Chapter 8: Networks: Chapter 8: Networks IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0 Purpose of this Presentation: Purpose of this Presentation List of chapter objectives
Overview of the chapter contents, including
Reflection/Activities for instructors to complete to prepare to teach
Additional resources To provide to instructors an overview of Chapter 8: Chapter 8 Objectives: Chapter 8 Objectives 8.1 Explain the principles of networking
8.2 Describe types of networks
8.3 Describe basic networking concepts and technologies
8.4 Describe the physical components of a network
8.5 Describe LAN topologies and architectures
8.6 Identify standards organizations
8.7 Identify Ethernet standards
8.8 Explain OSI and TCP/IP data models
8.9 Describe how to configure a NIC and a modem
8.10 Identify names, purposes, and characteristics of other technologies used to establish connectivity
8.11 Identify and apply common preventive maintenance techniques used for networks
8.12 Troubleshoot a network Chapter 8 Worksheets, Activities, and Labs: Chapter 8 Worksheets, Activities, and Labs 8.1.2 Activity: Advantages and Disadvantages of Networking
8.2.3 Activity: Network Types
8.3.2 Worksheet: Identify IP Address Classes
8.3.4 Activity: Network Protocols
8.8.3 Activity: OSI Model
8.9.1 Worksheet: Internet Search for NIC Drivers
8.9.2 Lab: Configure an Ethernet NIC to use DHCP
8.10.3 Worksheet: Answer Broadband Questions
8.12.2 Worksheet: Diagnose a Network Problem Introduction: Introduction Chapter 8 is an overview of network principles, standards, and purposes
It covers the following types of networks:
Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Wireless LAN (WLAN)
These topics are covered:
Network topologies, protocols, and logical models
Hardware needed to create a network
Configuration, troubleshooting, and preventive maintenance
Network software, communication methods, and hardware relationships Principles of Networking: Networks are systems that are formed by links.
People use different types of networks every day:
Mail delivery system
Public transportation system
Corporate computer network
Computers can be linked by networks to share data and resources.
A network can be as simple as two computers connected by a single cable or as complex as hundreds of computers connected to devices that control the flow of information. Principles of Networking Computer Networks: Computer Networks Network devices include:
Desktop and laptop computers
Printers and scanners
PDAs and Smartphones
File and print servers
Resources shared across networks include:
Services, such as printing or scanning
Storage devices, such as hard drives or optical drives
Applications, such as databases
Different types of network media:
Wireless connection Benefits of Networking: Benefits of Networking Fewer peripherals needed
Increased communication capabilities
Avoid file duplication and corruption
Lower cost licensing
Types of Networks: Types of Networks A computer network is identified by:
The type of media used to connect the devices
The type of networking devices used
How the resources are managed
How the network is organized
How the data is stored
The area it serves Local Area Network (LAN): Local Area Network (LAN) A group of interconnected computers that is under the same administrative control.
Can be as small as a single local network installed in a home or small office.
Can consist of interconnected local networks consisting of many hundreds of hosts, installed in multiple buildings and locations. Wide Area Network (WAN): Wide Area Network (WAN) A WAN connects LANs in geographically separated locations.
A WAN covers a much larger area than a LAN.
The Internet is a large WAN.
Telecommunications service providers (TSP) are used to interconnect these LANs at different locations. Wireless LAN (WLAN): Wireless LAN (WLAN) Wireless devices are used to transmit and receive data using radio waves.
Wireless devices connect to access points within a specified area.
Access points connect to the network using copper cabling.
WLAN coverage can be limited to the area of a room, or can have greater range.
You can share resources such as files and printers, and access the Internet on a WLAN. Peer-to-Peer Networking: Peer-to-Peer Networking Share files, send messages, and print to a shared printer.
Each computer has similar capabilities and responsibilities.
Each user decides which data and devices to share.
No central point of control in the network.
Best if there are ten or fewer computers. Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer: Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer Without centralized network administration, it is difficult to determine who controls network resources.
Without centralized security, each computer must use separate security measures for data protection.
More complex and difficult to manage as the number of computers on the network increases.
Without centralized data storage, data backups must be performed by users. Client/Server Network: Client/Server Network Client/server network model provides security and control for the network.
Client requests information or services from the server.
Server provides the requested information or service.
Servers are maintained by network administrators.
Data backups and security measures
Control of user access to network resources
Centralized storage and services include:
Data stored on a centralized file server
Shared printers managed by a print server
Users have proper permissions to access data or printers Networking Concepts and Technologies: Networking Concepts and Technologies A computer technician is required to configure and troubleshoot computers on a network.
A computer technician should understand IP addressing, protocols, and other network concepts.
Bandwidth: Bandwidth amount of data that can be transmitted within a fixed time period
measured in bits per second and is usually denoted by the following:
bps - bits per second
Kbps - kilobits per second
Mbps - megabits per second Three Modes of Transmission: Three Modes of Transmission Data is transmitted in one of three modes:
Simplex (Unidirectional transmission) is a single, one-way transmission.
Example: The signal sent from a TV station to your TV.
Half-duplex allows data to flow in one direction at a time.
Simultaneous transmission in two directions is not allowed.
Example: Two-way radios, police or emergency mobile radios
Full-duplex allows data to flow in both directions at the same time.
Bandwidth is measured in only one direction. 100 Mbps full-duplex means a bandwidth of 100 Mbps in each direction.
Broadband technologies, such as digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable, operate in full-duplex mode. IP Address: IP Address An IP address is a unique number that is used to identify a network device.
An IP address is represented as a 32-bit binary number, divided into four octets (groups of eight bits):
An IP address is also represented in a dotted decimal format.
When a host is configured with an IP address, it is entered as a dotted decimal number, such as 192.168.1.5.
Unique IP addresses on a network ensure that data can be sent to and received from the correct network device. IP Address Classes: IP Address Classes Class A
Large networks, implemented by large companies and some countries
Medium-sized networks, implemented by universities
Small networks, implemented by ISP for customer subscriptions
Special use for multicasting
Used for experimental testing Subnet Masks: Subnet Masks Used to indicate the network portion of an IP address
Is a dotted decimal number
Usually, all hosts within a broadcast domain of a LAN (bounded by routers) use the same subnet mask.
The default subnet masks for three classes of IP addresses:
255.0.0.0 is the subnet mask for Class A
255.255.0.0 is the subnet mask for Class B
255.255.255.0 is the subnet mask for Class C
If an organization owns one Class B network but needs to provide IP addresses for four LANs, the organization will subdivide the Class B network into four smaller parts by using subnetting, which is a logical division of a network. The subnet mask specifies how it is subdivided. IP Address Configuration: IP Address Configuration Manual configuration
Manually configure each device with the proper IP address and subnet mask.
A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server automatically assigns IP addresses to network hosts.
Network Interface Card (NIC) is the hardware that enables a computer to connect to a network and it has two addresses:
The IP address is a logical address that can be changed.
The Media Access Control (MAC) address is "burned-in" or permanently programmed into the NIC when manufactured. The MAC address cannot be changed. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP): Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) DHCP automatically provides computers with an IP address.
The DHCP server can assign these to hosts:
Domain Name System (DNS) server address DHCP Process and Advantages: DHCP Process and Advantages DHCP process:
DHCP server receives a request from a host.
Server selects IP address information from a database.
Server offers the addresses to requesting host.
If the host accepts the offer, the server leases the IP address for a specific period of time.
Advantages of DHCP:
Simplifies the administration of a network
Reduces the possibility of assigning duplicate or invalid addresses Configure Host to Use DHCP: Configure Host to Use DHCP Configure the host to "Obtain an IP address automatically" in the TCP/IP properties of the NIC configuration window Internet Protocols: Internet Protocols A protocol is a set of rules.
Internet protocols are sets of rules governing communication within and between computers on a network.
Many protocols consist of a suite (or group) of protocols stacked in layers. These layers depend on the operation of the other layers in the suite to function properly.
The main functions of protocols:
Compressing the data
Deciding how data is to be sent
Deciding how to announce sent and received data Common Network Protocols : Common Network Protocols Protocols used for browsing the web, sending and receiving e-mail, and transferring data files Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP): Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is used by devices on a network to send control and error messages to computers and servers.
PING (Packet Internet Groper) is a simple command line utility used to test connections between computers
Used to determine whether a specific IP address is accessible.
Used with either the hostname or the IP address.
Works by sending an ICMP echo request to a destination computer.
Receiving device sends back an ICMP echo reply message. Ping Command Switches: Ping Command Switches These command line switches (options) can be used with the ping command. Output of the Ping Command: Output of the Ping Command Four ICMP echo requests (pings) are sent to the destination computer to determine the reliability and reachability of the destination computer. Physical Network Components: Physical Network Components Network devices:
Wireless access points
Twisted-pair copper cabling
Radio waves Hubs: Hubs Extend the range of a signal by receiving then regenerating it and sending it out all other ports
Traffic is sent out all ports of the hub
Allow a lot of collisions on the network segment and are often not a good solution
Also called concentrators because they serve as a central connection point for a LAN Bridges and Switches: Bridges and Switches A packet, along with its MAC address information, is called a frame.
LANs are often divided into sections called segments bounded by bridges.
A bridge has the intelligence to determine if an incoming frame is to be sent to a different segment, or dropped. A bridge has two ports.
A switch (multiport bridge) has several ports and refers to a table of MAC addresses to determine which port to use to forward the frame. Routers: Routers Routers are devices that connect entire networks to each other.
Use IP addresses to forward packets to other networks.
Can be a computer with special network software installed.
Can be a device built by network equipment manufacturers.
Contain tables of IP addresses along with optimal routes to other networks. Wireless Access Points: Wireless Access Points Provide network access to wireless devices such as laptops and PDAs.
Use radio waves to communicate with radios in computers, PDAs, and other wireless access points.
Have limited range of coverage. Multipurpose Devices: Multipurpose Devices Perform more than one function.
More convenient to purchase and configure just one device.
Combines the functions of a switch, a router and a wireless access point into one device.
The Linksys 300N is an example of a multipurpose device. Twisted-Pair Cabling: Twisted-Pair Cabling A pair of twisted wires forms a circuit that transmits data.
The twisted wires provide protection against crosstalk (electrical noise) because of the cancellation effect. Pairs of copper wires are encased in color-coded plastic insulation and twisted together.
An outer jacket, called poly-vinyl chloride (PVC), protects the bundles of twisted pairs. Two Basic Types of Twisted-Pair Cables: Two Basic Types of Twisted-Pair Cables Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)
Has two or four pairs of wires
Relies on the cancellation effect for reduction of interference caused by electromagnetic interface (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI)
Most commonly used cabling in networks
Has a range of 328 ft (100 meters)
Shielded twisted-pair (STP)
Each pair is wrapped in metallic foil to better shield the wires from electrical noise and then the four pairs of wires are then wrapped in an overall metallic braid or foil.
Reduces electrical noise from within the cable.
Reduces EMI and RFI from outside the cable. Category Rating: Category Rating UTP comes in several categories that are based on two factors:
The number of wires in the cable
The number of twists in those wires
Category 3 is used for telephone connections.
Category 5 and Category 5e have are the most common network cables used.
Category 6 cable has higher data rate than the Cat 5 cables. Coaxial Cable: Coaxial Cable A copper-cored network cable surrounded by a heavy shielding
Types of coaxial cable:
Thicknet or 10Base5 - Coax cable that was used in networks and operated at 10 megabits per second with a maximum length of 500 m
Thinnet or 10Base2 - Coax cable that was used in networks and operated at 10 megabits per second with a maximum length of 185 m
RG-59 - Most commonly used for cable television in the US
RG-6 - Higher quality cable than RG-59 with more bandwidth and less susceptibility to interference Fiber-Optic Cable: Fiber-Optic Cable A glass or plastic strand that transmits information using light and is made up of one or more optical fibers enclosed together in a sheath or jacket.
Not affected by electromagnetic or radio frequency interference.
Signals are clearer, can go farther, and have greater bandwidth than with copper cable.
Usually more expensive than copper cabling and the connectors are more costly and harder to assemble.
Two types of glass fiber-optic cable:
Multimode and Single-mode Two Types of LAN Topologies: Two Types of LAN Topologies Physical topology is the physical layout of the components on the network Logical topology determines how the hosts access the medium to communicate across the network LAN Physical Topologies: LAN Physical Topologies A physical topology defines the way in which computers, printers, and other devices are connected to a network.
Mesh Bus Topology: Bus Topology Each computer connects to a common cable
Cable connects one computer to the next
Ends of the cable have a terminator installed to prevent signal reflections and network errors
Only one computer can transmit data at a time or frames will collide and be destroyed
Bus topology is rarely used today. Possibly suitable for a home office or small business with few hosts Ring Topology: Ring Topology Hosts are connected in a physical ring or circle.
The ring has no beginning or end, so the cable does not need to be terminated.
A special frame, a token, travels around the ring, stopping at each host.
The advantage of a ring topology is that there are no collisions.
There are two types of ring topologies:
Single-ring and Dual-ring Star Topology: Star Topology Has a central connection point: a hub, switch, or router
Hosts connect directly to the central point with a cable
Costs more to implement than the bus topology because more cable is used, and a central device is needed
Easy to troubleshoot, since each host is connected to the central device with its own wire. Hierarchical or Extended Star Topology: Hierarchical or Extended Star Topology A star network with an additional networking device connected to the main networking device to increase the size of the network.
Used for larger networks Mesh Topology: Mesh Topology Connects all devices to each other
Failure of any cable will not affect the network
Used in WANs that interconnect LANs
Expensive and difficult to install because of the amount of cable needed
The Internet is an example of a mesh topology
Often used by governments when data must be available in the event of a partial network failure Logical Topologies: Logical Topologies The two most common types of logical topologies are broadcast and token passing.
In a broadcast topology, there is no order that the hosts must follow to use the network – it is first come, first served for transmitting data on the network.
Token passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. When a host receives the token, it can send data on the network. If the host has no data to send, it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself. LAN Architecture: LAN Architecture Is the overall structure of a computer or communication system.
Designed for a specific use and have different speeds and capabilities.
Describes both the physical and logical topologies used in a network.
The three most common LAN architectures:
Fiber-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Ethernet: Ethernet Based on the IEEE 802.3 standard, which specifies that a network use the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with the Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access control method.
Hosts access the network using the first come, first served broadcast topology method to transmit data.
Standard transfer rates
10 Mbps (Ethernet) “10Base-T”
100 Mbps (FastEthernet) “100Base-T”
1000 Mbps = 1 Gbps (Gigabit Ethernet) “1000Base-T”
Token Ring: Token Ring Reliable network architecture
Originally developed by IBM
Based on the token-passing access control method
Often integrated with IBM mainframe systems
Used with smaller computers and mainframes
Physically, a star-wired ring because the outer appearance of the network design is a star
Inside the device, wiring forms a circular data path, creating a logical ring Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI): Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) A type of Token Ring network
Often used for LANs, connecting several buildings in an office complex or on a university campus
Runs on fiber-optic cable
High-speed performance combined with token-passing advantage
Runs at 100 Mbps with a primary and secondary ring topology
Normally, traffic flows only on the primary ring and uses a secondary ring is a backup.
FDDI dual ring supports up to 500 computers per ring Standards Organizations: Standards Organizations Ethernet Standards: Ethernet Standards Ethernet protocols describe the rules that control how communication occurs on an Ethernet network.
The 802.2 standard defines how a device addresses other devices on the medium.
The 802.3 standard defines the methodology that devices must use when they use the media.
The 802.11x standards define how wireless devices communicate using radio waves. Cabled Ethernet Standards: Cabled Ethernet Standards IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard specifies that a network implement the CSMA/CD access control method.
In CSMA/CD operation:
All end stations "listen" to the network wire for clearance to send data.
When the end station detects that no other host is transmitting, the end station will attempt to send data.
If no other station sends any data at the same time, this transmission will arrive at the destination computer successfully.
If another end station transmits at the same time, a collision will occur on the network media.
The first station that detects the collision, sends out a jam signal to tell all stations to stop transmitting and to run a backoff algorithm.
All stations stop transmitting and re-try after a random period of time. 10BASE-T: 10BASE-T 10BASE-T is an Ethernet technology that uses a star topology.
The ten (10) represents a speed of 10 Mbps.
BASE represents baseband transmission.
The T represents twisted-pair cabling.
Advantages of 10BASE-T:
Installation is inexpensive compared to fiber-optic installation.
Cables are thin, flexible, and easier to install than coaxial cabling.
Equipment and cables are easy to upgrade.
Disadvantages of 10BASE-T:
The maximum length for a 10BASE-T segment is 328 ft (100 m).
Cables are susceptible to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). 100BASE-TX “FastEthernet”: 100BASE-TX “FastEthernet” Has a theoretical bandwidth of 100 Mbps.
The "X" indicates different types of copper and fiber-optic can be used.
Advantages of 100BASE-TX:
Transfer rates of 100BASE-TX are ten times that of 10BASE-T
100BASE-X uses twisted-pair, inexpensive and easy to install
Disadvantages of 100BASE-TX:
Maximum length for a 100BASE-TX segment is 329 ft (100 m).
Cables are susceptible to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). 1000BASE-TX “Gigabit Ethernet”: 1000BASE-TX “Gigabit Ethernet” Advantages of 1000BASE-T:
1 Gbps is ten times faster than Fast Ethernet and 100 times faster than Ethernet.
Increased speed makes it possible to implement bandwidth-intensive applications, such as live video.
The 1000BASE-T architecture has interoperability with 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX.
Disadvantages of 1000BASE-T:
Maximum length for a 1000BASE-T segment is 328 ft (100 m).
It is susceptible to interference.
Gigabit NICs and Switches are expensive.
Additional equipment is required. Wireless Ethernet Standards: Wireless Ethernet Standards IEEE 802.11 is the standard that specifies connectivity for wireless networks.
Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity), refers to the 802.11 family
802.11 (the original specification)
These protocols specify the frequencies, speeds, and other capabilities of the different Wi-Fi standards. IEEE 802.11a WLAN Standard: IEEE 802.11a WLAN Standard Allows data rates as high as 54 Mbps
Devices operate in the 5 GHz radio frequency range
Avoids some interference issues of 802.11b
802.11a is not backward compatible to 802.11b
Dual mode wireless NICs are available
802.11a has a range of approximately 100 ft (30 m) IEEE 802.11b WLAN Standard: IEEE 802.11b WLAN Standard Operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency range
Maximum theoretical data rate of 11 Mbps, but typically about 6.5 Mbps
Average range of approximately 100 ft (30 m) at 11 Mbps and 295 ft (90 m) at 1 Mbps
Range fluctuates depending on the operational speed.
Signal quality dictates the operational speed of 802.11b.
Bluetooth devices, cordless phones, and even microwave ovens operate in the 2.4 GHz band, possibly causing interference. IEEE 802.11g and 802.11n: IEEE 802.11g and 802.11n 802.11g
Allows data rates as high as 54 Mbps
Operates in the same 2.4 GHz spectrum as 802.11b
802.11g is backward compatible with 802.11b
Interoperability among all speeds (a, b, g) exists
Average range of approximately 100 ft (30 m)
Has a theoretical bandwidth of 540 Mbps
Operates in either the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency range
Maximum range of 164 ft (50 m)
Expected approval for 802.11n is April 2008 or earlier Wireless Ethernet Standards: Wireless Ethernet Standards OSI and TCP/IP Data Models: OSI and TCP/IP Data Models Architectural model
Separates functions of protocols into manageable layers
Each layer performs a specific function in network communication
A four-layer model that explains the TCP/IP suite of protocols
TCP/IP is the dominant standard for transporting data across networks
Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model
Standards defining how devices communicate on a network
Ensures interoperability between network devices The TCP/IP Reference Model: The TCP/IP Reference Model Frame of reference used to develop the Internet's protocols
Consists of layers that perform functions necessary to prepare data for transmission over a network The OSI Model: The OSI Model The OSI model is an industry standard framework that is used to divide network communications into seven layers.
Although other models exist, most network vendors today build their products using this framework.
A protocol stack is a system that implements protocol behavior using a series of layers.
Protocol stacks can be implemented either in hardware or software, or in a combination of both.
Typically, only the lower layers are implemented in hardware, and the higher layers are implemented in software. The OSI Model: The OSI Model Remember the OSI layers with this mnemonic:
"Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away" Compare OSI and TCP/IP Models: Compare OSI and TCP/IP Models Configuring a NIC and a Modem: Configuring a NIC and a Modem Install the NIC and the driver.
If necessary, download an updated driver from the manufacturer.
Connect the computer to the network.
Also, you may need to install a modem to connect to the Internet. NIC Modem Install or Update a NIC Driver: Install or Update a NIC Driver Manufacturers publish new driver software for NICs
May enhance the functionality of the NIC
May be needed for operating system compatibility
Install a new driver
Disable virus protection software
Install only one driver at a time
Close all applications that are running so that they are not using any files associated with the driver update.
Visit the manufacturer's website and download a self-extracting executable driver file that will automatically install or update the driver Install or Update a NIC Driver: Install or Update a NIC Driver Alternatively, you can click the Update Driver button in the toolbar of the Device Manager.
After updating the driver, reboot the computer.
If a new NIC driver does not perform as expected after it has been installed, the driver can be uninstalled, or rolled back, to the previous driver. Attach Computer to Existing Network: Attach Computer to Existing Network
Plug a network cable into the network port on the computer.
Plug the other end into the network device or wall jack.
After connecting the network cable, look at the LEDs, or link lights, next to the Ethernet port on the NIC.
If there is no activity, you may have to replace a faulty cable, a faulty hub port, or even a faulty NIC to correct the problem. Configure the NIC: Configure the NIC
The computer will now need an IP address.
If the computer does not acquire an IP address from a DHCP server, you will need to enter a unique IP address in the TCP/IP properties of the NIC.
Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections > Local Area Connection
Every NIC must be configured with the following information:
The same protocol must be implemented between any two computers that communicate on the same network.
The IP address must be unique to each device and can be configured manually or dynamically.
The MAC address is a unique address assigned by the manufacturer and cannot be changed. What is the Assigned IP Address?: What is the Assigned IP Address?
If you do not know your IP address yet, use the ipconfig program, to find it. Test Connectivity Using Ping: Test Connectivity Using Ping
Ping your own IP address to make sure your NIC is working properly.
Ping your default gateway or another computer on your network.
Ping a popular website.
If you cannot ping one of these items, you may need to begin troubleshooting. Modem Installation: Modem Installation
A modem is an electronic device that transfers data between one computer and another using analog signals over a telephone line.
A transmitting modem converts digital data to analog signals, called modulation.
The receiving modem reconverts the analog signals back to digital data, called demodulation.
An internal modem plugs into an expansion slot on the motherboard and a software driver is installed.
External modems connect to a computer through the serial and USB ports and also require a software driver.
Dial-up Networking (DUN): Dial-up Networking (DUN)
When computers use the public telephone system to communicate, it is called dial-up networking (DUN).
Modems communicate with each other using audio tone signals. DUN creates a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connection between two computers over a phone line.
After the line connection has been established, a "handshaking sequence" takes place between the two modems and the computers.
The digital signals from the computers must be converted to an analog signal to travel across telephone lines. They are converted back to the digital form, 1s and 0s, by the receiving modem so that the receiving computer can process the data. AT Commands: AT Commands
AT (“Attention”) Commands - commands for modems
Most modem software uses the Hayes-compatible command set.
The AT command set is used to issue dial, hang up, reset, and other instructions to the modem.
Most modem user manuals list the AT command set.
The Standard Hayes compatible code to dial is ATDxxxxxxx
Usually no spaces in an AT string.
The "x" signifies the number dialed.
Seven digits for a local call and 11 digits for long-distance. Other Types of Connectivity: Other Types of Connectivity
Phone, cable, satellite, and private telecommunications companies provide Internet connections.
In the 1990s, low-speed modems used the plain old telephone system (POTS) to send and receive data.
Today, many businesses and home users have switched to high-speed Internet connections, which allows for transmission of data, voice and video. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
A standard for sending voice, video, and data over telephone wires.
Provides higher-quality voice and higher-speed data transfer than traditional analog telephone service.
Three services offered by ISDN digital connections: Basic Rate Interface (BRI), Primary Rate Interface (PRI), and Broadband ISDN (BISDN).
ISDN uses two different types of communications channels:
"B" channel is used to carry the information - data, voice, or video.
"D" channel is usually used for controlling and signaling, but can be used for data. ISDN Types: ISDN Types
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
An "always-on" technology; there is no need to dial up each time to connect to the Internet.
Uses the existing copper telephone lines to provide high-speed data communication between end users and telephone companies.
Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) is currently the most commonly used DSL technology.
Has a fast downstream speed, typically 1.5 Mbps.
Upload rate of ADSL is slower.
Not the best solution for hosting a web server or FTP server. DSL Types: DSL Types
Power Line Communication (PLC): Power Line Communication (PLC) Uses power distribution wires (local electric grid) to send and receive data.
May be available in areas without any other service.
Is faster than an analog modem.
May cost less than other high-speed connections.
Will become more common in time.
Can be used in a home or office environment through an electrical outlet.
Can control lighting and appliances. Broadband Connectivity: Broadband Connectivity
Broadband is a technique used to transmit and receive multiple signals using multiple frequencies over one cable.
Broadband uses a wide range of frequencies that may be further divided into channels.
Some common broadband network connections include:
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Satellite Cable Modem: Cable Modem
A cable modem connects your computer to the cable company using the same coaxial cable that connects to your cable television.
You can connect the computer directly into the cable modem.
You can connect a router, switch, hub, or multipurpose network device so multiple computers can share the Internet connection. DSL Modem and Filter: DSL Modem and Filter Voice and data signals are carried on different frequencies on the copper telephone wires.
A filter is used to prevent DSL signals from interfering with phone signals. Plug the filter into a phone jack and plug the phone into the filter.
The DSL modem does not need a filter. A DSL modem can connect directly to your computer, or it can be connected to a networking device to share the Internet connection between multiple computers. A Typical ISDN Connection: A Typical ISDN Connection
ISDN uses multiple channels and can carry voice, video, and data; therefore, it is considered a type of broadband.
Broadband Satellite: Broadband Satellite
Uses a satellite dish for two-way communication.
Download speeds are typically up to 500 Kbps, while uploads are closer to 56 Kbps.
People in rural areas often use satellite broadband because it is a faster connection than dial-up and no other broadband connection may be available. Voice over IP (VoIP): Is a method used to carry telephone calls over data networks and the Internet.
Converts the analog signals of voices into digital information that is transported in IP packets.
Can also use an existing IP network to provide access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
Depends on a reliable Internet connection. When a service interruption occurs the user cannot make phone calls. Voice over IP (VoIP) Preventive Maintenance for Networks: Preventive Maintenance for Networks Common preventive maintenance techniques should continually be performed for a network to operate properly.
Keep network rooms clean and change air filters often.
Checking the various components of a network for wear.
Check the condition of network cables because they are often moved, unplugged, and kicked.
Label the cables to save troubleshooting time later. Refer to wiring diagrams and always follow your company's cable labeling guidelines.
AC power adapters should be checked regularly.
The uninterruptible power supply (UPS) should be tested to ensure that you have power in the case of an outage. Troubleshooting Process: Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer Troubleshooting Process 1. Gather Data from the Customer: 1. Gather Data from the Customer Customer information
Company name, contact name, address, phone number
Operating system, protection software, network environment, connection type
Use a work order to collect information
Description of problem
What type of network connection is your computer using?
Can you access the Internet? 2. Verify the Obvious Issues: 2. Verify the Obvious Issues Examine the most obvious causes of a problem. Check that the network cables are properly connected.
If a cable is not connected properly or if a NIC is improperly installed or configured, the LED link lights on the NIC will not light.
Check the wireless access point signal strength in your network client software.
Use the ipconfig tool to make sure that the computer has a valid, unique IP address. Check for errors in the subnet mask and default gateway address. 3. Try Quick Solutions First: 3. Try Quick Solutions First Check that all cables are connected to the proper locations.
Unseat and then reconnect cables and connectors.
Reboot the computer or network device.
Login as a different user.
Repair or re-enable the network connection.
Contact the network administrator. 4. Gather Data from the Computer: 4. Gather Data from the Computer Ping is used to check network connectivity. It sends a packet to the specified address and waits for a reply.
Nslookup is used to query Internet domain name server. It returns a list of hosts in a domain or the information for one host.
Tracert is used to determine the route taken by packets when they travel across the network. It shows where communications between your computer and another computer are having difficulty.
Net View is used to display a list of computers in a workgroup. It shows the available shared resources on a network. 5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution: You may need to conduct further research
Problem solving experience
Internet search and technical websites
News groups and online forums
Computer and device manuals 5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution 6. Close with the Customer: 6. Close with the Customer When you are confident that the problem is resolved:
Document the customer information, problem description, and steps to resolve the issue in the work order.
Explain to the customer how you solved the problem .
Let the customer verify that the problem has been solved.
Complete all documentation including sales orders, time logs, and receipts.
Complete the work order.
Update the repair journal. You can use the notes from the journal for future reference. Common Problems and Solutions: Common Problems and Solutions Chapter 8 Summary: Chapter 8 Summary
The fundamentals of networking
The benefits of a network
The ways to connect computers to a network
The different aspects of troubleshooting a network
How to analyze problems and implement simple solutions Additional Resources: Additional Resources Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU-T) http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) http://www.ieee.org/
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) http://www.iso.ch/iso/
Internet Architecture Board (IAB) http://www.iab.org/
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) http://www.iec.ch/
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) http://www.ansi.org/
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) http://www.tiaonline.org/
Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) http://www.eia.org/ Slide103: Q and A