IV. Propagation Characteristics Observed in Macro / Micro Cells Ray model of multipath propagation
Effects caused by multipath for narrowband (CW) signals
Shadow fading
Range dependence in macrocells and microcells

Slide2:

Direct Observation of Multipath at the Mobile and at the Base Station Direction of arrival measurements at the mobile
Time delay measurements
Measurement of space-time rays
Ray model of propagation

Slide3:

Angles of Arrival at a Street Level - CW Measurement at 900 MHz in Tokyo using 22º spot beam antenna - T. Taga, "Analysis for Mean Effective Gain of Mobile Antennas in Land Mobile Radio Environments", IEEE Trans., VT 39, May 1990, p. 117. Received signal versus azimuth for various elevations

Slide4:

Received Power Envelope P(t) for Omnidirectional Subscriber Antennas Paris, France Red Bank, NJ Rays come in clusters that decay rapidly. Successive clusters have lower amplitudes. J. Fuhl, J-P. Rossi and E. Bonek, ”High-Resolution 3-D
Direction-of-Arrival Determination for Urban Mobile Radio,
" IEEE Trans. Ant. and Prop., vol. 45, pp. 672- 682, 1997. D.M.J. Devasirvatham, "Radio Propagation Studies in a Small City for Universal Portable Communications,” Proc. of the IEEE VTC'88, pp. 100-104,1988.

Slide5:

Delay Spread for Continuous Time Signals T.S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications, Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River,
NJ, p.163, 1996.

Slide6:

CDF of for Outdoor Links - Measured at 1800 MHz for many subscriber location in Sweden
- Signals received at base station by horizontal and vertical antennas for vertical subscriber antenna RMS delay spread somewhat larger in urban areas than
in suburban areas.
Co and cross Polarization have nearly the same RMS delay.
RMS delay of the average power delay profile is approximately the same as the mean RMS delay spread. M. Nilsson, B. Lindmark, M. Ahlberg, M. Larsson and C. Beckmanm, "Measurements of the Spatio-Temporal Polarization Characteristics of a Radio Channel at 1800 MHz,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 1999.

Slide7:

Greenstein Model of Measured DS in Urban and Suburban Areas Greenstein, et al., “A New Path Gain/Delay Spread Propagation Model for Digital Cellular Channels,” IEEE Trans. VT 46, May 1997.

Slide8:

Space-Time Rays Measured at Street Level - 890 MHz Measurement in Paris - Azimuth and time delay
of arriving rays
- Measured with system having 0.1 ms time resolution
- Street runs North and South
- Many rays arrive along the street direction J. Fuhl, J-P. Rossi and E. Bonek, "High-Resolution 3-D
Direction-of-Arrival Determination for Urban Mobile Radio,”
IEEE Trans. Ant. and Prop., vol. 45, pp. 672- 682, 1997.

Slide9:

Space-Time Rays at an Elevated Base Station - 1800 MHz measurements in Aalborg, Denmark - Rays arrive at base station from a limited range of angles
Rays are grouped into clusters
Time delay between clusters ~ 1 ms, representing scattering from more distant buildings
- Time delay within a cluster ~ 100 ns K.I. Pedersen, et al., "Analysis of Time, Azimuth and Doppler Dispersion
in Outdoor Radio Channels,” Proc. ACTS, 1997.

Slide10:

Delay Spread (DS) and Angle Spread (AS) for Discrete Arrivals Delay Spread
Angle Spread (approximate expression for small spread)
From mth ray from the jth mobile

Slide11:

Coordinate Invariant Method for Computing AS

Slide12:

CDF of RMS Angle Spreads - Measured at 1800 MHz for many subscriber locations in Sweden
- Signals received at base station by horizontal and vertical antennas for vertical subscriber antenna RMS angle spread is larger in urban areas than in in suburban areas.
Co- and cross polarization have nearly the same RMS angle spread. M. Nilsson, et al., "Measurements of the Spatio-Temporal Polarization Characteristics of a Radio Channel at 1800 MHz,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 1999.

Slide13:

Ray Model for Street Level Mobiles Rays arrive from all directions in the horizontal plane and up to 45º in the vertical direction Ray paths shown for propagation from base station to subscriber
Reverse directions of arrows for propagation from subscriber to base station

Slide14:

Ray Model of Received Voltage and Power

Ray Fields Are Locally Like Plane Waves :

Ray Fields Are Locally Like Plane Waves

Slide16:

Relation to Plane Wave Interference

Slide17:

Small Area Average Power

Summary of the Ray Model of Propagation :

Summary of the Ray Model of Propagation Propagation to or from the mobile can take place along multiple paths (rays)
Multiple rays give RMS delay spreads ~ 0.5 ms at R = 1 km
Rays arrive at the mobile from all directions in the horizontal plane, and up to 45o in the vertical plane
Rays at the base station arrive in a wedge of width ~ ±10o
Interference effects of multipath contributions over distances ~ 10 m are like those of plane waves

Slide19:

Effects Caused by Multipath for CW Excitation Fast fading at street level
Correlation at mobile and base station
Other effects
Doppler spread
Slow time fading
Cross polarization coupling

Slide20:

Multipath Arrivals Set Up a Standing Wave Pattern in Space

Slide21:

Interference Effects of Multiple Rays

Slide22:

Received Signal as Omni Antenna Moves Through Standing Wave Pattern - Rapid Fluctuation of 20dB or more
- Separations between minima ~ 0.2 m
- Wavelength at 910 MHz is l = 0.33 m
- Slow fluctuation of the small area average M. Lecours, I.Y. Chouinard, G.Y. Delisle and J. Roy, ”Statistical Modeling of the Received Signal Envelope in a Mobile Radio Channel,” IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol. VT-37, pp. 204-212, 1988.

Slide23:

Rayleigh and Rician Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF)

Slide24:

Complex Autocorrelation Function

Slide25:

Autocorrelation Function for Ray Fields

Slide26:

C(s) Measured Street Level Measurements made at
f = 821 MHz
l = 0.365 m
Signal de-correlated after s >l /4 S-B. Rhee and G.I. ZYsman, "Results of Suburban Base Station Spatial Diversity Measurements
in the UHF Band," IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. COM-22, pp. 1630-1636, 1974.

Slide27:

Correlation at Elevated Base Station F. Adachi, et al., "Cross correlation between the envelopes of 900 MHz signals received at a mobile radio base station site," IEE Proc., vol. 133, Pt. F, pp. 506-512, 1980.

Slide28:

Summary of Fading at Both Ends of Link for an Elevated Base Station

Slide29:

Measured Doppler Spread K.I. Pedersen, et al., "Analysis of Time, Azimuth and Doppler Dispersion in Outdoor
Radio Channels,” Proc. ACTS, 1997. f = 1800 MHz

Slide30:

Frequency Fading Due to Multipath (910 MHz in Toronto) E.S. Sousa, et al, “Delay Spread Measurements for the Digital Cellular
Channel in Toronto,”IEEE Trans. on VT, VT-43, pp. 837-847, 1994.

Slide31:

Slow Time Fading Measured by a Stationary Subscriber (900 MHz) For a wave incident on a moving scatterer at angle q relative to the velocity u of
the scatterer, the scattered wave will undergo 2p phase change in time such that uDt ~ l.
At walking speed u = 1 m/s, and at 900 MHz,
Dt ~ 0.33 sec. N.H. Shepherd, et al., "Special Issue on Radio Propagation,” IEEE Trans. On
Veh.Tech., vol. VT-37, pp. 45, 1988.

Slide32:

Local Scattering Produces Cross-Polarization

Slide33:

Cross Polarization Coupling Measured at Base Stations in Sweden Measured ratios of the sector average power
received in the horizontal
and vertical polarized fields (H/V) at 1800 MHz.
The error limits represent
one standard deviation Lotse, et al., "Base Station Polarization Diversity Reception in Macrocellular Systems at 1800 MHz", Proc. VTC 96, pp. 1643 - 1646

Cross Correlation of Complex and Real Signals:

Cross Correlation of Complex and Real Signals

Slide35:

Fast Fading Patterns of Horizontal and Vertical Polarization Are Uncorrelated Cross correlations of the signals received by horizontally and vertically polarized base station antennas for a roof mounted mobile antenna. Integration taken as the mobile travels over a travel distance 2W = 10l Lempiainen, et al.,"Experimental Results of Cross Polarization Discrimination and Signal Correlation Values for a Polarization Diversity Scheme", Proc. VTC 97, pp.1498-1502.

Summary of Multipath Effects:

Summary of Multipath Effects Multipath arrivals set up a standing wave pattern in space that is perceived as fast fading by a moving mobile
Fast fading approximates Rayleigh statistics on Non-LOS links
Interference patterns have correlation length of l/4 at the mobile, and 6l or greater at an elevated base station
Multipath causes frequency fading, Doppler spread and slow time fading
The scattering processes that create multipath also cause depolarization of the waves

Statistical Properties of the Shadow Fading:

Statistical Properties of the Shadow Fading Separating the shadow fading from fast fading and range dependence
Statistical distribution of shadow fading
Correlation distance of shadow fading
Correlation of shadow fading for signals from different base stations

How to Find Shadow Fading FromDrive Test Measurements:

How to Find Shadow Fading From Drive Test Measurements Drive tests conducted over many small areas of length > 20l at different distances R from base station
Find Uk(R) = 10log V(x)2 for each small area k = 1, 2, ...
Plot Uk(R) versus log R and fit data with a least squares line having dependence of the form
For each sector compute For the resulting set of numbers form the distribution function
The distribution function is typically found to be Gaussian

Separating Shadow Fading from Range Dependence :

Separating Shadow Fading from Range Dependence

CDF of Shadow Fading Measured Simultaneously at Two Frequencies (955 MHz and 1845 MHz):

CDF of Shadow Fading Measured Simultaneously at Two Frequencies (955 MHz and 1845 MHz) Morgensen, et al., “Urban Area Radio Propagation Measurements at 955 and 1845 MHz for Small and Micro Cells,” Proc. Of Globecom, 1991

Interpreting the Shadow Fading Statistics :

Interpreting the Shadow Fading Statistics At each frequency the shadow loss fluctuates by ±8 dB about its average
Shadow loss at the two frequencies are highly correlated, differing from each other by only ± 3.3 dB (correlation coefficient C = 0.92)
Shadow loss has weak frequency dependence.

Multiple Distance Scales of Signal Variation:

Multiple Distance Scales of Signal Variation Travel distances ~ l/2 -- Fast fading
Travel distances ~ 10 m ~ 20l -- Shadow fading
Entire cell out to ~ 20 km -- Range dependence A/R n

Shadow Fading Statistics:

Shadow Fading Statistics For many small areas (sectors) k = 1, 2, ... at the same distance R from the base station
Treat V(x)2 over each small area as a random variable
Define new random variable Uk = 10log V(x)2
Probability distribution of Uk about its mean value
is typically found to be the Gaussian distribution
In cities SF 8 -10 dB
Note: if V(x) is Rayleigh distributed, then

Autocorrelation of the Shadow Fading at 900MHz:

Autocorrelation of the Shadow Fading at 900MHz M.Gudmundson, “ Correlation Model for Shadow Fading in Mobile Radio Systems,” Electronics Letts., vol. 27 pp. 2145-2146, 1991.

Cross Correlation of the Shadow Loss for Links to Two Different Base Stations:

Cross Correlation of the Shadow Loss for Links to Two Different Base Stations C(q ) q A. Mawira, ”Models for the Spatial
Correlation Functions of the (Log)-
Normal Component of the Variable-
ity of VHF/UHF Field Strength in
Urban Environment,”
IEEE 0-7803-0841-7/92, 1992.

Slide46:

Propagation Model for Shadow Fading As the subscriber moves along street, the received signal passes over buildings of different height, or misses the last row of buildings

Summary of Shadow Fading Statistics:

Summary of Shadow Fading Statistics Shadow fading has lognormal distribution (power in dB has a normal distribution)
Shadow fading has weak frequency dependence
Correlation length of the shadow fading is on the order of building dimensions in cities and on street length in suburban areas
There is correlation of the fading to different base stations when they are located in the same direction from the mobile

Range Dependence of the Received Signal:

Range Dependence of the Received Signal High base station antenna measurements for macrocells ( for R out to 20 km )
Low base station antenna measurements for microcells ( for R out to 2 km )
Line of sight(LOS) paths
Obstructed paths

Range Dependence of Macrocells & Microcells:

Range Dependence of Macrocells & Microcells Early system using macrocells (R < 20 km)
Base station antennas well above buildings
Isotropic propagation with range variation A/Rn
Hexagonal tessellation of plane
Frequency reuse independent of antenna height
Modern systems using microcells (R < 2 km)
Base station antenna near (or below) rooftops
Anisotropic propagation- A, n depend on:
Direction of propagation relative to street grid
Base station antenna height, location relative to buildings
Cell shape is open issue

Scale of City Blocks Compare to Cell Size:

Scale of City Blocks Compare to Cell Size ELMHURST FLUSHING JACKSON HEIGHTS CORONA FLUSHING MEADOWS REGO PARK HILLCREST UTOPIA EAST ELMHURST

Measurements of Propagation Characteristics in Different Cities for High Base Station Antennas:

Measurements of Propagation Characteristics in Different Cities for High Base Station Antennas Field Strength and Its Variability in VHF and UHF Land-Mobil Radio Service

Range Dependence Measured in Tokyo:

Range Dependence Measured in Tokyo Y. Okumura, E. Ohmori, T. Kawano and K. Fukuda, “Field Strength and Its Variability in VHF and UHF Land-Mobile Radio Service,” Re. Elec. Com. Lab., vol. 16, pp. 825-873, 1968.

Range Dependence Measurements in Philadelphia at 820 MHz:

Range Dependence Measurements in Philadelphia at 820 MHz G.D. Ott and A. Plitkins, “Urban Path-Loss Characteristics at 820 MHz,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech., vol. VT-27, pp. 189-197, 1978.

Range Dependence for Composite of Five Base Station Sites in Philadelphia at 820 MHz:

Range Dependence for Composite of Five Base Station Sites in Philadelphia at 820 MHz G.D. Ott and A. Plitkins, “Urban Path-Loss Characteristics
at 820 MHz,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech., vol. VT-27, pp. 189-197, 1978.

Definition of Path Loss and Path Gain:

Definition of Path Loss and Path Gain

Hata-Okumura Model for Median Path Loss:

Hata-Okumura Model for Median Path Loss Urban area:
L50 = 69.55 + 26.16 log fc - 13.82 log hb- a(hm) + (44.9-6.55 log hb) log R
where
fc frequency (MHz)
L50 mean path loss (dB)
Hb base station antenna height
a(hm) correction factor for mobile antenna height (dB)
R distance from base station (km)
The range of the parameters for which Hata’s model is valid is
150 fc 1500 MHz
30 hb 200 m
1 hm 10 m
1 R 20 km

Hata-Okumura Model (cont.):

Hata-Okumura Model (cont.) Urban area (cont.):
For a small or medium-sized city:
a(hm)=(1.1 log fc - 0.7) hm - (1.56 log fc - 0.8 ) dB
For a large city:
a(hm)=8.29(log 1.54 hm)2 - 1.1 dB, fc 200 MHz
or
a(hm)=3.2(log 11.75 hm)2 - 4.97 dB, fc 400 MHz
Suburban area:
Open Area:
L50 = L50(urban) - 4.78 (log fc)2+18.33 (log fc) -40.94

Range index of Hata-Okumura Model:

Range index of Hata-Okumura Model n = ( 44.9 - 6.55 loghb ) / 10

Measurement of Path Loss forLow Base Station Antennas of Microcells:

Measurement of Path Loss for Low Base Station Antennas of Microcells

Drive Routes for Microcell Measurements in San Francisco:

Drive Routes for Microcell Measurements in San Francisco LOS drive route
Staircase drive route
Zig-Zag drive route
Transverse paths - directly over buildings
Lateral paths - to side streets perpendicular to the LOS street

Mission District of San Francisco:

Mission District of San Francisco

Drive Routes In the Mission District:

Drive Routes In the Mission District

Received Signal on LOS Route in Missionf = 1937 MHz, hBS= 3.2 m, hm = 1.6 m:

Received Signal on LOS Route in Mission f = 1937 MHz, hBS= 3.2 m, hm = 1.6 m Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.

Received Signal on Staircase Route inthe Sunset District vs. Distance Traveledf = 1937 MHz, hBS= 8.7 m, hm = 1.6 m:

Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991. Received Signal on Staircase Route in the Sunset District vs. Distance Traveled f = 1937 MHz, hBS= 8.7 m, hm = 1.6 m

Regression Fit to Received Signal Versus R on Staircase Route in Sunset District:

Regression Fit to Received Signal Versus R on Staircase Route in Sunset District Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.

Received Signal on Zig-Zag Route inthe Sunset District vs. Distance Traveled f = 1937 MHz, hBS= 8.7 m, hm = 1.6 m:

Received Signal on Zig-Zag Route in the Sunset District vs. Distance Traveled f = 1937 MHz, hBS= 8.7 m, hm = 1.6 m Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.

Regression Fit to Received Signal Versus R on the Transverse Portions of the Zig-Zag Route:

Regression Fit to Received Signal Versus R on the Transverse Portions of the Zig-Zag Route Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.

Regression Fit to Received Signal Versus R on the Lateral Portions of the Zig-Zag Route:

Regression Fit to Received Signal Versus R on the Lateral Portions of the Zig-Zag Route Telesis Technology Laboratories, Experimental License Progress Report to the FCC, August, 1991.

Comparison of Regression Fits onDifferent Paths in Sunset:

Comparison of Regression Fits on Different Paths in Sunset H.H. Xia, et al., “Microcellular Propagation Characteristics for Personal Communications in Urban and Suburban Environments,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 743-752, 1994.

Har-Xia-Bertoni Model forLow Base Station Antennas:

Har-Xia-Bertoni Model for Low Base Station Antennas Expressions fit to regression lines for:
900 MHz and 1900 MHz
hBS = 3.2, 8.7 and 13.4 m
hm = 1.6 m
Separate expressions for:
LOS paths
Obscured paths in residential environment
Obscured paths in high rise environment

Har-Xia-Bertoni Model for LOS Paths:

Har-Xia-Bertoni Model for LOS Paths

Har-Xia-Bertoni Model for Obscured Paths in Residential Environments:

Har-Xia-Bertoni Model for Obscured Paths in Residential Environments

Har-Xia-Bertoni Model for Obscured Paths in High Rise Environments:

Har-Xia-Bertoni Model for Obscured Paths in High Rise Environments

Comparison of Hata and Har Models:

Comparison of Hata and Har Models

Summary of Range Dependence:

Summary of Range Dependence Range dependence over large distances takes the form
(PR/PTr) = A/Rn in watts or
10log (PR/PTr) = 10logA + 10nlogR in dB
The slope index n ranges between 3 and 4 for base station antennas above the rooftops, and is the same for all cities
Simple formulas fit to measurements give the path gain or path loss as a function of antenna height and frequency
Measurements made with high base station antennas match continuously with measurements made with low antennas

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