APA & MLA format for research


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What is APA?:

What is APA? The American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is the most commonly used format for manuscripts in the social sciences. APA regulates: Stylistics In-text citations References 2

APA Formatting Basics:

APA Formatting Basics Standard paper size Double spacing 1 inch margin from all four sides include a page header in the upper left-hand of every page and a page number in the upper right-hand side of every page 3

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Typeface and font:

Typeface and font 12 point New Times Roman for text Arial for figure label 5

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General Format :

General Format For a research paper 7 References Main Body Abstract Title page

Title Page :

Title Page 8 Page header: (use Insert Page Header) title flush left + page number flush right . Title: (in the upper half of the page, centered) name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)

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Abstract Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above). On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks). Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent) Your abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced. Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words. 10

Five Heading System:

Five Heading System All the heading of equal importance should be given the same heading level. Use only as many heading levels as needed. If a section can be divided into two or more subsections , assign each subsection a heading . 11

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First level heading Second level heading Third level heading Adult and children Fourth level heading Pharmacokinetic Fifth level heading

Five heading system:

Five heading system Level of headings Format 1 centered, boldface, Uppercase and lowercase 2 flush left , boldface , uppercase and lowercase 3 Indented, boldface , lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period . 4 Indented, boldface ,italicized ,lower paragraph heading ending with a period . 5 Indented , italicized ,lower paragraph heading ending with a period. 13

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Reference Citing reference within the text APA uses author-date citation method. This system allow the reader to find source cited in the text in the reference list , where each source is cited alphabetically. Thomas ﴾1980) found that …….. within the line (Thomas , 1980) ……. In 1980 , Thomas studied that …… 15

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16 Type of citation First citation in text Subsequent citation in text Parenthesis format Subsequent citation in parenthesis One work by one author Walker(2007) Walker (2007) (Walker ,2007) (Walker ,2007) One work by two authors Allen & Walker(2007) Allen & Walker(2007) (Walker & Allen , 2007) (Walker & Allen , 2007) One work by three authors Allen , Bradley & Walker(2007) Allen et al (2007) (Allen , Bradley & Walker ,2007) (Allen et al ,2007) Groups(identified by abbreviations) as authors National Institute of mental health(NIMH,2007) NIMH (2007) (National Institute of mental health NIMH ,2007) (NIMH ,2007 ) Groups(no Abb )as authors University (2007) University (2007) (University, 2007) (University , 2007)

Citation through a Secondary source:

Citation through a Secondary source Denn ,Kendrick & Mac (as cited in Harris ,2007)found that ………….. Other way of citation found that……..( Denn ,Kendrick & Mac as cited in Harris in 2007 ) 17

Reference :

Reference Alphabetize the list of references by the last name of the author. Its important to keep the name of the author in the same order as the appear on the cover page of the book or article ,as this order has a meaning. If you have more than one entry by the same author list them by the year of publication with the earliest year first. 18

Two entries by the same author in the same year:

Two entries by the same author in the same year Gender (2000a) found that …..RBC…… Gender (2000b) found that ……WBC….. 19

APA Reference style:

APA Reference style APA uses surname , initials of first name & middle name . Comma between the names of authors . Place the year in parenthesis ,following the author name. Article title no bold or italicized First letter of the title of the article , subtitle & proper nouns should be captilized . 20


Continue Title of the Journal should be italicized. Child Development = journal Child development = Book Volume number in italics . Issue number in parenthesis followed by volume . Issue number is not italicized. Page number is followed by issue number with a comma & then write the doi (Digital object identifier ) 21

for eg:

for eg from journal Smith , A . K., Anderson ,G . H ., & Bradley ,L.M.(1999).Automatic attention to emotional stimuli: Neural correlates. Human Mapping Brain,7(22),227-267.doi:10.10023309 Anderson Kary Smith 22

Digital object identifier:

Digital object identifier A digital object identifier ( DOI ) is a character string (a "digital identifier") used to uniquely identify an object such as an electronic document 23

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Citation of an article found online:

Citation of an article found online Enter the DOI of the articles (as previous ) in the reference. If DOI is not available ,enter the site name in hardcopy where u find it , but give the web address of journal home. Retrieved from http :/ www.journals.unios/edu/jo 25

APA Reference style …BOOK:

APA Reference style …BOOK Author , B . K .(1994) .Title of the book .Location. Publishers Harris , M . K.(2004). Human nature & conduct. Oxford ,England : Blackwell Publishers . Chapter in an edited book Author , A . A ., Author , B . B. (1999).Title of chapter. In A. Editor , In B. Editor , & C. Editor (Eds.) Title of book (pp. xx-xx).Location : Publisher 26

Modern Language Association:

Modern Language Association 27

What does MLA regulate?:

What does MLA regulate? MLA regulates: Document Format In-text citations Works Cited (a list of all sources used in the paper)

MLA Update 2009:

MLA Update 2009 Changes in MLA: No more underlining (only use italics) Inclusion of publication medium (e.g. Print, Web, etc.) New abbreviations (e.g., “N.p.“ for “no publisher given“)

how to format your MLA cover page: :

how to format your MLA cover page: This page is double spaced and the letters are centered. Type the name of your university or college. Skip to about one-third of the page and type your research paper title, include a subtitle if you have. Skip several lines down and type your name, your course name and number, your instructor name and your paper’s due date. 30

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1. The Opening Page: :

1. The Opening Page: 32 On the opening page or the first page, you would include the whole heading and your paper’s title. The whole heading would include the following information: Your Name Your Instructor’s Name Your Class Information Your Paper’s Due Date

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Formatting Section Headings:

Formatting Section Headings Numbered (all flush left with no underlining, bold, or italics): 1. Soil Conservation 1.1 Erosion 1.2 Terracing 2. Water Conservation 3. Energy Conservation

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35 Unnumbered (by level): Level 1 Heading: bold, flush left Level 2 Heading: italics, flush left Level 3 Heading: centered, bold Level 4 Heading: centered, italics Level 5 Heading: underlined, flush left

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37 MLA Citations: sometimes called parenthetical citations or in-text citations . The purpose of MLA citation is to document where you found your information and give credit to the authors for using their works. The citations refer your readers to your Works Cited page at the end of your research paper.

In-Text Citations: the Basics:

In-Text Citations: the Basics Author-Page Style 1. Wayland hand found that …….(123) . 2.…………………(Wayland , 123) 3. ( Jardine and Stewart 275). 4.For three authors: (Norman, Fraser, and Jenko 209) 38 .

Two or Three Authors::

Two or Three Authors: More than three Authors: Within parentheses, name the first author and add et al. (“and others”). Within your discussion, use a phrase like “Chen and his colleagues point out …” More funding would encourage creative research on complementary medicine ( Chen et al. 82).

Secondary source :

Secondary source Use qtd . in (“quoted in”) to indicate when your source provides you with a quotation (or paraphrase) taken from yet another source. Here, Anderson is the source of the quotation . For Smith “…………………….” ( qtd . In Anderson 65). 40

MLA Format Works Cited :

MLA Format Works Cited The list of Works Cited is an alphabetical list of sources that you used to gather information for your research paper. You place this works cited list at the end of your research paper. 41

Page Format::

Page Format: Use the heading “Works Cited” centered one inch below the top edge of a new page. Do not bold or underline this heading. 42

Works Cited Page: Books:

Works Cited Page: Books Basic Format: Lastname , Firstname : Title of Book . Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Examples: Nick , James : Making a New Science . New York: Penguin, 1987. Print. Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring . Boston: Allyn , 2000. Print. Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism . New York: St. Martin's, 1997. Print. ---. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993. Print.

Works Cited Page: Periodicals:

Works Cited Page: Periodicals Article in a Magazine Forma t Author(s). “ Title of Article. ” Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages. Medium of publication. Example: Buchman, Dana. “ .Management of Diabetic Foot . ” Pharmacy Times 3 Mar. 2006 : 143-8. Print. Article in Scholarly Journal Format Author(s). “ Title of Article. ” Title of Journal Volume .Issue (Year): pages. Medium of publication. Example: Duvall, John N. “ The Mutagenic Potential of N34F ” Nature 50.3 (1994): 127- 153 . Print.

Works Cited Page: Web:

Works Cited Page: Web Web Source Format: Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). “Article Name. ” Name of Site . Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher ).Date of last update. Medium of publication. Date of access.

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Works Cited Page: Web Examples: Bernstein, Mark. “10 Tips on Weight Reduction ” Healthy Life: Fitness.2312.University of Sargodha. 16 Aug .2002 . Web . 4 May .2009 .

Refrence & bibliography difference :

Refrence & bibliography difference References usually come at the end of a text (essay or research report) and should contain only those works cited within the text. So, use the term ' References ' to cover works cited. A Bibliography is any list of references at the end of a text, whether cited or not . It includes texts you made use of, not only texts you referred to in your paper, but your own additional background reading, and any other articles you think the reader might need as background reading 47

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