Naming compounds

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. Naming Compounds Presented by VISWANATHA REDDY G

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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOUNDS Organic compounds inorganic compounds

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Organic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon, usually in combination with elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Ex: CH3OH,C6H5NH2. Note: Some carbon-containing compounds, such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon disulfide (CS2), compounds containing the cyanide group (CN-), and carbonate , and bicarbonate groups are considered to be inorganic compounds.

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INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Ionic Compounds These are made up of cations (positive ions) and anions (negative ions). Metals forms mostly cations Ex:

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Non metals forms mostly anions Ex: Examples for binary ionic compounds NaCl, KBr, ZnI2 ,Al2O3. Examples for ternary ionic compounds LiOH, KCN

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Certain metals, especially the transition metals, can form more than one type of cation. The transition metals are the elements in Groups 1B and 3B-8B. Ex: FeCl2 ferrous chloride FeCl3 ferric chloride In the modern nomenclature, Roman numerals are used to designate different cations. This is called the Stock system. Ex: Mn2+: MnO manganese(II) oxide Mn3+: Mn2O3 manganese(III) oxide Mn4+: MnO2 manganese(IV) oxide Using the Stock system, we denote the ferrous ion and the ferric ion as iron(II) and iron(III), respectively; ferrous chloride becomes iron(II) chloride; and ferric chloride is called iron(III) chloride. Note: We keep in mind that if a metal atom can form cations of different charges, we need to use the stock system.

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Problem 1 Name the following compounds: Cu(NO3)2, (b) KH2PO4, (c) NH4ClO3,and(d)PbO Problem 2 Write chemical formulas for the following compounds: mercury(I) nitrite, (b) cesium sulfide, and (c) calcium phosphate. (a) Hg2(NO2)2, (b) Cs2S, (c) Ca3(PO4)2

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Molecular Compounds Molecular compounds contain discrete molecular units. Ex: HCl hydrogen chloride HBr hydrogen bromide SiC silicon carbide It is quite common for one pair of elements to form several different compounds. We use the following Greek prefixes to denote the number of atoms of each element present.

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Ex: CO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxide SO2 sulfur dioxide SO3 sulfur trioxide NO2 nitrogen dioxide N2O4 dinitrogen tetroxide Guidelines : The prefix “mono” may be omitted for the first element. EX: PCl3 For oxides, the ending “a” in the prefix is sometimes omitted. Ex: N2O4

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Exception: The use of Greek prefixes are molecular compounds containing hydrogen. B2H6 diborane CH4 methane SiH4 silane NH3 ammonia PH3 phosphine H2O water H2S hydrogen sulfide

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Problem Name the following molecular compounds: (a) SiCl4 ,(b) P4O10, (c) NF3 and (d) Cl2O7. Problem Write chemical formulas for the following molecular compounds: (a) carbon disulfide , (b) disilicon hexabromide, (c) sulfur tetrafluoride and (d) dinitrogen pentoxide.

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Acids and Bases Acids: An acid can be described as a substance that yields hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. Ex:

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In some cases two different names seem to be assigned to the same chemical formula. HCl hydrogen chloride HCl hydrochloric acid HCl + H2O ? H3O+ + Cl- Oxoacids : Oxoacids are acids that contain hydrogen, oxygen, and another element (the central element). Ex: HNO3 nitric acid H2CO3 carbonic acid H2SO4 sulfuric acid HClO3 chloric acid

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Rules : Addition of one O atom to the “-ic” acid: The acid is called “per…-ic” acid. HClO3 + O ? HClO4 Removal of one O atom from the “-ic” acid: The acid is called “-ous” acid. HNO3 - O ? HNO2 Removal of two O atoms from the “-ic” acid: The acid is called “hypo…ous” acid. HBrO3 - 2 O ? HBrO

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Rules for naming oxo anions When all the H ions are removed from the “-ic” acid, the anion’s name ends with “-ate.” H3PO4 PO43- When all the H ions are removed from the “-ous” acid, the anion’s name ends with “-ite.” HClO2 ClO2- The names of anions in which one or more but not all the hydrogen ions have been removed must indicate the number of H ions present. -3H -H

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H3PO4 phosphoric acidH2PO41- dihydrogen phosphateHPO42- hydrogen phosphatePO43- Phosphate Other examples Problem Name the following oxoacid and oxoanion: (a) H3PO3 , (b)IO4- , (c) HBrO and (d)HSO4-.

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BASE: A base can be described as a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. Ex: NaOH Sodium hydroxide KOH Potassium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 Barium hydroxide   NH3 Ammonia

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Hydrates Hydrates are compounds that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them. Ex: CuSO4.5H2O copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate CuSO4.5H2O CuSO 4 + 5H2O anhydrous copper(II) sulfate Other Examples BaCl2·2H2O barium chloride dihydrate LiCl·H2O lithium chloride monohydrate MgSO4·7H2O magnesium sulfate heptahydrate Sr(NO3)2·4H2O strontium nitrate tetrahydrate

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ORGANIC COMPOUNDS The simplest type of organic compounds is the hydrocarbons, which contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Examples for alkanes:

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The chemistry of organic compounds is largely determined by the functional groups. Ex: CH3-OH CH3-NH2 CH3-COOH

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