DNAMolecule of Life: DNA Molecule of Life Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
The discovery of DNA was the most important event in biological science of the 20th century Discovery!: Discovery! The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 by James Watson (USA) and Francis Crick (England)
I’m Crick Hi, I’m Watson Rosalind Franklin: Rosalind Franklin Developed techniques for X-Ray Diffraction photographs
Franklin’s X -Ray pictures of DNA fibers were key to the discovery of the structure of DNA. X - Ray Diffraction: X - Ray Diffraction Using models, Watson and Crick were able to come up with the structure of DNA that matched the pattern in Franklin’s photographs. NOBEL PRIZE: NOBEL PRIZE Watson and Crick won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962.
Rosalind Franklin died in 1958. The Nobel Prize is only awarded to living scientists. Why is understanding DNA so important?: Why is understanding DNA so important? The Human Genome Project began in 1990 and was completed in 2003.
Identify all the approximately 30,000 genes in human DNA.
Determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA.
Human Chromosomes Breast Cancer Gene: Breast Cancer Gene Dr. Roger Wiseman Hometown - New Albany, Indiana
Graduate Indiana University
Led the team that discovered two genes (BRCA 1, BRCA 2) that can lead to breast cancer. Women that carry the BRCA 1 mutation have a seven times greater chance of developing breast cancer. Chromosomes: Chromosomes Chromosomes are rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of cells. Chromosomes control the production of a wide variety of proteins. The kind and number of proteins determine the traits of an organism. It’s all in your “Genes” : It’s all in your “Genes” Genes are located on chromosomes. Organisms inherit genes in pairs, one from each parent. Each gene controls the production of a specific protein for a particular trait. Proteins: Proteins DNA determines what proteins are formed.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
(There are 20 different Amino acids)
Genomics is the study of our genetic code. (genes)
Proteomics is the study of proteins.
A typical gene has as many as 20,500 different kinds of proteins. Scientists are only beginning to figure them all out
“The molecule is so beautiful. Its glory was reflected on Francis and me.” - James Watson: “The molecule is so beautiful. Its glory was reflected on Francis and me.” - James Watson The “blueprints” (genetic information) for making proteins is stored within our DNA. It is the job of DNA to control the order in which these 20 different amino acids are put together.
The DNA of every human being on the planet is 99.9% the same. 95% the Same?: 95% the Same? Mr. Elliott??? Or is this Mr. Elliott??? What about DNA?: What about DNA? A strip of DNA would reach 6 feet in length. Fold it back and it shrinks to trillionths of an inch, small enough to fit in any one of our 100 trillion cells. “A Twisted Ladder”: “A Twisted Ladder” A DNA molecule looks like a “twisted ladder.” The sides of the ladder are made of sugar molecules and phosphates. The rungs of the ladder are formed by substances called nitrogen bases. Activity: Activity Discovering DNA Activity (24 points)