Local Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry

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Local Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry indications technique complecations

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Local Anesthesia and Pain Control for the Child By: Rahaf Najjar

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Lecture Outline: Definition of Pain and Anesthesia. Topical Anesthesia. Content of L.A Solution . Metabolism of L.A. Anesthesia of Mandibular Teeth and Soft Tissue. Anesthesia of Maxillary Teeth and Palatal Tissue. Supplemental Injection Technique. Maximum Recommended Dose . Complications of L.A. New Techniques in L.A.

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Pain: It is defined as an unpleasant sensational experience initiated by noxious stimulus & transmitted over a specialized neural network to CNS where it is interpreted as such feeling.

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Local Anesthesia: Transient loss of sensation in a circumscribed area of the body caused by a depression of excitation in nerve endings or an inhibition of the conduction process in peripheral nerves.

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Topical Anesthesia Available in different forms: Gel ( most effective type). Liquid Spray. Technique: The mucosa at the site of the intended needle insertion is dried with gauze. A small amount of the topical anesthetic agent is applied to the tissue with a cotton swab. Topical anesthesia should be produced in 30 seconds. T he dentist should prepare the child for the injection ( tell the patient : the tooth is going to sleep so that the treatment can proceed without discomfort).

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Effective to a depth of 2-3 mm . E ffective in reducing the discomfort of the initial penetration of the needle into the mucosa.  It’s disadvantages are the taste may be disagreeable to patient and the length of application time may increase apprehension in the pediatric patient. When applying topical anesthetics to the soft tissue use the smallest effective amount to avoid anesthetizing the pharyngeal tissues ( cause gaging). Not known to produce systemic toxicity in adults but can produce local  allergic   reactions.

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Content of L.A. Solution: Local anesthetic agent. Vasoconstrictors. Reducing agents. Preservatives. Fungicide. Vehicle.

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Reducing Agent Sodium metabisulphite . Preservative Methylparaben . It increases the shelf life of the anesthetic solution. Acts as a bacteriostatic agent. Fungicide Thymol . Vehicle Modified Ringer’s solution / Distilled Water to give volume.

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Local anesthetic agent Esters Esters of Benzoic Acid Cocaine, Butacaine , Benzocaine, Tetracaine Esters of Para Aminobenzoic Acid Procaine , Chloroprocaine , propoxycaine Amides Bupivacaine , lidocaine, articaine , prilocaine Quinolones ( not used anaymore ) Centbucridine

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Lidocaine hydrochloride ( Xylocain ) 2 % is most commonly used local anesthetic agent. 2% mean……. 2 mg in 100 ml or 20mg in 1 ml

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Vasoconstrictors Adrenaline in the concentration of 1:50000 to 1:200000 is commonly used. 1:200000 means…. 1 gm in 200000 ml Or 1mg in 200 ml (0.02 mg/ml) Function of Vasoconstrictors: Delays absorption of LA from the site. Provides blood less field. Prolongs the action . Reduces the systemic toxicity. Contraindication: Thyrotoxicity , Asthma and haypertension

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Metabolism of LA: Ester Group: They are hydrolyzed in the plasma by the enzymes pseudocholinesterase . Amide Group: Primary site of biotransformation is in liver . Excretion: from kidney.

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Points to be Kept in Mined Regarding the Difference between Child and Adult Patient: 1.Density and calcification of maxillary and mandibular bone. 2.Anatomic structures. 3.Penetration of the needle. 4.Depth of needle penetration. 5.Emotional aspect.

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Types of Injection Procedures: 1 .Nerve block : depositing the LA solution within close proximity to a main nerve trunk. 2 .Field block : depositing a in proximity to the larger nerve branches. 3 .Local infiltration : small terminal nerve endings are anaesthetized.

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Anesthesia of Mandibular Teeth and Soft Tissue: Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block + Lingual Nerve Block: T he mandibular foramen is situated at a level lower than the occlusal plane of the primary teeth of the pediatric patient. The injection must be made slightly lower and more posteriorly than for an adult patient. BELOW 6 YEARS 6 – 12 YEARS ABOVE 12 YEARS

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Landmarks Coronoid notch Pterygomandibular raphe Occlusal plane of the mandibular posterior teeth.

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Area anesthetized Mandibular teeth of the injected side. Body of the mandible, inferior portion of the ramus. Buccal mucoperiosteum , mucous membrane anterior to the mandibular 1 st molar. Anterior 2/3 rd of tongue and floor of the mouth. Lingual soft tissue and periosteum. Used for more than 1 tooth filling, extraction, pulp therapy and if can’t apply mental block due to infection.

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2) Mental Nerve Block ( Lower E & D filling)

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3) Long Buccal Nerve Block Site of injection Mucous membrane distal and buccal to the most distal molar tooth in the arch. Area Anesthetized Soft tissue and periosteum buccal to the mandibular molar teeth.

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4) Infiltration For Mandibular Incisors: The terminal ends of the inferior alveolar nerves cross over the mandibular midline slightly and provide conjoined innervation of the mandibular incisors. The labial bone overlying the mandibular incisors is usually thin enough for supraperiosteal anesthesia techniques to be effective .

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Gow Gates Mandibular Block ( Not for childeren ) This approach uses external anatomic landmarks ( Intertragel notch) to align the needle. A nerve block procedure that anesthetizes the entire distribution of the fifth cranial nerve in the mandibular area.

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Anesthesia of Maxillary Teeth and Soft Tissue: Supraperiostial Technique (Local Infiltration) Most frequently used for obtaining pulpal anesthesia in maxillary teeth. Indicated whenever dental procedures are confined to only one or two teeth. Landmark: insertion 45 to Long acsses of the tooth Mucobuccal fold. Crown of the tooth. Root contour of the tooth.

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Areas Anesthetized Pulp and root area of the tooth. Buccal periosteum. Connective tissue. Mucous membrane.

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2) Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve Block ( not for children)

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3)Posterior Superior Alveolar Nerve Block ( not for children ) Thick bone >>> Zygomatic Process

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4 ) Palatal Anesthesia: a) Nasoplatine Nerve Block: Blocking the nasopalatine nerve anesthetizes the palatal tissues of the six anterior teeth . T his technique is painful and is notroutinely used before operative procedures. ( apply pressure to decrease pain).

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b) Greater Palatine Nerve Block: Anesthetizes the mucoperiosteum of the palate from the tuberosity to the canine region and from the median line to the gingival crest on the injected side.

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Supplemental Injection Technique: 1) Periodontal Ligament Injection The needle is placed in the gingival sulcus, and advanced along the root surface until resistance is met. Then approximately 0.2 mL of anesthetic is deposited into the periodontal ligament . P ressure is necessary ( by the injection) to express the anesthetic solution.

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Advantages of Periodontal Ligament Anesthesia : 1 . It provides reliable pain control rapidly and easily. 2. It provides pulpal anesthesia for 30 to 45 minutes. 3. It is no more uncomfortable than other local anesthesia techniques . 4. It is completely painless if used adjunctively. 5. It requires very small quantities of anesthetic solution. 6. It does not require aspiration before injection. 7. It may be performed without removal of the rubber dam . 8. It may be useful in patients with bleeding disorders that contraindicate use of other injections. 9. It may be useful in young or disabled patients in whom the possibility of postoperative trauma to the lips or tongue is a concern.

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2) Intrapulpal Injection: ( not used for deciduous teeth) Local anesthetic solution is delivered directly to the pulp using a bent needle. Advantages: Requires minimum volumes of LA solution Immediate onset of action Very few post operative complications

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3 ) Intraosseous Injection: ( not used for deciduous teeth ) Require the deposition of local anesthetic solution in the porous alveolar bone . By forcing a needle through the cortical plate and into the cancellous alveolar bone or a small, round bur may be used to make an access in the bone for the needle .

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Maximum Recommended Doses: 4.4 mg/kg body weight with vasoconstrictor. Dose Calculation: 2% lidocaine = 20 mg/ ml 1 carpule = 1.8ml Amount of LA in 1 carpule = 20X 1.8 = 36mg/ carpule . Example: 20 Kg child can tolerate a maximum dose of 2% lidocaine with vasoconstrictor of LA ---------- 4.4 X 20= 88 mg = 2.4carpules.

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Complications OF LA: Systemic Complications Toxicity. Syncope. Allergic Reaction. Vasoconstrictors effects.

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Manifestation Of Toxicity Cardiac Depression Coma Convulsions Unconsciousness Muscular twitching Visual and auditory disturbances, light headedness, numbness of tongue Concentration of LA in Plasma

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Syncope: Most common cause : Vasovagal attach Signs and Symptoms: Child become pale and cold . Pulse is rapid. The pupils are dilated or constricted. Drop of blood pressure.

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Allergic Reaction: Uncommon. Manifestations: edema, eczema or ertecharia . Anaphylactic shock : more sever form of allergy >> Med. Emergency. Tx : .1-.5 ml of 1:1000 epinephrine injection >> the base of the tongue.

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Vasoconstrictors Effects: Patients with ischemic heart diseases and hypertension are at high risk of toxicity if LA administrated intravascularly .

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2) Local Complications: Broken needle. Hematoma. Trauma of the nerve causing Paresthesia. Sloughing . Truisms. Soft tissue injury.

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New Technique in LA Jet Injection: Needle Free

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2)Computer Controlled Anesthesia Delivery System (WAND) : A dministers local anesthetic at two specific rates of delivery. The slow rate is 0.5ml/min and fast rate is 1.8ml/min .

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The   CompuDent  instrument eliminates the pain associated with single tooth, palatal, mandibular block and all other injections. these eliminate unnecessary collateral numbness of the tongue, lips and facial muscles.  R apid onset of anesthesia in mandibular block injections. The use of the sterile single-use disposable  Wand  hand piece minimizes the risk of cross contamination. The   CompuDent /Wand  system's ergonomic design makes an injection easier and less stressful to administer, lowering the risk carpal tunnel syndrome.

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3)EMLA (Eutectic Mixture of LA) Not for pedo Mixture of Lidocaine & Prilocaine . EMLA cream is used for numbing the skin before inserting the needle. It is designed to go through intact skin. ( used extraoral ) Potential for toxic effects of L.A. is minimal. Use in children under 6 months is contraindicated due to the possibility for developing methemoglobinemia due to prilocaine .

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4)Intraoral lidocaine patch (Topical Anesthesia) Contains 10% or 20% lidocaine. Placed for 15 minutes on the buccal mucosa of the maxillary or mandibular premolar area, 2 mm apical to the mucogingival junction.

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5)Electronic Dental Anesthesia Uses the principle of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). Requires good patient co-operation. It increases salivary blood flow.

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Principles of Atraumatic Injection: Check the flow of LA solution. Use Anesthetic cartilage and siring at temperature close to room temperature. Proper positioning for the patient and doctor. Apply topical anesthesia. Always communicate with the pt. Keep syringe out of pt site. Don’t inject subperiosteally. Always aspirate. Slowly deposit LA solution. Bevel of the needle facing the bone. Never leave pt unattended.

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THANK YOU

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