Slide1: Terrorism &
Force Protection Slide2: “Freedom and fear are at war…Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.”
President George W. Bush
20 September, 2001 Slide3: History
Impact of Terrorism
Objective of Terrorism
Tactics of Terrorism
Effects of Terrorism on National Security
Overview Slide4: Found as early as biblical times
Jewish and Palestinian groups opposed Roman rule in 66-73 A.D.
Word terrorism has roots in French “Reign of Terror”
1773-1794, Jacobins under leadership of Maximilien Robespierre
Huge explosion in incidents of terrorism in latter part of 20th century History Slide5: 1996: Osama bin Laden issues declaration of war: “Declaration of War Against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places”
1998: Osama bin Laden issues another Fatwa—duty to kill Americans anytime, anywhere
1998: Coordinated bombings of U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar el Salaam, Tanzania
2000: USS Cole attacked by suicide bombers while refueling in Yemen
2001: World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks
2002: Diplomat Laurence Foley murdered in Jordan
2005: Bombings at 3 American owned hotels in Amman, Jordan al-Qaeda vs. U.S. Terrorism: Terrorism 22 United States Code 2656d(f)…
the term “terrorism” means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents…
Terrorism: Terrorism Walter Laqueur…
“Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective when innocent people are targeted.”
Slide8: Terrorism The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or idelogical.
Joint Publication 3-07.2, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Antiterrorism
Slide9: Domestic Terrorism
Terrorism perpetrated by the citizens of a country against their fellow citizens
Includes acts against citizens of a second country when they are in the host country, and not the principal or intended target
Terrorism Domestic Terrorism: Oklahoma City bombing of Murrah Federal building on 19 April 1995 killed 168 people and injured hundreds of others. Domestic Terrorism Centennial Olympic Park bombing on 26 July 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia killed 2 and injured 111. Domestic Terrorism: Tokyo subway sarin gas attack on 20 March 1995 by the Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth) cult killed 12 and injured approximately 6,000. Domestic Terrorism Bali Nightclub Bombings on 12 October 2002 by the Jemaah Islamiah organization killed 202 people and injured 209. Slide12: International terrorism
Terrorism in which planning and execution of the terrorist act transcends national boundaries
Terrorism International Terrorism: Bombing of Le Belle Disco in West Berlin on 5 April 1986, sponsored by Libya, killing 3 and injuring more than 100.
International Terrorism Pan Am Flight 103 bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland on 21 December 1988 by Libyan agents killed 270. International Terrorism: First World Trade Center Attack on 26 February 1993: Islamic terrorists detonated a truck bomb under the towers killing six and damaging the building. International Terrorism American Airlines Flight 63 attempted shoe bombing by Islamic fundamentalist Richard Reid on 22 December 2002. International Terrorism: September 11 Attacks
Perpetrated by al-Qaeda
Two jets crashed into the World
Trade Centers killing 2,752
One jet crashed into the
Pentagon killing 189
- One jet crashed in PA killing 45 International Terrorism Slide16: Terror Threat
The impact on the actual victim of the terrorist attack is often secondary to the emotional or psychological impact on an audience far larger than the victims
The true target of the terrorist is society as a whole.
Terrorism Slide17: Terrorism Objectives
Attract attention for groups cause
Demonstrate groups power
Show the existing government’s lack of power
Obtain logistical support
Cause a government to overreact
Common Terrorist Tactics: Assassination: The killing of
prominent persons and
symbolic enemies or traitors
who defect from the group.
On 6 October 1981, Egyptian President
Sadat was assassinated during an
military parade by army members who
were part of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad
On 4 November 1995, Israeli Prime
Minister Rabin was assassinated after
attending a rally by a right-wing activist Common Terrorist Tactics Common Terrorist Tactics: Arson
Less dramatic than most tactics
Low level of technical knowledge
Often associated with environmental
1 August 2003: Biggest act of eco-
terrorism in U.S. history was a fire set by
the Earth Liberation Front that
destroyed a $50 million apartment
complex just outside San Diego Common Terrorist Tactics Slide20: Vail, Colorado: The arson attack at a Colorado ski resort October 19, 1998, was apparently carried out by members of the so-called Earth Liberation Front.
Destroyed a ski patrol headquarters building, a skier shelter, a mountaintop restaurant and several chairlifts
Caused some $12 million in damage
Set to protest the Vail ski resort's 880-acre expansion.
Slide21: The improvised explosive device (IED) or Bomb is the terrorist’s weapon of choice.
Inexpensive to produce
Various detonation techniques available, may be a low risk to the perpetrator.
Suicidal bombing cannot be overlooked.
Other advantages include their attention-getting capacity-ability to control casualties through time of detonation and placement of the device.
Easily deniable should the action produce undesirable results.
From 1983 through 1996, approximately half of all recorded terrorist incidents involved explosives.
Common Terrorist Tactics: Bombing: the improvised
explosive device (IED) is the
terrorist’s weapon of choice.
7 July 2005, London bombings were a
series of coordinated three suicide
bombings that struck public transport
system killing 56 and injuring 700
25 June 1996, Hezbollah exploded a
fuel truck packed with 3,000-5,000 lbs of
explosives at the Khobar Towers in
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; 20 killed and 372
wounded Common Terrorist Tactics Common Terrorist Tactics: Bombing: the improvised explosive
device (IED) is the terrorist’s weapon
23 October 1983, terrorists using a truck
bomb destroyed the Marine barracks in
Beirut, Lebanon. 245 killed and 146
12 October 2000, suicide attack on the
Navy destroyer USS Cole in the port of
Aden in Yemen. 17 sailors, 39 injured Common Terrorist Tactics Common Terrorist Tactics: Bombing: the improvised explosive
device (IED) is the terrorist’s weapon
7 August 1998, bombs exploded almost
simultaneously at the U.S. Embassy
buildings in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar Es
- Killed 153 and left over 4,500 injured
- Severely damaged both installations Common Terrorist Tactics Common Terrorist Tactics: Hostage Taking: an overt
seizure of individuals with the
intent of gaining publicity or
other concessions in return for
release of the hostage.
On 1 Sep 2004, Chechen terrorists took
hundreds of school children and adults
hostage in Beslan, Russia; 331 civilians
were killed, 186 of them children
On 4 Nov 1979, student militants
stormed the U.S. Embassy in Teheran,
Iran and held 66 American diplomats and
Marines hostage for 444 days. Common Terrorist Tactics Common Terrorist Tactics: Kidnapping: a covert seizure
of one or more specific person
in order to extract specific
On 23 October 2002, the Revolutionary
Armed Forces of Colombia took Íngrid
Betancourt, a Colombian senator while
campaigning for president; still missing
On 17 December 1981, U.S. Army
General James Dozier was kidnapped in
Milan by Red Brigade terrorists; Italian
counter terrorist squads subsequently
rescued him on January 28, 1982 Common Terrorist Tactics Common Terrorist Tactics: Hijacking or Skyjacking: is
normally carried out to produce
a spectacular hostage situation
Although trains, buses, and ships have
been hijacked, aircraft are the preferred
because of their greater mobility
14 June 1985, TWA Flight 847 was
hijacked by Lebanese terrorists en route
from Athens to Rome
Robert Stethem, a United States Navy
diver and steelworker, was killed
Three of the alleged hijackers are on
the FBI Most Wanted Terrorists list Common Terrorist Tactics Common Terrorist Tactics: Seizure: usually involves a
building or object that has value
in the eyes of the audience
20 November 1979, 250 Sunni Muslim
militants occupied Mecca's Masjid al Haram
mosque; 250 killed and 600 wounded
1786-1787, Shays' Rebellion shut down the
unpopular debtors' courts in Massachusetts
- 4 rebels killed
- Key event leading to Constitutional
Common Terrorist Tactics Slide29: Armed attacks on facilities are usually undertaken for one of three purposes:
To gain access to radio or television broadcast capabilities in order to make a statement;
To demonstrate the government’s inability to secure critical facilities or national symbols;
To acquire resources (e.g., robbery of a bank or armory).
Raids or Attacks on Facilities Slide30: During the 1970’s, the Symbionese Liberation Army conducted a 22-month reign of terror in California during which time 2 people were murdered and 3 others were wounded.
Gained most of their notoriety by kidnapping newspaper heiress Patty Hearst
Majority of their crimes, which they financed by robbing banks, involved bombings.
Slide31: The objective in most sabotage incidents is to demonstrate how vulnerable society is to terrorist actions.
Industrialized societies are more vulnerable to sabotage than less highly developed societies. Sabotage Eco-Terrorists have long used sabotage as a form of attack.
Spiking trees (the process of placing a spike in a tree so that a logger will hit it when downing the tree)
Burning buildings under construction, such as the Vail, Colorado attack Common Terrorist Tactics: Hoaxes: Group that has established credibility
can employ a hoax with considerable success.
- Threat that causes diversion of resources
- False alarms dulls efficiency and readiness
- 11 October 2001: 800 at Connecticut's Department of
Environmental Protection were kept out for 2 days after an
anthrax hoax. $40,000 to decontaminate 12 employees
with $1.5 million lost work.
- 17 October 2001: 17 year-old brought an envelope
containing white, powdery material to school. 3,000 were
held in lock-down for 90 minutes while 50 emergency
response personnel assessed the situation. Common Terrorist Tactics Slide33: Infrastructure technologies provide attractive targets for terrorists who can apply a range of rudimentary and advanced attack techniques to disrupt or undermine confidence in a range of systems.
National infrastructure, transportation, telecommunications, energy, banking, public health, and water supply are becoming increasingly dependent on computerized systems and linkages Use of Technology Uncommon Terrorist Tactic: Environmental Destruction: increasing
accessibility of sophisticated weapons and
explosives to terrorists has the potential to
threaten damage to the environment.
- Iraqi Armed Forces retreated from Kuwait
and practiced a scorched earth policy by
setting fire to oil wells in 1991
- Protection of oil wells was a key feature
of planning for the 2003 invasion of Iraq Uncommon Terrorist Tactic Slide35: Terrorists to date have used chemical weapons and there is potential for the use of both chemical and biological weapons in the future.
Relatively cheap and easy to make, could be used in place of conventional explosives in many situations.
Sarin gas attack in March 1995 in the Tokyo subway
2001 Anthrax attacks
Use of Special Weapons Slide36: Today, we face a new enemy…one who wages a different kind of war
As the single remaining large superpower, most of our enemies know that challenging the United States symmetrically carries too much risk…therefore, they hit and run…generally soft targets Terrorisms Affect On National Security: U.S. Strategy…
Slide37: Current U.S. policy on countering terrorism was first stated by the Reagan Administration and has been reaffirmed by every president since. Counter Terrorism Policy
National Security Strategy 1. The U.S. will make no concessions to terrorists
2. The U.S. will treat terrorists as criminals and apply the rule of law
3. The U.S. will apply maximum pressure on state sponsors of terrorism
Slide38: The Clinton Administration added a corollary to these rules:
4. The U.S. will Help other governments improve their capabilities to combat terrorism.
Department of Homeland Security: Cabinet Department…Michael Chertoff
- Coordinates the response capabilities of
22 governmental agencies
- Second only to the DoD in size, consisting of
180,000 employees Department of Homeland Security Department of Homeland Security: Not a new concept
- Coastal forts
- National Airborne Operations Center
- Ballistic Missile Defense
Department of Homeland Security U.S. Military Policy: U.S. forces will continue to perform our missions; and
Force protection will be a major consideration in future actions.
The DOD program adheres to this policy while addressing acts of terrorism from two perspectives:
- Counter-terrorism (offensive measures)
- Antiterrorism (defensive measures) U.S. Military Policy Counter-Terrorism: Examples of offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism.
- Operation El Dorado Canyon
- Operation Infinite Reach
- “War on Terrorism”
Article 51 of the UN Charter entitles a nation to defend itself against attack.
Counter-Terrorism Slide43: Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts
Includes limited response and containment by local military forces
Setting new buildings back from roads and parking lots
Khobar Towers actions
Army limiting access to all of their CONUS posts…completely open in past
Antiterrorism Counter and Anti terrorism both rely on intel… Slide44: For our counter-terrorism and antiterrorism measures to be effective, we must have some idea of what particular terrorist groups are attempting to accomplish.
We gain this insight through an active counterintelligence program.
FBI, CIA, NSA, OSI, CID, NIS, ATF, DEA…
Counterintelligence Slide45: Force Protection
The use of forces to protect resources and personnel with thorough force protection measures.
Slide46: After the Khobar Towers bombing, the USAF relocated all of our forces in theater out of heavily populated areas to an isolated, defensible, base in the desert
After the USS Cole bombing, the U.S. Navy instituted plans to deploy a floating barrier around its warships in high risk areas Slide47: History
Impact of Terrorism
Objective of Terrorism
Tactics of Terrorism
Effects of Terrorism on National Security
Summary Slide48: Questions