Native American Warriors and Activists1

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By: worldexpo (112 month(s) ago)

nice ppt to learn more about the native americans

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Sketch by John Mix Stanley  (c. 1853)      Glenbow Museum : 

Sketch by John Mix Stanley  (c. 1853)      Glenbow Museum A deceiving picture of Native American Communities. This portrayal sends a negative message. History books as well as Hollywood depicts Native American people as nomadic and without permanent dwellings. The Plains Indians of North America were introduced to horses in 1730. The Blackfoot were known for horsemanship and fierce warriors from Saskatchewan to Missouri River and west of the Rocky Mountains.


"Indian Village of Secoton," 1585-86 Drawing by John White Licensed by the Trustees of the British Museum � the British Museum

Native American Women: 

Native American Women

Matoaka About 1597 - March, 1617: 

Matoaka About 1597 - March, 1617 Pocahontas a nickname meaning "the naughty one" or "spoiled child" one. Her real name was Matoaka who married Kocoum. When the English first met the Powhatan people, Pocahontas was about 10 or 11 years old. Saving John Smith from being clubbed to death by her father is a myth. Smith’s colonists reported him as abrasive and upholding mercenary ideals. Matoaka’s father was chief of the Powhatan’s with over 30 alliances. The film “Pocahontas” distorts history and portrayal of Matoaka. Pocahontas, at 17 years, was a prisoner by the English while she was on a social visit, and was held hostage at Jamestown for over a year. John Rolfe took interest and would marry her in 1614. Her new name was Rebecca Rolfe. She had one son named Thomas Rolfe. 1616 John took her to England and was used in propaganda to further the colony and civilizing the Indians. John Rolfe commercialized tobacco. Matoaka died in 1617 on her return to Virginia and buried at Gravesend which was destroyed by church reconstruction. After her death Smith invented the story that she rescued him.

Kateri Tekakwitha-Kaia'tanó:ron 1656 -1680 : 

Kateri Tekakwitha-Kaia'tanó:ron 1656 -1680 Her family died from small pox when she was 4 years old…adopted by her uncle. Kateri was the first Native American nun who cured people using a cross that she carried. After her death, the cross healed people. Kateri wanted to start her own convent but was denied because she was too "new" of a Christian. After her death, she was presented to the Catholic Church Beatified -22 June 1980 by Pope John Paul II; Her Canonization is pending. A patron saint and Virgin Painted by Father Chauchetière between 1682-1693.

Sacagawea, "Bird Woman” 1786 [could have been 1784] – 1812: 

Sacagawea, "Bird Woman” 1786 [could have been 1784] – 1812 She was born into the Shoshoni tribe in the Rocky Mountains and was named Boinaiv, meaning "Grass Maiden“ or “Boat Traveler” [disputed meaning]. Through misunderstanding, Clark thought her name was Bird Woman. Later she was kidnapped by Crow warriors and sold to the Hidatsa on the Missouri River in North Dakota. She and another Native woman was sold to a French Canadian Fur trader who married both. Sacagawea was the navigator of the Lewis and Clark expedition across the newly purchased Louisiana Territory when she was 17 years old. Without Sacagawea this expedition would not have been the successful. Sacagawea also served as an unofficial symbolic peace symbol for other Indian tribes to see as the expedition traveled across the land. Sacagawea lived to 25 and died from a severe fever. Some claim she lived to over 100 years. Lewis and Clark write of her endurance and stamina. She had a son called Baptiste who was Clark’s favorite. She is recognized as great American historical figure.

Nancy Ward Cherokee 1738 - 1822 : 

Nancy Ward Cherokee 1738 - 1822 Born in a "Peace Town" or "Mother Town" in the Overhill region of the Cherokee Nation. Her father Fivekiller [from Delaware people] and her mother, Tame Deer, Cherokee. Missionaries, Moravians influence the area and sought to persuade to follow the Bible as their rule of faith, morals and convert the Cherokee people. The Cherokee Beloved Woman and War Woman who fought along side her husband, Tsu-la Kingfisher, chewing the lead bullets for his rifle. He was killed and she took up his gun and the brought victory to the Cherokees. She married Bryan Ward about 1762. For bravery she was called “Ghighau,” "Beloved Woman" and “Agi-ga-u-e” War Woman for the Cherokees. She was also given the name Nanye-hi "One Who Goes About.” A powerful and influential woman in the Cherokee Nation. She headed the Council of Women with a seat and vote on the Council of Chiefs. She is credited with having introduced dairy products and beef.  She spared the life of Lydia Bean, a white woman and saved countless Cherokee and white lives when she warned settlers of attacks. Nancy was involved in the Treaty of July 20, 1781, and the Treaty at Hopewell, November 28, 1785, as a principal speaker. Known as a peace maker. After the Hiwassee Purchase of 1819, she left Chota and settled on the Ocoee River near Benton, Tennessee. She operated an Inn at Woman Killer Ford.

Lozen - Chiricahua Apache Around N.Mexico 1840’s : 

Lozen - Chiricahua Apache Around N.Mexico 1840’s The word "apache" comes from the Yuma word for "fighting-men" and from the Zuni word meaning "enemy. “[] Lozen was the sister of mighty Apache war leader Victorio, She was the most famous of the Apache War Women. She did not want to learn the women’s ways but rather a warrior's path Her brother taught by her the ways. She dressed, lived, and fought like a man. She never married. She had great skills as a warrior, scout, and planned battles well. She was included in all warrior ceremonies. She was a leader in dances prior to battles. Lozen was a medicine woman and shaman. People came from miles around to see her for her abilities as a healer. Lozen rode with Geronimo and Dahteste. She persuaded Geronimo to surrender to the military. This was the last free Apaches in 1886. She was taken prisoner to Florida. Later in Alabama she died of tuberculosis at 50 years old. Geronimo's band after their final surrender.  Geronimo is third from right in first row. Lozen is third from right in third row.  

Dahteste (ta-DOT-say) Around N.Mexico 1840’s : 

Dahteste (ta-DOT-say) Around N.Mexico 1840’s She choose the life of a warrior. She was the best of the best in war, hunting, fighting. It was said she was graceful and skillful. Geronimo was her family friend. She fought along side her husband as a scout, warrior and mediator to the Calvary. Dahteste was fluent in English. Lozen and Dahteste fought side by side. Both were instrumental in final surrender of Geronimo to the Government. She was imprisoned with Lozen and Geronimo in Florida and survived TB and pneumonia. Later she was transferred to Ft. Still and after 19 years returned to Mescalero Apache Reservation and died of old age.

Gouyen “Wise Woman” Apache 1880’s: 

Gouyen “Wise Woman” Apache 1880’s Gouyen was born into Chief Victorio’s Warm Spring Apache band. Gouyen, her son Kaywaykla, and 15 others survived an attack by Mexicans. Her husband was killed in a Comanche raid a short time later. Gouyen dressed in puberty dress the night after her husbands death and found the Comanche chief in a victory dance with her husbands scalp at his belt. She seduced the chief and killed him. She returned to camp with his scalp, breechcloth and moccasins. Kaytenae married Gouyen and later they were taken captive by the Army in Still, OK. James Kaywaykla with his mother, Gouyen, and his stepfather, Kaytennae.

Helen Hunt Jackson 1830-1885 : 

Helen Hunt Jackson 1830-1885 Activist for the Ponca Native American’s in Nebraska and Southern California. She was appalled at the unfair treatment at the hands of the Indian Agents. She wrote "Ramona" and was published in the Christian Union. An earlier work is" A Century of Dishonor." She died in 1885 as a a special government commissioner to the California Indians. The Ramona Pageant is an account of her novel. A staged outdoor theater opened in 1923 and is held annually over three weekends in the Ramona Bowl, in the foothills in Riverside County, California. The pageant features a 400- member cast, of area residents, and is probably the largest and longest-running outdoor play in the nation. Helen inspired a well known song, movie, and the outdoor play.

Gertrude Simmons Bonnin- Educator and Activist for Native American Human Rights 1875-1938: 

Gertrude Simmons Bonnin- Educator and Activist for Native American Human Rights 1875-1938 Zitkala-sa, "Red Bird," an educated on the reservation until the age of 8, she was sent to White's Institute, a Quaker school She enrolled at Earlham College, in Richmond, where she won an oratorical contest. A teacher at the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. She studied at the Boston Conservatory and excelled as a violinist. In 1900 Gertrude and the Carlisle Band went to Paris and performed an Opera she wrote which was based on the plains sun dance.   Gertrude was a Yankton Sioux reformer and writer who fought to obtain fairer treatment for her people by the federal government. In 1911 she became an active member in “The society of American Indians”.   The group worked for equal rights for all people and wanted to disband the Bureau of Indian Affairs.   In 1916, she was secretary for the society, and lobbied for her people at the Capitol. It was through her that the General Federation of Women's Clubs took an active interest in Indian welfare. In 1926, she founded the Council of American Indians and worked for the human rights and interests of Indians until her death.  She is buried in the Arlington Cemetery in WA.

Information from: Finnicum, Brenda, The Native Voice, 4/30/03 

Information from: Finnicum, Brenda, The Native Voice, 4/30/03 DID YOU KNOW? Native Americans have the highest percentage serving in the military than any other group in America.   More than 12,000 Native Americans served during World War I, though they weren't official U.S. citizens.  More than 44,500 served in World War II, a greater per-capita rate than any other ethnic group. More than 50,000 served in Vietnam, 90 percent of them as volunteers.


References Theda Perdue. “Cherokee Women.” University of Nebraska Press. 1998. James Mooney. “Myths of the Cherokees.” (1900), 490.

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