Chloe BEGG CapHaz-Net

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Forum Loire & affluents Au coeur de l'Europe des fleuves 10 décembre 2014 Echange d’expériences et transfert de savoir-faire en matière de coopération sur la gestion intégrée des bassins fluviaux. CapHaz-Net Social Capacity Building for Natural Hazards : Toward More Resilient Societies

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Building social capacities in a changing risk governance context in Europe Contributions and lessons learned from the CapHaz-Net project Christian Kuhlicke, Chloe Begg and Jochen Luther Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig Annett Steinführer von Thünen Institute, vTI, Braunschweig

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CapHaz-Net: “Social CAP acity building for natural HAZ ards: toward more resilient societies” (6/2009 – 5/2012) 8 partners from 6 European countries ‘Coordination action’ = State-of-the-art documentation of social scientific research on natural hazards (literature reviews and workshops) Topics : risk governance, social vulnerability, risk perception, risk communication and risk education 1. Project background

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New tasks and demands for organisations responsible for and involved hazard (risk) management; New responsibilities for communities and residents and risks. Transition from reactive, protection oriented approach towards a more preventive, management oriented approach . Often co-existence of both approaches resulting in conflicts and paradoxes Transition is not taking place with the same intensity and at the same level across Europe. 2. Shifts in Risk Governance in Europe Features of shifts in risk governance

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Shift of responsibility to the local level (privatisation of risk) Tendency to place greater responsibility on municipalities Example England - Localism Act (2011) Creating rights for local actors to bid for and deliver services that were previously run by the state, Encouraging involvement in decisions relating to local issues, such as planning and flood defence schemes. Creates new possibilities (ownership), but also new risks (e.g. lack of resources, capacities and motivation) Begg, Walker, Kuhlicke (forthcoming) Environment and Planning C 2. Shifts in Risk Governance in Europe

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Germany England Italy France Demanding Citizens are obliged to implement measures in accordance with their possibilities and abilities Encouraging Flood policy actively encourages people to be prepared and to increase their resilience Encouraging Ordinary citizens share responsibility for civil protection activities with a number of public actors Not expected Citizens are not explicitly encouraged to reduce their vulnerability Privatisation of risk (residents increasingly become risk manager) Tendency to place greater responsibility on residents at risk 2. Shifts in Risk Governance in Europe

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Diverse insurance schemes Germany England Italy France Pure private insurance Risk-based individual premium calculation. Insurance density is under 10% Pure private insurance Risk-based Individual premium calculation Insurance density around 75% Pure private insurance Risk-based Individual premium calculation Insurance density around 5% Mandatory insurance Insurance contracts pay 12% on top of home, contents and car insurance; Insurance density close to 100% Insurance: A diverse picture 2. Shifts in Risk Governance in Europe Based on Schwarze & Wagner (2007) European Environment

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A changing risk governance context in Europe: a phase of transition? Hazard specific profile Country specific profile Provides stimulus for discussion Could be used as a discussion tool in workshops Walker et al. (2014)

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Common assumption: High risk awareness => high preparedness => reduced damages 3. Risk Perception and Preparedness Review study: Focus on Europe, published 2000 – 2012 Which factors influence perception of natural hazards and preparedness of residents? Floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcano, wild fires and landslides Wachinger, Renn, Begg, Kuhlicke (2013) Risk Analysis

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Risk factors ( factors associated with the scientific characteristics of the risk ) Perceived likelihood of an event, perceived or experienced frequency of hazardous events Informational factors Source and level of information, media coverage, involvement of experts in risk management Personal factors Age, gender, educational level, profession, personal knowledge, personal disaster experience, indirect experience, trust in authorities, trust in experts, confidence in different risk reduction measures, involvement in cleaning up after a disaster, feelings associated with previously experienced disasters, world views, degree of control, and religiousness Contextual factors Economic factors, vulnerability indices, home ownership, family status, country,   area of living, closeness to the waterfront, size of community, age of the youngest child 3. Risk Perception and Preparedness Wachinger, Renn, Begg, Kuhlicke (2013) Risk Analysis

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Risk factors ( factors associated with the scientific characteristics of the risk ) Perceived likelihood of an event, perceived or experienced frequency of hazardous events Informational factors Source and level of information, media coverage, involvement of experts in risk management Personal factors Age, gender, educational level, profession, personal knowledge, personal disaster experience, indirect experience, trust in authorities, trust in experts, confidence in different risk reduction measures , involvement in cleaning up after a disaster, feelings associated with experienced disasters, world views, degree of control, and religiousness Contextual factors Economic factors, vulnerability indices, home ownership, family status, country,   area of living, closeness to the waterfront, size of community, age of the youngest child 3. Risk Perception and Preparedness Wachinger, Renn, Begg, Kuhlicke (2013) Risk Analysis

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Risk perception paradox Direct experience + positive effect on risk perception, seems to reinforce precautionary behaviour; - negative affect, low severity or seldom experienced events can produce a false sense of security/misjudgement of ability to cope Importance of experiencing personal damages 3. Risk Perception and Preparedness Wachinger, Renn, Begg, Kuhlicke (2013) Risk Analysis

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Risk perception paradox Trust in authorities, measures, experts + positive effect on risk perception, seems to reinforce precautionary behaviour; - negative affect, trust in effectiveness of measures, performance of disaster management authorities The importance of belief in self-efficacy vs. state provided protection measures/responsibility 3. Risk Perception and Preparedness Wachinger, Renn, Begg, Kuhlicke (2013) Risk Analysis

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Some implications for the management of natural hazards … The relevance of participatory processes: Review shows, participation …. Increases awareness and motivation to initiate protective action; Can increase trust in the authorities, the experts and realising personal agency to protect oneself But …… Wachinger, Renn, Begg, Kuhlicke (2013) Risk Analysis 3. Risk Perception and Preparedness

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Review of more than 60 risk communication practices across Europe shows … Höppner, Whittle, Bründl, Buchecker (2012) Natual Hazards Few of these practices aim to build people’s sense of agency and efficacy ; One-way risk communication practices are dominating focusing on hazard knowledge or raising risk awareness; Generally, that remarkably few communication practices have actually been evaluated. 3. Risk Perception and Preparedness

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4. Six principles for building social capacities Principle 1: Identifying vulnerabilities and prioritising the needs of the most vulnerable Principle 2: Making information available Principle 3: Being participatory and inclusive Principle 4: Building networks Principle 5: Starting early Principle 6: Sharing responsibilities fairly Self assessment tool for Communities at risk Organisations www.caphaz-net.org

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…. and some (still) open questions Risk governance Hardly any systematic research on Multi-level frameworks Influence and roles of insurance New burdens, obstacles and paradoxes created by recent policy changes

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5. Next Steps Risk perception … Risk perception paradox: Direct and indirect experience as well as trust in authorities, experts and measures; Positive and negative influence … and preparedness? Empirical evidence suggests that the link between risk perceptions and preparedness is quite weak or even not existence Why decide some to prepare and others not? Wachinger, Renn, Begg, Kuhlicke (2013) Risk Analysis

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Wachinger, Renn, Begg, Kuhlicke (2013) Risk Analysis 5. Next Steps Individuals understand the risk but choose to accept it due to the fact that the perceived benefits of living close to the river, for example, appear to outweigh the potential negative impacts Individuals understand the risk but do not realise any agency for their own actions; the responsibility for action is transferred to someone else Individuals understand the risk but lack the resources to affect the situation. What are the implications for communication and education practices? Three reasons why individuals may have high risk perception but choose not to act:

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Risk communication Scientific knowledge is quite well developed, but … One-way, information providing practices dominate Two way, participatory practices are not yet systematically integrated in hazard management => increasing trust and preparedness Communicative practices are hardly evaluated How can we turn risk communication theory into practice? 5. Next Steps

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5. Next Steps TACTIC (Tools, methods And training for CommuniTIes and society to better prepare for a Crisis) FP7 Coordinating and Supporting Action Project May 2014 – April 2016 Aims to develop upon the findings of CapHaz-Net http://www.tacticproject.eu/

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Thank you Contacts: Chloe Begg: chloe.begg@ufz.de Christian Kuhlicke: christian.kuhlicke@ufz.de

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References: Begg, C., Walker, G., Kuhlicke, C. (forthcoming): Localism and flood risk management in England: The creation of new inequalities?, Environmental Planning: C . Höppner, C., Whittle, R., Bründl, M., & Buchecker, M. (2012). Linking social capacities and risk communication in Europe: a gap between theory and practice?. Natural hazards , 64 (2), 1753-1778. Schwarze, R., & Wagner, G. G. (2007). The political economy of natural disaster insurance: lessons from the failure of a proposed compulsory insurance scheme in Germany. European Environment , 17 (6), 403-415. Wachinger, G., Renn, O., Begg, C., & Kuhlicke, C. (2013). The risk perception paradox—Implications for governance and communication of natural hazards. Risk analysis , 33 (6), 1049-1065. Walker, G., Tweed, F., & Whittle, R. (2014). A framework for profiling the characteristics of risk governance in natural hazard contexts. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science , 14 (1), 155-164.

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