

Critical Theory From the slides of Foundations 2002 students for creating some of the slides in this presentation (Uzma Bhatti, Scott Blades, John Donaldson, Ginno Kelley & Madeline Ortiz Rodriquez)


CONTRIBUTIONS OF CRITICAL THEORY Social action projects Peace Diaries Voices of Youth Kids Galore Helping Kids in Darfur Community Technology Centers Digital Divide initiatives

How can you utilize this learning theory: : 

How can you utilize this learning theory: Students may be directed to identify a community resource for patients with a particular disease process, visit the resource and develop an activity that would benefit the clients that utilize the community center. Students may be assigned to develop an educational tool that they would present to a local elementary/middle school addressing a specific condition to enlighten the students about the disease and to diminish ridicule or bullying towards other students with this disease. Students may institute a senior citizens computer training program at a local library to assist seniors in their accessibility to health care information.


ECLECTICISM Paradigms: multiple mixture Theory: Behavorism-lower level learning Congitivism-middle levels of learning Constructivist-higher level of learning


CONTRIBUTIONS OF ECLECTICISM Return demonstrations Simulations Drill and practice Mind tools Concept mapping

How can you utilize this learning theory: : 

How can you utilize this learning theory: Fit the teaching methodology to the student and learning outcomes. If you want the student to apply the learning you may want to use scenarios in which the student must assimilate information based upon the patient’s varying condition. This can develop from the simple to the complex. If a student is having difficulty in the performance of a task, you may want to demonstrate the skill for the student and then have the student return-demonstrate the skill in your presence. You could use examples of different blood gases and have the student identify the patients status and the potential disease processes that the patient may have.


REFERENCES Bransford, J., Brown, A. & Cocking, R. (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press. Dawson, K. (2008). Paradigms 2008 Presentation Slides.

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References: Dawson, K. (2008). Paradigms, theories and models of learning and instruction - Applications in Educational Technology: Transcript of audio. Herrman, J. (2008). Creative Teaching Strategies for the Nurse Educator. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company. Funderstanding Retrieved March 4, 2009, from

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References: Knowledge based and webliography. Retrieved on March 8, 2009, from Norman, D. A. (2002). Emotion & Design: Attractive things work better. Interactions Magazine, ix (4), 36-42. Retrieved March 7, 2009, from

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References: Perspectives on Instruction: Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from Merriam-Webster. (2009). Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Springfield, MA.

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References: Moe, T. & Chubb, J. (2009). Liberating Learning. Technology, Politics, and the Future of American Education. Jossey-Bass. San Francisco: CA. pp. 223. Robinson, R., Molenda, M. & Rezabek, L. (1997). Chapter 2, Facilitating Learning. In AECT’s  Educational Technology: A Definition with Commentary. Pp. 27-48.

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