Balanced diet

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This ppt was created by me during my pharmd 2nd year so jus wanted to post in ur site so dat it can help someone... thanQ... -malawika.k

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BALANCED DIET,TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF DEFICIENCY DISORDERS:

BALANCED DIET,TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF DEFICIENCY DISORDERS THIS PPT IS CONTRIBUTED: Malawika k 1

BALANCED DIET:

A balanced diet means getting the right types and amounts of foods and drinks to supply nutrition and energy for maintaining body cells, tissues, and organs, and for supporting normal growth and development. A well-balanced diet provides enough energy and nutrition for optimal growth and development. A balanced diet must contain carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, mineral salts and fibre . It must contain these things in the correct proportions. BALANCED DIET WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 2

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Carbohydrates : these provide a source of energy. Proteins : these provide a source of materials for growth and repair. Fats : these provide a source of energy and contain fat soluble vitamins. Vitamins : these are required in very small quantities to keep you healthy. Mineral Salts : these are required for healthy teeth, bones, muscles etc.. Fibre : this is required to help your intestines function correctly; it is not digested. Balanced Diets : we must have the above items in the correct proportions. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 3

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A balanced diet and physical exercise has a major role in achieving long healthy life. It helps in controlling body weight, heartrate and BP. Increase in exercise capacity and muscle performance. Improves blood sugar, lowers harmful cholesterol and triglycerides and increases the beneficial HDL cholesterol. Produces mental and physical relaxation. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 6

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Some Greek Philosopher said "Leave your drugs in the chemist's pot if you can heal the patient with food." Scientifically, food is divided into five major groups, each group provide some but not all the nutrients we need. Each food group is as important as another, no one can replace other. For good health, we need them all. Vegetables Fruit Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, Nuts, Oilseeds, and Sweets Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 7

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Food sources:

Food sources Meat and beans group Legumes (including beans, lentils, peas, and split peas) Meat (beef, pork, poultry with skin removed, game meats, fish, shellfish): select lean cuts; trim away visible fat; broil, roast, or poach Nuts and seeds (including almonds, hazelnuts, mixed nuts, peanuts, peanut butter, sunflower seeds, walnuts) Tofu, tempeh , and other soy-protein products. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 9

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Milk group (dairy products) Cheese: fat-free or reduced-fat (1%) Milk or buttermilk: fat-free (skim) or low-fat (1%) Yogurt: fat-free or low-fat, regular or frozen. Fruit group Apples, apricots, avocados, bananas, berries, dates, grapes, grapefruit, mangos, melons, oranges, peaches, pineapples, raisins and other unsweetened dried fruits, tangerines 100% fruit juice WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 10

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Vegetable group Broccoli, cauliflower, carrots, collard and other greens, cucumbers, green beans, kale, lettuces, potatoes, radishes, spinach, squash, sweet potatoes, tomatoes 100% vegetable juice Grain group (breads and cereals) Enriched, whole-grain breads, rolls, English muffins, bagels, cereals (hot and cold), and pasta Grits Rice Oil Light or low-fat salad dressing Low-fat mayonnaise Vegetable oil WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 11

Side effects:

Side effects An unbalanced diet can cause problems with maintenance of: Body tissues Brain and nervous system function Growth and development It can also cause problems with bone and muscle systems. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 12

Recommendations:

Recommendations The term "balanced" simply means that a diet meets your nutritional needs while not providing too much of any nutrients. To achieve a balanced diet, you must eat a variety of foods from each of the food groups. You will need to know: How many calories you should consume every day What size portions you should eat. Too much of a healthy food may no longer be healthy Which are the healthy choices from each food group There are several guidelines available to help you plan your balanced diet. They include: The Food Guide Pyramid The U.S. Dietary Guidelines (RDA guidelines) WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 13

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General Guidelines Do not skip breakfast Eat at least three meals each day Eat foods from each of the food groups at every meal The most important step to eating a balanced diet is to educate yourself about what your body needs, and to read the nutrition label and ingredients of all the food you eat. New dietary guidelines from the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Agriculture (USDA) recommend fewer calories and smarter food choices. Some of the key recommendations: WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 14

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Follow a balanced diet that is low in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol, such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan. Balance your calorie intake with exercise. Slowly decrease the amount of calories you take in while increasing exercise to prevent gradual weight gain over time. Exercise regularly and reduce activities in which you sit (such as watching TV). Eat 2 cups (4 servings) of fruit and 2 1/2 cups of vegetables (5 servings) per day for an average 2,000-calorie per day diet. Eat 3 ounces or more of whole-grain products per day. Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or milk products. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 15

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Get fewer than 7% of calories from saturated fatty acids. Avoid trans fatty acids, which are unhealthy fats. They are found in fried foods, commercial baked goods such as donuts, cookies, and crackers, in processed foods, and in margarines. Limit cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg/day. Make total fat intake no more than 20 - 35% of calories. Choose "good" fats such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils containing polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Lean, low-fat, or fat-free meats, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products are preferable. Total fat intake can approach 35% if most of the fats are "good" fats. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 16

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Stay away from added sugars. Consume fewer than 2,300 mg (approximately one teaspoon of salt) of sodium daily, and limit added salt when you prepare food. Do not consume more than 1 alcoholic drink per day for women, 2 per day for men. Certain people should not drink any alcohol. Read nutrition labels on all foods. This will help you know what kind of fats, and how much, the food contains. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 17

Nutritional Deficiency Disorders:

Nutritional Deficiency Disorders Nutrition deficiency disorders occur when an individual does not take proper amount of nutrients which are essential for the normal functioning of the human body. Regular intakes of all the essential nutrients help the human body to prevent all kind of nutrition deficiency disorders. Essential nutrients like phosphorus, calcium are very important for the bones and protein is also necessary for developing muscle and energy to the human body. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 18

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Symptoms of Nutrition deficiency disorders: There are a few symptoms of nutrition deficiency disorders. These symptoms are mentioned below- Amnesia Loss of appetite Confusion Depression Growth retardation and Some other Neurological symptoms WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 19

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Malnutrition Diseases: Typical symptoms and diseases occur due to lack of nutrients. All the diseases Related to Malnutrition are very common but these diseases need proper treatment and care. Some nutrients and its deficiency disorders are mentioned below- Biotin - Eye inflammation, dermatitis, loss of muscle control, muscle weakness, and insomnia. Copper - Arterial damage, anemia, hair loss, weakness, depression, fragile bones, hyperthyroidism, fatigue, and diarrhea. Essential fatty acids - Liver degeneration, Diarrhea, poor wound healing, dry skin and hair, immune impairment, acne, hair loss, infertility, gall stones, eczema, and premenstrual syndrome. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 20

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Iodine - Fatigue, cretinism, weight gain, and hypothyroidism. Iron - Brittle nails, anemia, dizziness, constipation, confusion, fatigue, inflamed tongue, depression, headache, mouth lesions, dizziness and confusion. Calcium - Cramps, brittle nails, delusions, irritability, palpitations, rickets, periodontal disease, insomnia, depression, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Magnesium - Confusion, anxiety, hyperactivity, heart attack, nervousness, restlessness, muscular irritability, insomnia, and weakness. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 21

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Manganese - Elevated Cholesterol, atherosclerosis, dizziness, hearing loss, loss of muscle control, glucose intolerance, and ringing in ears. Pantothenic Acid - Burning feet, Abdominal pains, depression, fatigue, hair loss, immune impairment, eczema, nausea, insomnia, low blood pressure, irritability, muscle spasms, and poor coordination. Niacin - Irritability, bad breath, skin eruptions, confusion, canker sores, depression, diarrhea, emotional instability, dermatitis, fatigue, loss of appetite, muscle weakness, nausea, memory impairment, and inflammation. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 22

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Potassium - High cholesterol levels, fatigue, acne, depression, edema, constipation, excessive water consumption, insomnia, glucose intolerance, mental impairment, nervousness, muscle weakness, and poor reflexes. Vitamin A - Dry hair, night blindness, acne, fatigue, growth impairment, hyperkeratosis (thickening and roughness of skin), insomnia, immune impairment, and weight loss. Vitamin C - Depression, bleeding gums, easy bruising, irritability, impaired wound healing, joint pains, malaise, loose teeth, and tiredness. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 23

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Treatment:

Treatment Under the nutritional deficiency disorders iron deficiency is most common. Before any treatment is commenced there should be definitive diagnosis of the underlying cause for iron deficiency, particularly in older patients who are most susceptible to colorectal cancer and the gastrointestinal bleeding it often causes. In adults, 60% of patients with iron deficiency anemia may have underlying gastrointestinal disorders leading to chronic blood loss. It is likely that the cause of the iron deficiency will need treatment as well. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 25

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When iron deficiency has been diagnosed the condition can be treated with iron supplements , e.g. in the form of ferrous sulfate , ferrous gluconate , or amino acid chelate tablets. Recent research suggests the replacement dose of iron, at least in the elderly with iron deficiency, may be as little as 15 mg per day of elemental iron. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 26

Prevention:

Prevention Prevention is a topic that has received little attention in the literature on eating disorders. This is ironic because many researchers and health care workers suggest eating disorders are more difficult to treat the more deeply rooted anorexic or bulimic behaviours become in an individual’s lifestyle. Furthermore, most would agree that helping individuals avoid being affected by the factors perpetuating eating disorders (like starvation and nutritional deprivation) is a crucial factor in preventing eating problems from occurring in the first place. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 27

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“Prevention” is a term that can refer to either the elimination of factors causing eating disorders – more specifically called primary prevention – or the early detection and treatment of eating problems – known as secondary prevention. Primary prevention focuses on eliminating the causes or “predisposing” factors, while secondary prevention addresses reducing the causes and the “perpetuating” factors of eating problems. WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 28

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Malawika k WWW.REVOLUTIONPHARMD.COM 29

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