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By: SENYO (96 month(s) ago)

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Outline Introduction Altimeter Airspeed indicator Vertical speed indicator Heading indicator Attitude indicator Turn coordinator Summary


Introduction History the very first aircraft had little to no flight instruments all weather flying was risky navigation depended on pilot’s ability to use landmarks


The common flight instruments altimeter airspeed indicator vertical speed indicator heading indicator attitude indicator (“artificial horizon”) turn coordinator Introduction

Altimeter : 

Altimeter Defining the altimeter barometric gauge determines how high the aircraft is from sea level (altitude) How it works measures air pressure that enter through static ports


Altimeter air pressure increases and decreases as the aircraft descends and climbs a wafer inside the instrument case expands and contracts with the change in a pressure How to read the altimeter looks like a clock with a long and short hand measured in feet


Altimeter 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ALTITUDE Hundreds of feet Thousands of feet Hatched warning flag in view mean airplanes is below 10,000ft. This shows aircraft at 5,250ft

Airspeed Indicator : 

Airspeed Indicator Defining the airspeed indicator differential pressure gauge tells the pilot how fast the plane is going How it works measures air pressure entering from two inlets “base” air pressure “ram air” air pressure the difference between the two air pressures is sent to the gauge to indicate airspeed

Airspeed Indicator: 

Airspeed Indicator How to the airspeed indicator displayed digital and/or analog measured in knots 60 40 80 100 120 140 160 AIRSPEED KNOTS 130 KTS Digital Analog

Vertical Speed Indicator : 

Vertical Speed Indicator Defining the vertical speed indicator pressure gauge used to maintain proper rate of climb and rate of descend How it works like the altimeter, but measures rate of change uses an expandable wafer that expands and contracts with the change in air pressure calibrated to show a level reading when case air pressure equals air pressure in wafer

Vertical Speed Indicator: 

Vertical Speed Indicator How to read the VSI measured in feet per minute VERTICAL SPEED 0 5 10 20 10 15 15 5 “0” is the center mark- aircraft is level Numbers above “0” indicate a positive rate of climb Numbers below “0” indicate a negative rate of climb

Heading Indicator : 

Heading Indicator Defining the heading indicator also called directional gyro provides accurate directional information in relation to earth’s magnetic north How it works uses an internal gyroscope that rotates a compass card on the instrument face When the aircraft turns, the needle indicates which direction it is heading

Heading Indicator: 

Heading Indicator How to read the heading indicator measured in degrees (0-north, 90-west, 180-south, and 270-east Represents the aircraft’s profile if looking down Reads in five degree increments A number is displayed every 30 degrees This aircraft is heading north

Attitude Indicator : 

Attitude Indicator Defining the attitude indicator also called the “artificial horizon” displays both “pitch” and “bank” simultaneously pitch-aircraft movement on its lateral axis bank- aircraft movement on its longitudinal axis

Attitude Indicator: 

Attitude Indicator How the attitude indicator works uses a gyroscope mounted inside the instrument case the gyro rotates in the horizontal plane in relation to earth’s horizon this happens as the aircraft banks, climbs and descends this relation is show on the instrument face using an “artificial horizon”

Attitude Indicator: 

Attitude Indicator How to read the attitude indicator the center of the gauge is the artificial horizon Hatch marks indicate degree of bank Center hatch marks indicate degree of pitch Simulates aircraft profile if looking from the tail Brown is ground Blue is sky

Turn Coordinator : 

Turn Coordinator Defining the turn coordinator uses a gyroscope shows aircraft rate of turn how fast it is changing speed shows quality of turn if the turn is coordinated serves as a back up to the attitude indicator

Turn Coordinator: 

Turn Coordinator How the turn coordinator works a gyro is mounted at a 30 degree angle inside instrument case as the aircraft turns , applied forces cause the gyro to spin and rotate as this happens, the small plane on the instrument face indicates bank

Turn coordinator: 

Turn coordinator How to read the turn coordinator measured in degrees per minute If wings touch top hatch mark the aircraft is not turning A wing touching the “L” or the “R” indicates a standard rate of turn

Turn coordinator: 

Turn coordinator The slip/skid on the turn coordinator usually at the bottom of the instrument Keeping the ball in the center of two line indicates a coordinated turn


Flight instruments all together have made navigation easier communication easier fault detection and warning indication possible takeoffs and landings easier and most important flying safer Summary

The End: 

The End

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