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Fairfield, Iowa 52556 641 472-9981 email@example.comIntroduction: Introduction Historic properties tend to stand the tests of time -- their very longevity is evidence of their intrinsic durability. While natural selection has favored some properties over others, we continue to loose historic sites each year to neglect and natural disasters.A Report from the Trenches... A WORD FOR THE WISE : A Report from the Trenches... A WORD FOR THE WISE Properties that are well maintained and in good repair are significantly less prone to damage in natural disasters. Inappropriate modifications to heritage buildings and their sites have a way of compromising the building’s ability to withstand disaster forces.The Weather is Always Doing Something...: The Weather is Always Doing Something...INLAND STORM SYSTEMS: INLAND STORM SYSTEMS Tornadoes & High Winds Hail Storms & Torrential Rains FloodingHURRICANES: HURRICANES Major Hurricanes hit shore twice every three years Bring with them: Storm Surge High Winds Tornadoes Torrential Rains Flooding Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding Hurricane Georges: Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding Hurricane Georges TORNADOES: TORNADOES U.S. Weather Records: 37,757 Tornadoes 1950-97 Average 800 per year 1950-97 Death Toll - 4,225 Average 80 deaths per year Average 1,500 injuries Mostly east of Rocky Mountains Spring and Summer Months 250 MPH Winds Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding TORNADOES: TORNADOES Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding Hail Storms: Hail Storms Often associated with tornadoes Can drop baseball sized chunks of ice on buildings and cars for 20 minutes or longer. Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding Hail Storms: Hail Storms Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding Hail Storms: Hail Storms Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding Hail debris floats and clogs drainage systems and promotes floodingFLOODING: FLOODING Floodwaters damage building materials and contents, leave mud, silt and unknown contaminents, and promote the growth of fungal infections. Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding FLOODING: FLOODING Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding 1890 1938FLOODING: FLOODING Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding EARTHQUAKES: Gulf Coast Wind and Water Damage Storm urge Flooding EARTHQUAKES FIRES VOLCANOES ...STUFF REALLY HAPPENSIT’S YOUR RESPONSIBILITYto anticipate and deal with risks to your property: IT’S YOUR RESPONSIBILITY to anticipate and deal with risks to your property “It is essential that stewards of cultural resources take steps to be prepared, mitigate possible risks, and develop effective plans for response and recovery.” James Lee Witt Federal Emergency Management Agency The Good NewsYOU’RE NOT IN IT ALONE: Making Preparations & Reducing Risk National Trust for Historic Preservation 53 West Jackson Boulevard - Suite 350 Chicago, IL 60604 312-939-5547 After a Declared Disaster Federal Emergency Management Agency Assistance for Publicly Owned Properties Small Business Administration Assistance for Privately Owned Properties The Good News YOU’RE NOT IN IT ALONEPartners in IowaYOU’RE NOT IN IT ALONE: State Historic Preservation Officer Jack Porter – SHPO State Historical Society of Iowa 600 East Locust Avenue Des Moines, IA 50319 (515) 242-6152 Certified Local Governments Iowa Historic Preservation Alliance Partners in Iowa YOU’RE NOT IN IT ALONE TIP Get to know your support network BEFORE disaster strikesNo need to waitGET STARTED NOW: Familiarize yourself with the many resources available to help you preserve your historic property for the coming centuries. Make needed repairs to your property now and maintain it in good condition. Organize plans and materials needed to protect your property in pending disasters. No need to wait GET STARTED NOWPre-DisasterNATIONAL SUPPORT NETWORK: TIP National Register Properties Get More Help National Register of Historic Places Secretary of Interiors Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties Rehabilitation Tax Credits Preferential Loan Terms and Rehabilitation Grants Disaster Recovery Grants Pre-Disaster NATIONAL SUPPORT NETWORKPlanning & Preparation DISASTER PREPAREDNESS: Assess your exposure to risk of loss Prepare for probable events by making repairs and mitigating possible risks Plan pre-disaster response Plan post-disaster recovery actions Planning & Preparation DISASTER PREPAREDNESS TIP Better to be prepared a year early than a day lateAssessing your RisksWHAT IS AT RISK?: Assessing your Risks WHAT IS AT RISK? Personal Injury Destruction of individual and family history, culture, and memories Damaged historic identity Damaged local economy (ie. Tourism) Opportunity Loss -- diversion of economic resourses to recovery efforts Assessing your RisksBUILDING ELEMENTS: Assessing your Risks BUILDING ELEMENTS Roof & Gutters Doors & Windows Siding and Masonry Exterior Paint finishes Foundations Interior finishes and contents Assessing Your RisksCONSTRUCTION DETAILS: Assessing Your Risks CONSTRUCTION DETAILS If it originally was built incorrectly, the building will be prone to taking water, a situation that can be very difficult to deal with. Conversely, competently detailed and constructed building elements will tend to shield the interior of the construction from entry by vertical precipitation, driving rains, and rising damp.Assessing Your RisksBUILDING ALTERATIONS: Assessing Your Risks BUILDING ALTERATIONS Poorly executed building maintenance, alterations and additions can compromise building longevity. Insulation installed with no interior vapor barrier. Cedar shingles installed on plywood deck. Air-conditioning ducts without insulation attract condensation (moisture) and allow it to build up inside construction. Brick or stone masonry tuckpointed using portland cement mortar. FORCES OF DESTRUCTION: FORCES OF DESTRUCTION WIND Displacement of building elements by uplift or overturning pressures Damage by impact from flying debris Massive collapseFORCES OF DESTRUCTION: FORCES OF DESTRUCTION WATER Materials saturated by flooding or driving rain Undermined by fluid or wave action Structural collapse under weight of ice and snow Materials shattered by freeze-thaw cycling Sources of MoistureLIQUID WATER: Sources of Moisture LIQUID WATER VERTICAL FLOWS Rain penetration through roofing, flashing, chimney flashing, window and door heads, and walls. Faulty gutters and downspouts Interior plumbing pipe leaks HORIZONTAL FLOWS Wind driven rain can penetrate cracks in masonry and other weak areas of walls. Hydrostatic pressure exerted by groundwater against foundations Sources of Moisture LIQUID WATER (Groundwater): Sources of Moisture LIQUID WATER (Groundwater) RISING DAMP refers to groundwater that is absorbed from the earth into the building through porous foundation materials. Moisture is wicked up, as with a sponge. Requires a non-porous dampproofing barrier in the foundation to stop moisture flow Rarely found in older buildings and difficult to correct when not there Requires costly insertion of either a metal barrier into foundation or injection of chemicals to fill the pores Sources of Moisture ATMOSPHERIC WATER: Sources of Moisture ATMOSPHERIC WATER TRAPPED VAPORS often collect over dirt floored basements and crawlspaces which permit moisture to rise from the earth and collect in the enclosed space, usually producing elevated vapor pressures that can spread dangerously through building above. Mechanically ventilate the space -- run continuously in warm weather to expell the high moisture content air safely to the out-of-doors. Also raises the ambient temperatures in the basement/crawlpace, reducing the tendency for condensation to occur. Sources of MoistureATMOSPHERIC WATER: Sources of Moisture ATMOSPHERIC WATER CONDENSATION occurs when atmospheric water vapor is deposited as liquid water on cool building surfaces. The first evidence of condensation is often the presence of moulds and fungus in the affected areas, accompanied by fungal odors. Occurs in cool spots, under roof decks, around drafty windows, in chimneys, and within walls. In severe cases, condensate trapped within walls and structural elements of buildings can cause structural failures. Know what problem your trying to fix.CONDENSATION or RISING DAMP?: Know what problem your trying to fix. CONDENSATION or RISING DAMP? Condensation and Rising Damp are often mistaken, one for the other, but their cures are very different. It’s costly to get it wrong. Mold or fungus growth requires pure water, only available as a result of condensation Water leaking from the earth through a foundation or through masonry construction will usually bring with it nitrates and other salts that poison microbes, and which can be detected by testing procedures. Mechanisms of DeteriorationWATER DEPENDENT PROCESSES: Mechanisms of Deterioration WATER DEPENDENT PROCESSES Mechanical Stresses Extreme loading Freeze-thaw cycling Salt crystal formation Chemical Stresses Micro Organism Infestation Mechanisms of Deterioration MECHANICAL STRESS: Mechanisms of Deterioration MECHANICAL STRESS Freeze-thaw Cycling Water (ice) expands as the temperature drops from 34 degrees to 29 degrees F and exerts significant pressures in water-saturated materials, like brick and stone Responsible for normal deterioration of masonry construction, requiring periodic replacement of mortar joint materials. Salt Crystal Formation Similar to freezing of water into ice, salt crystal formation is an expansive process Mechanisms of Deterioration CHEMICAL STRESS: Mechanisms of Deterioration CHEMICAL STRESS Masonry ashpits were commonly placed beneath fireplaces as a convenient way to dispose of ashes. If not cleaned on a regular basis, ground-water leaching into the pit will combine with the high sulfur content ash to form sulphuric acid, which will attack and destroy any lime based mortar or stone masonry.Mechanisms of Deterioration ATTACK BY MICRO ORGANISMS: Mechanisms of Deterioration ATTACK BY MICRO ORGANISMS Fungal infections are initiated by the germination of air-borne spores which are always present in enormous numbers and variety in the atmosphere. Require presence of organic host material Require a supply of moisture Feed on organic materials in buildings, rotting wood and fabrics, staining finishes, and possibly adversely affecting health. Mechanisms of Deterioration ATTACK BY MICRO ORGANISMS: Mechanisms of Deterioration ATTACK BY MICRO ORGANISMS Moisture is the only condition that we have any control over that is required for these organisms to flourish. Dampness sufficient to support microbial infestation is not detectable by touch. Detection requires the use of a moisture meter, which measures the electrical conductance of the material and gages the moisture content. Approximately 20 percent moisture content is the critical threshold in wood (25-30% for destructive dry rot). Mechanisms of Deterioration TYPES OF MICRO ORGANISMS: Mechanisms of Deterioration TYPES OF MICRO ORGANISMS Molds grow on virtually any surface using fine organic contaminants as a nutrient source. Fungi which normally decay fallen trees in forests are able to colonize wood in buildings. Mechanisms of Deterioration TYPES OF MICRO ORGANISMS: Mechanisms of Deterioration TYPES OF MICRO ORGANISMS Dry Rot Fungus (Serpula lacrymans) can obtain needed water through well- developed conducting strands, even through masonry walls, and bring moisture into otherwise dry wood. (Poria incrasata lacrymans) can cause structural collapse in 1 to 2 years. Mechanisms of Deterioration TYPES OF MICRO ORGANISMS: Mechanisms of Deterioration TYPES OF MICRO ORGANISMS Wood boring insects require damp wood and often prefer wood predigested by fungi. Mechanisms of Deterioration DEALING WITH INFESTATIONS: Mechanisms of Deterioration DEALING WITH INFESTATIONS Using your moisture meter, find the source of moisture and remedy it at the source. Expose all wood surfaces in the area of attack. Cut out structurally weakened wood and replace with preservative treated wood. Treat remaining wood with brush applied preservative. For dry rot, set up physical and chemical barriers to isolate all wood from masonry. Mechanisms of Deterioration MACRO ORGANISMS: Mechanisms of Deterioration MACRO ORGANISMS Trees, shrubbery, and vines are beautiful to look at and their shade is delightful in summer months. But take care not to allow them to overgrow or crowd your historic building. Masonry and wood buildings require sunshine and adequate ventilation to dry out walls and roof construction after normal precipitation. Vines on buildings invite accellerated deterioration. Trim back dead tree limbs that could become projectiles in the event of a storm. Planning & Preparation DISASTER PREPAREDNESS: Assessed your exposure to risk of loss Prepared for probable events by making repairs and mitigating possible risks Plan your pre-disaster response Plan your post-disaster recovery actions Planning & Preparation DISASTER PREPAREDNESSBEFORE THE STORMPREPARE FOR THE INEVITABLE: BEFORE THE STORM PREPARE FOR THE INEVITABLE Flood Insurance National Flood Insurance Program administered by FEMA normally requires 30 day waiting period. Photograph or otherwise record property in detail. Maintain the Property Avoid the trap of deferred maintenance.SO, THEY SAY A STORM IS COMINGYOUR PRE-STORM RESPONSE: SO, THEY SAY A STORM IS COMING YOUR PRE-STORM RESPONSE Remove or secure yard furniture and other exterior items. Protect your windows Permanent shutters work best, but aren’t usually acceptable on historic properties. Plywood cut to fit each opening, pre-drilled and screwed in place AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSEDDISASTER RECOVERY: AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSED DISASTER RECOVERY Take care of yourself first. Beware of dangerous structural, electrical, or other hazards when reentering the property. Look for signs of sagging or imminent collapse.AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSEDDISASTER RECOVERY: AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSED DISASTER RECOVERY Beware of snakes, insects, and animals driven to higher ground by flood water. Open windows and doors to ventilate and dry out building. Photograph damage.AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSEDDISASTER RECOVERY: AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSED DISASTER RECOVERY Check for gas leaks - if you hear blowing or hissing sound, open a window and quickly leave. Look for electrical damage and turn off electricity if you see sparks, or broken or frayed wires.AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSEDDISASTER RECOVERY: AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSED DISASTER RECOVERY Seek skilled assistance. Check for sewer and water line damage. Protect your property and its contents from further damage. Cover holes in roof, walls, or windows. AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSEDDISASTER RECOVERY: AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSED DISASTER RECOVERY Clean-up the walls, floors, closets, shelves, contents. Thoroughly wash and disinfect any flooded areas Take time to rebuild and repair correctly and make improvements.AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSEDDISASTER RECOVERY: AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSED DISASTER RECOVERY If your basement is flooded, don’t be in too big a hurry to pump it out. Groundwater pressure pushing on foundations could crack walls and floor, causing collapse and serious damage.AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSEDDISASTER RECOVERY: AND WHEN THE STORM HAS PASSED DISASTER RECOVERY American Red Cross maintains an excellent Disaster Services Website with a detailed guide to reentering and repairing your damaged property safely. www.redcross.orgBE PREPARED: Assess your exposure to risk of loss. Prepare for probable events by making repairs and mitigating possible risks. Plan your pre-disaster response. Plan a safe post-disaster recovery program. Be safe. BE PREPAREDAND THERE WILL STILL BE THE DAZZLING UNCERTAINTY: AND THERE WILL STILL BE THE DAZZLING UNCERTAINTY You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.