Slide 2: CULTIVATION AND COLLECTION OF DIOSCOREA D.composita D.bulbirubra D.alata Slide 3: WILDLY CULTIVATED SOURCES Most of the production of diosgenin is met with Central American species; D.floribunda and D.composita both growing wild in Central America. Slide 4: In India D.deltoidea and D. prazeri accuring wild in North West and North East Himalayas respectively are the natural source of diosgenin.Burma, Pakistan, Nepal, China, Europe, Africa are the major Dioscorea producing countries. CULTIVATED SOURCES Slide 5: PRODUCTION OF DIOSCOREA Land preparation Pretreatment of Tubers before plantation Method of planting of tubers Slide 6: LAND PREPARATION Land should be prepared throughly 4-5 times with a mould board plough.
It should be throughly mixed with Farm yard manure .
14 tonnes/hec of Farm yard manure should be applied at the time of field preparation. Slide 7: Pretreatment of tubers before plantation The tubers are susceptible to a no. of soil borne diseases, unless treated with proper fungicide.
After trying with different fungicide it was found that tubers dipped in 0.2% of Brassicol for 10 minutes before plantation gave better result. Slide 8: Planting of tubers should be done in furrows.
Deep furrows are made at 60 cm. distance with the help of plough.
The tuber pieces are planted at a distance of 30 cm. about 5 cm. below the soil level. Method of planting of tubers Slide 9: SOIL CLIMATE Soil should be rich in humus with a pH 6.8 to 7.2 for the healthy growth of tubers. It is a temperate plant and require an annual rainfall varying between 100-200 cm. A.N. KALIA Slide 10: PROPAGATION SEEDS TUBERS Healthy tubers weighing about 50-70 grm ,are treated with fungicide and sown in nursery beds.Tubers take 4 to 5 weeks time to sprout,
After 2 or 3 months of growth tubers are transplanted into well manured, fungicide and insecticide treated soil.
The tubers are placed at a 30*60 cm., initially support is provided for the vines. A.N.KALIA Slide 11: Supporting system Dioscorea vines being essentially climbers need support for their maximum growth. Irrigation The newly planted crop of D. deltoidea has to be irrigated properly.It should be done every 10 days. Slide 12: FERTILIZERS D. deltoidea responds well to organic manure and nitrogenous fertilizers.
In this case 14 tonnes of Farm yard manure/hec is recommended before plantation.
A basel dose of 100 kg. phosphorus penta oxide and potassium dioxide ,each were applied at plantation time. A.N.KALIA Slide 13: According to the species, tubers reach maturity in 3-5 years .
They are collected after the leaves drop.
Tubers should be harvested in November. HARVESTING YIELD Average yield 1-8% of the total sapogenin.
The average production in the case of D.floribunda is 16-18 metric tonnes of diosgenin per hectare. A.N.KALIA Slide 14: PEST AND DESEASES Root rot PENICILLIUM SPECIES,
FUSARIUM SPECIES. TREATMENT BRASSICOL, ENDOSULFAN Slide 15: Dioscorea deltoidea was intercropped with Hops which are not only utilizing the space left between the hops plantation but also helped in using the same trellies, irrigation and other agricultural operations complementing to each other.
When dioscorea was intercropped with late cluster ,the cost benefit ratio was highest viz. 1 : 1.6, compared to 1 : 1.07 and 1: 1.52 respectively when D. deltoidea and hops were grown alone. INTERCROPPING Slide 16: CHEMISTRY Steroidal harmone Slide 17: The Rhizomes are used as rich source of Diosgenin.
Diosgenin being steroidal in nature is used as precursor for synthesis of several carticosteroids,.
Dioscorea is used in the treatment of Rheumatic arthritis. USES Slide 18: MARKETED PRODUCT Slide 19: Atropa belladonna Slide 20: INTRODUCTION SYNONYMS BIOLOGICAL SOURCES GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES PART USED Slide 21: SYNONYMS Belladonna herb ,Belladonna folium, Deadly nightly shade leaf,. BIOLOGICAL SOURCES Atropa belladonna Linn, Atropa acuminata Royal ex- Lindley Slide 22: GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES It is cultivated in England and other European countries.
In India it is found in the Western Himalayas from Simla to Kashmir and also in Himachal Pradesh. PART USED Dried leaves and other aerial part Slide 23: CULTIVATION AND MANAGEMENT Belladonna grows well in slightly acid soil. Heavy clay soil which is water logged should be avoided. SOIL Belladonna can be grown as winter crop. CLIMATE C.K. KOKATE Slide 24: PROPAGATION AND IRRIGATION Seeds may be treated with 80% sulphuric acid at time of sowing for two minutes.
Sowing is done in may and july.
It germinates within 3 weeks. It can be planted after 8 to 12 week to the main field. The best time for planting in the field is before spring – March and April.
As it has a high water requirement the plant should be watered
Then the seedlings are ready for transplantation by the end of September.
Transplanting is done by keeping certain distance between two plants and the seedlings are irrigated carefully. Slide 25: when the plants are three month old after planting ,the leaves are available for the first yield.
The yield of leaves increase after the first cutting. The harvesting should be done as soon as the shoots starts flowering.
The root are harvested after 3 years.
After the harvesting the root are cleaned and cut into 4 inches long splits. HARVESTING Slide 26: DRYING It can be dried in shade or sun, but takecare to see that the dried laeves remain green. WEED CONTROL Belladonna field should be free from weed by repeated weeding.
Normally 3-4 weeding are required during the growing season. Slide 27: . FERTILIZERS Urea , Phosphate, and Super phosphate are given as per the needs.
Insecticidal sprays like Sevin are also tried when the plant reaches maturity.
Fungicide like Diathon are also applied during sowing of seeds. Slide 28: DISEASES AND INSECT PESTS Root rot Leaf spot Phytopthera nicotiana Ascophyta atropae Slide 29: CHEMISTRY ATROPINE Slide 30: USES Belladonna is a valuable antidote in poisoning by opium, muscarine etc.
Extract of belladonna is used as external application to relive pain.
Anti inflammatory agent. Slide 31: MARKETED PRODUCT Slide 32: PROBLEMS AND RECENT TRENDS IN PEST MANAGEMENT Slide 33: PEST Anything that causes injury or loss to a plant
Can damage plants by: making them less productive, affecting reproduction, or destroying them. PESTICIDE Any substance utilised for controlling, preventing, destroying, and repelling a pest is called pesticide. Slide 34: PEST Plant origin Animal origin Weeds Fungi Rodents Arthropods Bitting type Piercing type CLASSIFICATION S.H. ANSARI Slide 35: 1. Expensive.,
3. Development of resistance
4. Non selectivity PROBLEMS IN PEST MANAGEMENT S.H. ANSARI Slide 36: Expensive The various pesticides are very costly thus everyone is not able to apply it.
It also increase the total cost of the crop. Toxicity Pesticides used in the pest control are very dangerous to handle,the environment and consumers of the plant product.
This lead to various diseases in humans. Slide 37: Development of resistance Pesticide make the pest more resistant to chemical pesticides.this make the pest more abundant. Non - selectivity The mode of action of pesticide on weeds, animals and insects are not selective.
It causes the harm to other useful animals and plants. Slide 38: METHODS OF PEST MANAGEMENT Agricultural methods
Biological methods Chemical methods
Mechanical methods S.H. ANSARI Slide 39: Agricultural method It covers advanced breeding techniques capable of inducing genetic manipulations resulting in production of pest resistant species. It has achieved much success in producing hybrid varieties, which are resistant to fungal and bacterial attack. Slide 40: Uses living organisms that are predators to control pests
Lady bugs control a range of insect pests.
Toad frogs eat insects.
Bacterium Bacillus thuringinensis when released in fields attack and kill various species of worms. BIOLOGICAL METHOD Slide 41: CHEMICAL METHOD Uses a pesticide, which is a chemical to control pests.
Chemicals are often mixed with a surfactant, which is a material to help disperse, spread, wet or emulsify a pesticide formulation. Slide 42: ENVIRONMENTAL METHOD It refers to change in conditions surrounding the pest culture by removing its food supply on by hindering the completion of its life cycle. Slide 43: MECHANICAL METHOD Uses tools or equipment for control
Plowing- destroys some pests, particularly weeds
Mowing- cuts off weeds
Mulching- covering the ground with a layer of plastic, sawdust or other material prevents weed growth Slide 44: RECENT TRENDS IN PEST MANAGEMENT GENETIC PEST CONTROL Choosing resistant plant materials to avoid pest problems
Examples – Bt corn (corn earworm),
BollGard® cotton (boll worm),
Fusarium resistant tomatoes Slide 45: Utilizes biotechnology by gene transfer or genetic manipulation to make plants resistant to specific pests.
Biotechnology- mgmt of biological systems for the benefit of humanity.
Organismic biotechnology- deals with intact or complete organisms.
Molecular biotechnology- involves changing the structure and parts of cells.
Transgenic organism- carries a foreign gene that was inserted by laboratory techniques in all its cells. SOME TECHNIQUES Slide 46: GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANT thenewwellness.com thenewwellness.com Slide 47: 1.Genetically engineered plants that resists pests and pathogens: Crop plants are now genetically modified which will have the genes or factors,which will resist or repel pest and pathogens. deliciousmagazine.co.uk Slide 48: Genetic modification of cotton plants Bacillus thuringiensis is a soil bacterium that forms toxins, transfer to the crop plants, hence toxin produced by these transgenic plants could kill even those pests that burrow deep into the plant stem or roots. foodsafety.suencs.com Slide 49: GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PROTECTION AGAINST VIRUSES IN TRANSGENIC PLANT The presence of one virus in a plant may influence with infection by another virus. This principal is utilised to evolve transgenic plants carrying genes derived from plant viruses. Slide 50: Few transgenic plants and the viruses which they resist Slide 51: Transgenic plants synthesize insecticides Plant biotechnologist has designed transgenic plants that may synthesize insecticide. Nicotiana alata is an ornamental tobacco plant.
It forms a natural insecticides effective against several pests. Slide 52: The scientist have isolated a gene from this insecticides is named NAPI (Nicotiana alata protease inhibitor). This gene is introduced into different species of tobacco and pea.
Such transgenic plants are capable of attacking on invading pest. Slide 53: PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS bxscience.edu Slide 54: GRAPHICAL DATA OF USING PESTICIDE Slide 55: PLANTED TO 3 MAJOR CROPS Slide 56: NATURAL PESTICIDES Slide 57: MARKETED PRODUCT OF BIOPESTICIDE NEEM OIL Slide 58: CONCLUSION Though several countries in the world have a rich heritage of herbal drug, very few can put claim for their procurement only from cultivated species. Cultivation ensures quality and purity of medicinal plants. Collection of crude drug from cultivated plants gives a better yield and therapeutic quality. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants also leads to industrialisation to a great extent. Cultivation permits application of modern technological aspects such as mutation ,polyploidy and hybridisation.
Pest control in recent year has become a major problem in our homes and gardens and as the agricultural programme of the countries of the world.So, to get good result either the percent of pesticide should be increased or new pesticide should be developed both are very tedious process. Slide 59: REFERENCES KOKATE C.K., PUROHIT A.P., GOKHLE S.B. ; ”PHARMACOGNOSY”; 34th EDITION; NIRALI PUBLICATION, PAGE NO. 484-485, 209-210. A.N. KALIA; “TEXT BOOK OF INDUSTRIAL PHARMACOGNOSY” ; 1stEDITION, REPRINT 2005; CBS PUBLISHERS AND DISTRIBUTERS; PAGE NO. 61-62. ANSARI S.H. ; “ESSENTIALS OF PHARMACOGNOSY” ; 1ST
EDITION 2005-2006 ; BIRLA PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD. ; PAGE NO. 621-636. JARALD E. EDWIN ; “TEXT BOOK OF PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY” ; 1ST EDITION; PUBLISHED BY CBS PUBLISHERS AND DISTRIBUTORS; PAGE NO. 245-246. foodsafety.suencs.com; deliciousmagazine.co.uk foodsafety.suencs.com Slide 60: THANK YOU