CHEMISTRY IN DAILY LIFE

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SHETH H. M. SARVAJANIK HIGH-SCHOOL SOJA WEL COMES YOU TA. : KALOL DIST. : G'NAGAR

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Chemistry in Daily Life ( Importance of Chemistry ) ro+>da +vnma> rsay`iv)annu> mhTv

what role does chemistry really play in everyday life …? Well, this involvement usually begins first thing each morning. Most people wake up to an alarm or radio. These common household items contain batteries, which make them very chemically dependent. These batteries contain positive and negative electrodes. The positive electrode consists of a carbon rod surrounded by a mixture of carbon and manganese dioxide. The negative electrode is made of zinc. Chemistry plays an important role in the discovery and understanding of materials contained in these and many other common household items. Things like household cleaners and water purification systems are vitally dependent on chemistry. Without chemistry something as simple as scrubbing a toilet without fear of severe burns or small explosions might not be possible.  :

what role does chemistry really play in everyday life …? Well, this involvement usually begins first thing each morning. Most people wake up to an alarm or radio. These common household items contain batteries, which make them very chemically dependent. These batteries contain positive and negative electrodes. The positive electrode consists of a carbon rod surrounded by a mixture of carbon and manganese dioxide. The negative electrode is made of zinc. Chemistry plays an important role in the discovery and understanding of materials contained in these and many other common household items. Things like household cleaners and water purification systems are vitally dependent on chemistry. Without chemistry something as simple as scrubbing a toilet without fear of severe burns or small explosions might not be possible.

Next, though it isn’t widely known, chemistry is also heavily involved with the manufacturing of things such as makeup and soap. Each time you bathe you are witnessing chemistry at work. Chemicals such as acetyl alcohol and propylene glycol are typical ingredients in the soap used to wash your hair and skin. Without chemistry, these materials (or combinations of these materials) might be hazardous or might not exist. The chemical coloring agents used in makeup and nail polish would not be possible without an understanding of the chemicals involved.  Almost anything you do during the course of a normal day involves chemistry in some way. The gas and tires in cars we drive, the makeup we put on our faces, the soaps and cleaners used everyday, burning wood or other fossil fuels, chemistry is all around you each and every day. The associations are practically limitless. So, as you go about your daily activities, remember to thank chemistry. As my teacher always says, remember, "CHEMISTRY IS LIFE!"  :

Next, though it isn’t widely known, chemistry is also heavily involved with the manufacturing of things such as makeup and soap. Each time you bathe you are witnessing chemistry at work. Chemicals such as acetyl alcohol and propylene glycol are typical ingredients in the soap used to wash your hair and skin. Without chemistry, these materials (or combinations of these materials) might be hazardous or might not exist. The chemical coloring agents used in makeup and nail polish would not be possible without an understanding of the chemicals involved. Almost anything you do during the course of a normal day involves chemistry in some way. The gas and tires in cars we drive, the makeup we put on our faces, the soaps and cleaners used everyday, burning wood or other fossil fuels, chemistry is all around you each and every day. The associations are practically limitless. So, as you go about your daily activities, remember to thank chemistry. As my teacher always says, remember, "CHEMISTRY IS LIFE!"

What Are the Elements in the Human Body..? Most of the human body is made up of water, H2O, with cells consisting of 65-90% water by weight. Therefore, it isn't surprising that most of a human body's mass is oxygen. Carbon, the basic unit for organic molecules, comes in second. 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of just six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. Oxygen (65%) Carbon (18%) Hydrogen (10%) Nitrogen (3%) Calcium (1.5%) Phosphorus (1.0%) Potassium (0.35%) Sulfur (0.25%) Sodium (0.15%) Magnesium (0.05%) Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine, Manganese, Cobalt, Iron (0.70%) Lithium, Strontium, Aluminum, Silicon, Lead, Vanadium, Arsenic, Bromine (trace amounts):

What Are the Elements in the Human Body..? Most of the human body is made up of water, H2O, with cells consisting of 65-90% water by weight. Therefore, it isn't surprising that most of a human body's mass is oxygen. Carbon, the basic unit for organic molecules, comes in second. 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of just six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. Oxygen (65%) Carbon (18%) Hydrogen (10%) Nitrogen (3%) Calcium (1.5%) Phosphorus (1.0%) Potassium (0.35%) Sulfur (0.25%) Sodium (0.15%) Magnesium (0.05%) Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine, Manganese, Cobalt, Iron (0.70%) Lithium, Strontium, Aluminum, Silicon, Lead, Vanadium, Arsenic, Bromine (trace amounts)

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When we bathe  we use soap made out of  vegetable oil and some chemicals. Neem oil contains certain  antibacterial chemical and so neem soap is  good  protecting us from bacteria, and itches. Glycerin soap keeps our skin smooth  and blemishes. We also have medicated soaps prescribed by the doctors for skin infections. USING A SOAP

How soap cleans..? There are substances which can be dissolved in water (salt for example), and others that can't (for example oil). Water and oil don't mix together, so if we try to clean an oily stain from a cloth or from the skin, water is not enough. We need soap. Soap is formed by molecules with a "head" which likes water (hydrophilic) and a long chain which hates it (hydrophobic). :

How soap cleans..? There are substances which can be dissolved in water (salt for example), and others that can't (for example oil). Water and oil don't mix together, so if we try to clean an oily stain from a cloth or from the skin, water is not enough. We need soap . Soap is formed by molecules with a "head" which likes water (hydrophilic) and a long chain which hates it (hydrophobic) .

Because of this dualism, soap molecules act like a diplomat, improving the relationship between water and oil. How? When soap is added to the water, the hydrophilic heads of its molecules stay into the water (they like it!), while the long hydrophobic chains join the oil particles and remain inwards (escaping from the water). In that way, they form circular groups named micelles, with the oily material absorbed inside and trapped. An emulsion of oil in water is then formed, this means that the oil particles become suspended and dispersed into the water. Thus, those oil particles are liberated from the cloth or the skin, and the emulsion is taken away with the rinsing. In summary, soap cleans by acting as an emulsifier. It allows oil and water to mix so that oily grime can be removed during rinsing. There are more things involved in this process, such as for instance changes in the superficial tension of water, but this is the general idea. :

Because of this dualism, soap molecules act like a diplomat, improving the relationship between water and oil. How? When soap is added to the water, the hydrophilic heads of its molecules stay into the water (they like it!), while the long hydrophobic chains join the oil particles and remain inwards (escaping from the water). In that way, they form circular groups named micelles , with the oily material absorbed inside and trapped. An emulsion of oil in water is then formed, this means that the oil particles become suspended and dispersed into the water. Thus, those oil particles are liberated from the cloth or the skin, and the emulsion is taken away with the rinsing. In summary, soap cleans by acting as an emulsifier. It allows oil and water to mix so that oily grime can be removed during rinsing. There are more things involved in this process, such as for instance changes in the superficial tension of water, but this is the general idea.

Next comes cooking ……. Chemistry  in daily life plays a very important role here. The grains such as rice and wheat contain starch which is a long chain of hydrocarbons. These carbohydrates help the children  to grow. Next pulses  supply proteins, Green leafy vegetables give us the necessary iron to supply the blood The iodized salt  is a necessary intake.  It prevents a disease called goiter. The vegetables also contain chemicals for cooling the body.  Vitamins are supplied by them. Vincaro sea is a chemical found in a certain flower.  It is a good cure for   blood diseases and it is antipoison Onion and garlic contain certain chemical properties that purify the blood. Saffron is antibacterial.  That is why we add it in our food preparation. :

Next comes cooking ……. Chemistry  in daily life plays a very important role here. The grains such as rice and wheat contain starch which is a long chain of hydrocarbons. These carbohydrates help the children  to grow. Next pulses  supply proteins, Green leafy vegetables give us the necessary iron to supply the blood The iodized salt  is a necessary intake.  It prevents a disease called goiter. The vegetables also contain chemicals for cooling the body.  Vitamins are supplied by them. Vincaro sea is a chemical found in a certain flower.  It is a good cure for   blood diseases and it is antipoison Onion and garlic contain certain chemical properties that purify the blood. Saffron is antibacterial.  That is why we add it in our food preparation.

Ginger contains certain oil that gets rid of the extra air in our system Sarpagandhi Rawolfia Serpentines is a root. It reduces blood pressure, It is a remedy for blood cancer and asthma.  It also cures skin cancer and mental diseases. Washing soda is a chemicals which cleans up our daily clothes effectively. Bleaching powder is also used for cleaning purpose.  It is antibacterial.  Even drinking water stored  for the city is cleaned up with bleaching powder before it  reaches the  city. Hospitals and health centres use a lot of chemicals in medicine form to treat sickness. :

Ginger contains certain oil that gets rid of the extra air in our system Sarpagandhi Rawolfia Serpentines is a root. It reduces blood pressure, It is a remedy for blood cancer and asthma.  It also cures skin cancer and mental diseases. Washing soda is a chemicals which cleans up our daily clothes effectively. Bleaching powder is also used for cleaning purpose.  It is antibacterial.  Even drinking water stored  for the city is cleaned up with bleaching powder before it  reaches the  city. Hospitals and health centres use a lot of chemicals in medicine form to treat sickness.

Why meals are cooked faster in a pressure cooker..? A pressure cooker is like any other pot but with a more elaborated lid that seals the pot completely. When you heat water inside the pot it boils and the steam cannot escape, so it remains inside and starts to build up pressure. Under pressure, cooking temperatures raise much higher than under normal conditions (higher than the boiling point of water, that is 100ºC), so then the food is cooked much faster. Cooking times can be reduced by a factor of three or four. Besides cooking faster, this method retains more nutrients present in the food than other methods. And did you know that a pressure cooker is often used by mountain climbers? Without it, water boils off before reaching 100ºC because of the lower atmospheric pressure at high altitudes, leaving the food improperly cooked.:

Why meals are cooked faster in a pressure cooker..? A pressure cooker is like any other pot but with a more elaborated lid that seals the pot completely. When you heat water inside the pot it boils and the steam cannot escape, so it remains inside and starts to build up pressure. Under pressure, cooking temperatures raise much higher than under normal conditions (higher than the boiling point of water, that is 100ºC), so then the food is cooked much faster. Cooking times can be reduced by a factor of three or four. Besides cooking faster, this method retains more nutrients present in the food than other methods. And did you know that a pressure cooker is often used by mountain climbers? Without it, water boils off before reaching 100ºC because of the lower atmospheric pressure at high altitudes, leaving the food improperly cooked.

Why do onions make you cry...? Who has never cried while cutting an onion? (well, apart from those who have never cut one hehehe). This is a little explanation in easy terms. Inside the onion cells there are some chemical compounds that contain sulfur. When you cut an onion its cells are broken and those chemical compounds then undergo a reaction that transforms them into a more volatile sulfured products, which are released into the air. These sulfured compounds react with the moisture in your eyes forming sulfuric acid, which produces a burning sensation. The nerve endings in your eyes are very sensitive and so they pick up on this irritation. The brain reacts by telling your tear ducts to produce more water, to dilute the irritating acid. So you cry to keep your eyes protected from the acid. There are some tricks to make onion-dicing less problematic: - Chop the onion under cold water. The volatile sulfured compounds will be released but then they react with the water, instead of reaching your eyes. - You can freeze the onion for 10 minutes before cutting it. The cold temperature of the onion will slow down the chemical reaction which forms the volatile sulfured compounds.:

Why do onions make you cry...? Who has never cried while cutting an onion? (well, apart from those who have never cut one hehehe). This is a little explanation in easy terms. Inside the onion cells there are some chemical compounds that contain sulfur. When you cut an onion its cells are broken and those chemical compounds then undergo a reaction that transforms them into a more volatile sulfured products, which are released into the air. These sulfured compounds react with the moisture in your eyes forming sulfuric acid , which produces a burning sensation. The nerve endings in your eyes are very sensitive and so they pick up on this irritation. The brain reacts by telling your tear ducts to produce more water, to dilute the irritating acid. So you cry to keep your eyes protected from the acid. There are some tricks to make onion-dicing less problematic: - Chop the onion under cold water . The volatile sulfured compounds will be released but then they react with the water, instead of reaching your eyes. - You can freeze the onion for 10 minutes before cutting it. The cold temperature of the onion will slow down the chemical reaction which forms the volatile sulfured compounds.

Why the sky is blue...? We all can look up to the sky and see its beautiful blue colour. Why is it blue, and not red, or white for instance? As I commented in the "Vegetables post", an object is coloured because of the light that it reflects. The white light from the sun contains all the wavelengths, but when it impacts on an object some of its wavelengths are absorbed and some reflected. For example blue objects reflect 'blue' light, which is light with a pretty short wavelength. There is a phenomena named Rayleigh scattering, that consists on the scattering of light by particles much smaller than its wavelength. This effect is especially strong when light passes through gases. :

Why the sky is blue...? We all can look up to the sky and see its beautiful blue colour. Why is it blue, and not red, or white for instance? As I commented in the "Vegetables post", an object is coloured because of the light that it reflects. The white light from the sun contains all the wavelengths, but when it impacts on an object some of its wavelengths are absorbed and some reflected. For example blue objects reflect 'blue' light, which is light with a pretty short wavelength. There is a phenomena named Rayleigh scattering , that consists on the scattering of light by particles much smaller than its wavelength. This effect is especially strong when light passes through gases.

Each of the wavelengths of light suffers a different scattering when it encounters the gas particles that form the atmosphere (nitrogen, oxygen...). This effect is more prominent in the case of short light wavelengths, that are the blue end of the visible spectrum, so the blue light becomes much more dispersed and it can be seen from every direction, as you can see in the drawing below. This gives us the impression that the sky is blue. On the other hand, the red colour is scattered much less, so it can be only seen from certain directions. In the drawing below, both Observer 1 and Observer 2 can see the blue light, but only Observer 2 is in the right direction to see the red one, and that's why we see those beautiful red skies at sunset sometimes. Then, why the clouds are white? Well, the water droplets that form the clouds have a much larger size than the gas particles of the air, and they scatter all the wavelengths of light in the same extent, so all of them are reflected equally and we receive then the full colour of light, that is white. :

Each of the wavelengths of light suffers a different scattering when it encounters the gas particles that form the atmosphere (nitrogen, oxygen...). This effect is more prominent in the case of short light wavelengths, that are the blue end of the visible spectrum, so the blue light becomes much more dispersed and it can be seen from every direction , as you can see in the drawing below. This gives us the impression that the sky is blue. On the other hand, the red colour is scattered much less, so it can be only seen from certain directions. In the drawing below, both Observer 1 and Observer 2 can see the blue light, but only Observer 2 is in the right direction to see the red one, and that's why we see those beautiful red skies at sunset sometimes. Then, why the clouds are white? Well, the water droplets that form the clouds have a much larger size than the gas particles of the air, and they scatter all the wavelengths of light in the same extent, so all of them are reflected equally and we receive then the full colour of light, that is white.

Importance of Chemistry in Daily Life ( Outside Home ) The paints and varnished we use to paint our home  are alchemical mixtures. The red oxide that we use to protect our iron railings contains iron oxide  which offers a protective layer over the irons.  In the garden we use sprays to kill insects from attacking our plants. Vermiwash is a liquid fertilizer.  It issued as a leaf spray. Azdirachtin is a biopesticide . Air is a mixture of gases.  It contains the life supporting oxygen  for human kind and nitrogen for plants. In villages the air is pure.  There are trees that supply oxygen to man.  In return man gives carbon dioxide to them which is essential to plants and trees.  Nature has arranged this exchange program so that both man and nature live peacefully side by side. :

Importance of Chemistry in Daily Life ( Outside Home ) The paints and varnished we use to paint our home  are alchemical mixtures. The red oxide that we use to protect our iron railings contains iron oxide  which offers a protective layer over the irons. In the garden we use sprays to kill insects from attacking our plants. Vermiwash is a liquid fertilizer.  It issued as a leaf spray. Azdirachtin is a biopesticide . Air is a mixture of gases.  It contains the life supporting oxygen  for human kind and nitrogen for plants. In villages the air is pure.  There are trees that supply oxygen to man.  In return man gives carbon dioxide to them which is essential to plants and trees.  Nature has arranged this exchange program so that both man and nature live peacefully side by side.

But today’s vehicles which consume petrol and diesel emit out green house gases dangerous for the survival on earth. Due to these green house gases, a hole has appeared in the ozone layer that protects us from UV rays . As a result global warming has taken place which is a destroyer of the planet earth. The other chemicals that add to this disaster are the ones we use in our refrigerator, air-conditioned etc. Chemistry in daily life is good as long as it balances the nature. When nature is outbalanced  by these chemicals, it becomes a disaster. :

But today’s vehicles which consume petrol and diesel emit out green house gases dangerous for the survival on earth. Due to these green house gases, a hole has appeared in the ozone layer that protects us from UV rays . As a result global warming has taken place which is a destroyer of the planet earth. The other chemicals that add to this disaster are the ones we use in our refrigerator, air-conditioned etc. Chemistry in daily life is good as long as it balances the nature. When nature is outbalanced  by these chemicals, it becomes a disaster.