Innovative Technologies in Travel and Tourism – Towards a More Balanced Triple Bottom Line?: Innovative Technologies in Travel and Tourism – Towards a More Balanced Triple Bottom Line? Ivo Martinac, PhD, Ass. Professor
Head, Sustainable Building Systems
School of Energy and Environmental Technology
Royal Institute of Technology
BEST EN Think-Tank VII
Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, AZ, June 23, 2007 Slide2: The most merciful thing in the world, I think, is the inability of the human mind to correlate all its contents.
We live on a placid island of ignorance in the midst of black seas of infinity, and it was not meant that we should voyage far.
The sciences, each straining in its own direction, have hitherto harmed us little; but some day the piecing together of dissociated knowledge will open up such terrifying vistas of reality, and of our frightful position therein, that we shall either go mad from the revelation or flee from the deadly light into the peace and safety of a new dark age.
H.P. Lovecraft (20th century master of weird fiction), "The Call of Cthulhu"
Slide3: The latest report (2007) of the International Panel on Climate Change confirms for the first time in history, beyond reasonable doubt, that humanity is actively and noticeably contributing to global climate change, and thereby (potentially irreversibly) transforming vital global systems. Degradation of Key Natural Resources/ Assets: Coral Bleaching and Loss of Biodiversity: Degradation of Key Natural Resources/ Assets: Coral Bleaching and Loss of Biodiversity http://www.reefpix.org/albums/album62/DSCN1597.jpg http://www.reefpix.org/albums/album62/DSCN1594.jpg Intensifying Strength and Frequency of Storms - Hurricane Katrina: Intensifying Strength and Frequency of Storms - Hurricane Katrina http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~stevenb/hurr/05/katrina/imageindex.html http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic/archive/montage/atlantic/2005/KATRINA-track.gif Sea Level Rise: Sea Level Rise Using the Integrated Science IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean sea level increases relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Taking into account the ranges in the estimate of climate sensitivity and ice melt parameters, and the full set of IS92 emission scenarios, the models project an increase in global mean sea level of between 13 and 94 cm. http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/scenarios_of_sea_level_rise From: http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/VisitorCenterCoastalResidents.html, as accessed 070610: From: http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/VisitorCenterCoastalResidents.html, as accessed 070610 Sand Beach in North Beach, MD, pictured here in the 1920's, was a popular bathing beach. A contemporary picture, taken from the same vantage point in 1996, illustrates the effects of sea-level encroachment over time. Slide8: It seems to be gradually dawning on humankind that the quality of our lives and (in extremis) our survival will depend to a significant extent on our ability and willingness to make urgent and significant corrections to our lifestyles.
But it is far from clear how such changes should be structured or pursued towards a wholesomely sustainable outcome.
We urgently need to become more innovative about how we can accelerate the processes through which humankind will realize, understand and appropriately deal with complex environmental, economic, social and spiritual challenges, natural or man-made. This relates to the pursuit and effects of travel and tourism as much as it concerns any other facet of our lives. Tourism and climate change: Tourism and climate change Economic impacts of various climate change scenarios?
What is the cost of not responding adequately?
Impacts on destinations and their assets – (social/cultural, environmental, economic, spiritual)?
How can/should destinations respond?
What role do tourism stakeholders have in adapting to and responding to global climate change (travelling public, host communities, tour operators, government, etc.)
What role do technologies and innovation play in managing climate change?
How can risks be appropriately assessed and shared?
Environmental impacts of air travel: About 5% of global carbon emissons are currently due to air travel and are expected to increase to the order of 15% within the next 50 years.
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and water vapour from aircraft engines are important greenhouse gases. Water vapour contributes to the formation of contrails, often visible from the ground, which in turn are linked to an increase in the formation of cirrus clouds. Both contrails and cirrus clouds warm the Earth's surface magnifying the global warming effect of aviation. Together, NOx and water vapour account for nearly two-thirds of aviation’s impact on the atmosphere. Hence any strategy to reduce aircraft emissions will need to consider other gases and not just CO2.
The impacts on the global atmosphere from air travel will be concentrated over Europe and the USA where 70-80% of all flights occur. Hence the regional climatic impacts of aircraft emissions over these areas are likely to be greater than predicted by the IPCC report (which used global averages).
Partly from: http://www.airportwatch.org.uk/briefingsheets/detail.php?art_id=143, as accessed 070619 Environmental impacts of air travel In the beginning there was a hydroplane…: The "China Clipper," (Martin M-130) passes over the San Francisco waterfront at the start of the inaugural commercial flight (November 22, 1935) across the Pacific Ocean, to Manila. The aircraft completed the trip in six days, with a flying time of 59 hours, 48 minutes. Overnight stops included Honolulu, Midway, Wake Island, and Guam. 40-50 long-haul passengers (reclining seats)
www.library.miami.edu/archives/panam/pa070.jpg In the beginning there was a hydroplane… …and dreams of distant edens…: …and dreams of distant edens… The Age of Commercial Jet Air Travel – Cheap Oil : The Age of Commercial Jet Air Travel – Cheap Oil De Havilland Comet
BOAC, first comercial jet aircraft flight, May 2, 1952 http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Commercial_Aviation/Opening_of_Jet_era/Tran6G1.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Crowded_Netherlands_beach_with_mostly_adults.jpeg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Crowded_Netherlands_beach_with_mostly_adults.jpeg Rush to Paradise... Dennis Oda, Star Bulletin, starbulletin.com/96/10/14/news/story2.html: Dennis Oda, Star Bulletin, starbulletin.com/96/10/14/news/story2.html ...and Rush Hour in Paradise International Tourism Growth: International Tourism Growth WTO (2005) Slide17: From: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=4231, as accessed 070619 Infinite growth? Innovative air travel – anything revolutionary on the horizon?: Innovative air travel – anything revolutionary on the horizon? From: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/partners/NexusImages/July06/jet.jpg, http://wallpapers.dpics.org/14__Airbus_A380_Super-Jumbo.htm,
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/01/0118_050118_airbus.html, as accessed 070619 Airbus 380: fuel consumption ca. 2.9 liters (0.76 gallons) / passenger and 100 kilometers (60 miles). Boeing 747-400 (Jumbo Jet) Slide19: Three return trips LHR-SIN-LHR onboard an Airbus 380 emit approximately as much CO2 as an average full-size car over 2 years of operation.
An AAdvantage Executive Platinum traveller needs to anually emit the CO2-equivalent of 7,7 years of driving an average full-size car (100,000 miles/year or 165 200 km/year) to retain top-tier status. Slide20:
Improvements in aircraft and engine technology and in air traffic management are not expected to offset the projected growth in aircraft emissions. That is, we need to slow the growth in air travel if we want to reduce the growth in aircraft greenhouse gas emissions.
At the same time, about 1 in 10 jobs worldwide are in the travel & tourism industry, out of which many in destinations that cannot be (easily) reached by any other form of transport.
Should we stop/reduce air travel?
Partly from: http://www.airportwatch.org.uk/briefingsheets/detail.php?art_id=143, as accessed 070619 From: http://www.cambridge2000.com/azara_blog/html/2007/06/20070611_air_travel.html, as accessed 070619: From: http://www.cambridge2000.com/azara_blog/html/2007/06/20070611_air_travel.html, as accessed 070619 The Bishop of London has recently stated that flying is immoral.
His colleague, the Right Reverend Tony Footit, former Bishop of Lynn and now environmental advisor to the Diocese of Norwich, stated that we all need to think much more carefully about travel:
"I think it is immoral to fly within the United Kingdom or Western Europe when it is perfectly possible to travel by train. It seems perfectly reasonable to fly to the United States or Far East but we ought to really ration it and ask if the trip is really necessary.” Should we: Fly less often (and/or stay longer per trip)?
Abstain from that cheap little weekend trip to Nice?
Choose closer destinations and alternative means of transport?
Off-set our carbon emissions and placate our conscience?
Develop innovative schemes of emissions accounting? – (e.g. economic yield/emissions generated)?
Should we Slide23: We urgently need to become more innovative about the ways we transport, accommodate, feed, entertain and cater to multiple other needs of travelers, such as to develop products, build/modify relevant infrastructure, develop business models and practices, and establish behaviors that will not threaten the ability of subsequent generations to pursue travel and tourism as part of their lifestyle. Slide24: Can technologies help? Technology is…: Technology is… ”…a set of pieces of knowledge, both directly practical (related to concrete problems and devices) and theoretical (but practically applicable, although not necessarily already applied), know-how, methods, procedures, experience of successes and failures, and also, of course, physical devices and equipment”
From: Hjalager, A.-M. (2005). The Marriage Between Welfare Services and Tourism – A Driving Force for Innovation? Innovation in Hospitality and Tourism. The Haworth Press., as cited from: Dosi, G. 81982). Technological Paradigms and Technological Trajectories. Research Policy 11, pp. 147-162.
Technology is also…: Technology is also… Human innovation in action that involves the generation of knowledge and processes to develop systems that solve problems and extend human capabilities;
The innovation, change, or modification of the natural environment to satisfy perceived human needs and wants.
From: www.doe.mass.edu/frameworks/scitech/2001/resources/glossary.html, as accessed 070619 Slide27: The president of a large country recently stated that his country is addicted to oil.
Could this be because his country, like most other in the industrialized world, are addicted to technology?
Are technologies becoming ends to themselves, and to what degree is innovation in technology an exercise in procastrination?
As somebody said: ”It is not what you have that counts, but what you do with it.” Slide28:
Technologies broaden the range of what we can do, but are not necessarily designed to operate in harmony with boundaries and limitations of the systems in which they are applied. Innovation: Innovation
The application of ideas that are new, regardless of whether the new ideas are embodied in products, processes or services, or in work organisation, management or marketing systems.
From: www.innovation.sa.gov.au/sti/a8_publish/modules/publish/content.asp, as accessed 070618 Slide30: "Innovation is not absolutely necessary, but then neither is survival."
Andrew Papageorge, GoInnovate! (2005) From: http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/CURR/Science/core/6th/sciber6/HEAT/MANMEETS/man.htm, en.wikipedia.org, http://www.cs.umd.edu/class/spring2001/cmsc838b/Project/Parija_Spacco/old_images/avalanche.jpg, http://www.the-ultralight-site.com/building-fires.html, http://mdc.mo.gov/teacher/highered/crafts/craft17.htm, as accessed 070619 : From: http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/CURR/Science/core/6th/sciber6/HEAT/MANMEETS/man.htm, en.wikipedia.org, http://www.cs.umd.edu/class/spring2001/cmsc838b/Project/Parija_Spacco/old_images/avalanche.jpg, http://www.the-ultralight-site.com/building-fires.html, http://mdc.mo.gov/teacher/highered/crafts/craft17.htm, as accessed 070619 Fire plow Bow and drill Flintstone From: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/images/content/83202main_hist-archive.jpg, http://eliaus.univ-perp.fr/IMG/jpg/satellite-in-space-sh.jpg, http://www.nyc24.org/2001/issue06/story05/kidneyphoto.jpg, http://ram.ouvaton.org/article-imprim.php3?id_article=179, as accessed 070619: From: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/images/content/83202main_hist-archive.jpg, http://eliaus.univ-perp.fr/IMG/jpg/satellite-in-space-sh.jpg, http://www.nyc24.org/2001/issue06/story05/kidneyphoto.jpg, http://ram.ouvaton.org/article-imprim.php3?id_article=179, as accessed 070619 From: www.solarnavigator.net/virgin_space_travel.htm, as accessed 070615: From: www.solarnavigator.net/virgin_space_travel.htm, as accessed 070615 Space tourism? From: http://www.unificationfrance.com/IMG/jpg/scotty_04.jpg, www.crystalinks.com,http://uk.gizmodo.com, as accessed 070615: From: http://www.unificationfrance.com/IMG/jpg/scotty_04.jpg, www.crystalinks.com, http://uk.gizmodo.com, as accessed 070615 Beam me up, Scotty! Slide35: www.conocophillips.ca/NR/rdonlyre Technology and innovation towards more balanced TBL? Why is responsible tourism development still rather an exception than the rule?: Why is responsible tourism development still rather an exception than the rule? Fragmentation and vulnerability of many tourism businesses (SMTE)
Understanding and appreciation of available assets
Leadership and skilled management
Political support, will and initiative
Awareness & empowerment at the necessary levels (especially at community level)
Information (at all levels)
Awareness and implementation of available tools (incentives/programs/technologies etc)
Ability to deal with complex (indicator-based) feedback (when available) towards TBL
Expertise and incentive to translate local/regional development plans and strategies, land-use plans, coastal zone management programs, etc. into appropriate TBL-based tourism products and businesses
Institutional, legal, economic, social and environmental frameworks
Prevalence of: Short-term thinking, greed, corruption
Slide40: Can technologies help? TRANSPORT TECHNOLOGIES: TRANSPORT TECHNOLOGIES From: http://www.cariboo.bc.ca/news/past01nov26/storiesnov26/dynasty.html, http://www.transport2000.org.uk/news/maintainNewsArticles.asp?NewsArticleID=291,www.whoosh.care4free.net/, www.lightrailnow.org/facts/fa_monorail002.htm, http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/newsanddoc/article_2383_en.htm, as accessed 070619: From: http://www.cariboo.bc.ca/news/past01nov26/storiesnov26/dynasty.html, http://www.transport2000.org.uk/news/maintainNewsArticles.asp?NewsArticleID=291, www.whoosh.care4free.net/, www.lightrailnow.org/facts/fa_monorail002.htm, http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/newsanddoc/article_2383_en.htm, as accessed 070619 Innovative transport alternatives Renewable Transportation Fuels: Renewable Transportation Fuels www.asc.upenn.edu/usr/cassidy/projects/cooking/ From: http://www.iee.org/OnComms/Sector/Computing/Article_Display.cfm?ObjectID=77273205-F19D-455E-8902277BC42558DA, http://renaissanceresearch.blogspot.com/2007_01_01_archive.html, www.solarsailor.com/media_aquatankers_070117.htm, as accessed 070619 : From: http://www.iee.org/OnComms/Sector/Computing/Article_Display.cfm?ObjectID=77273205-F19D-455E-8902277BC42558DA, http://renaissanceresearch.blogspot.com/2007_01_01_archive.html, www.solarsailor.com/media_aquatankers_070117.htm, as accessed 070619 Zeppelin-type cargo lifter Solar powered yacht Hybrid electric (solar/wind) powered tanker Innovative transport alternatives BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES: BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES Slide47: We shape our dwellings, and afterwards our dwellings shape our lives.
Slide48: Approximately 50 % of the energy use in buildings is devoted to producing an artificial indoor climate through heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting.
A typical building’s energy bill constitutes approximately 25 % of the building’s total operating costs. Estimates indicate that climate-sensitive design using available technologies could cut heating and cooling energy consumption by 60 % and lighting energy requirements by at least 50 % in U.S. buildings. From:SUSTAINABLE BUILDING TECHNICAL MANUAL
Green Building Design, Construction, and Operations
Public Technology Inc. & US Green Building Council, 1996(Sponsored by US DOE & US EPA)
Energy consumption in buildings Smart Building Design: Smart Building Design We have the knowledge and cost-efficient technologies to design, construct and operate buildings that are energy-neutral or that produce more energy than they consume.
Benefits of Energy Efficient Buildings: Benefits of Energy Efficient Buildings Lower Operating and Maintenance Costs and Overheads
Lower Environmental Emissions
Greater Market Value
Better Indoor Climate and Air Quality
Increased Occupant/Guest Comfort, Health and Satisfaction
Increased Worker Productivity
Better (e.g. Corporate) Image/Profile
Deferred Investments in Power Generation – Lower Cost/Risk, Opportunities to Use (e.g. Municipal) Funds for other Purposes
Greater Opportunities for Using Renewable Energy
Access to Economic/Market Incentives (Tax Credits, Rebates, Low-Interest Loans and other Financial Schemes)
Mauna Lani Resort, Hawai`i, Rooftop PV System (100 kW): Mauna Lani Resort, Hawai`i, Rooftop PV System (100 kW) http://www.nrel.gov/data/pix/Jpegs/06431.jpg, http://www.nrel.gov/data/pix/Jpegs/07113.jpg
ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES: ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Distributed Energy Systems: Distributed Energy Systems Micro-Turbines
Internal Combustion (IC, Reciprocating) Engines
Hybrid Systems Renewable Energy Technologies: Renewable Energy Technologies Hydroelectric Energy
Solar Photovoltaic (PV)
Energy from Biomass
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Renewable Energy: Renewable Energy http://www.kaheawa.com/gallery.php: http://www.kaheawa.com/gallery.php The Kaheawa Wind Power project is a commercial scale renewable energy project. It includes the development, design, engineering, construction, and operations of a 30 MW renewable wind energy facility.
Now in full operation, the project will provide approximately 9% on average of the electricity supply for Maui.
30 MW Kaheawa Wind Farm, Maui The Project is located above McGregor Point in the West Maui mountains, in an area locally referred to as Kaheawa Pastures. It consists of 20 wind turbines arranged in a single row, an operations & maintenance building, a communications system, an electrical substation, and an interconnection to Maui Electric Company’s transmission lines. An additional 40 MW plant (Auwahi, 20 turbines) is currently planned for a remote part of the `Ulupalakua Ranch (20 000 acres); 1 st phase to be completed by 2008.
ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES: ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES From: http://www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/sust-tourism/env-3main.htm, as acessed 070615: From: http://www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/sust-tourism/env-3main.htm, as acessed 070615
Water, and especially fresh water, is one of the most critical natural resources. The tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels, swimming pools, golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. This can result in water shortages and degradation of water supplies, as well as generating a greater volume of waste water.
Resource consumption in hotels – Water : Resource consumption in hotels – Water (Bohdanowicz, 2003) Slide61: Low-flow toilets use a maximum of 1.6 gallons of water per flush compared with about 3.5 gallons of water used by a standard toilet. Low-flow shower heads use about 2½ gallons of water per minute compared to between four and five gallons per minute used by conventional heads. Low-flow faucet aerators can cut the water usage of faucets by as much as 40% from 4 gallons per minute to 2½. http://www.toolbase.org/techinv/techDetails.aspx?technologyID=190 http://www.nrdc.org/cities/building/smoffice/walkwater04.asp Water Conservation Slide62: http://www.southeastwater.com.au/sewl/upload/image/215_8x21x200315853PM.gif Greywater Reuse Slide63: http://www.compris.nl/eco/texel.html Wetlands for wastewater-
treatment? Resource consumption in hotels– Energy, kWh/m2: Resource consumption in hotels– Energy, kWh/m2 (Bohdanowicz, 2003) Slide65: How does tourism score? What are the carbon emissions by tourism for
every dollar earned? How does this compare to other sectors of industry? Resource consumption in hotels – Waste: Resource consumption in hotels – Waste (Bohdanowicz, 2003) Slide68: Rethink, Reduce, Recycle, Reuse! Waste Minimization and Management: Waste Minimization and Management Reduction
Redesign, rethink (supply chain management)
Waste-to-resource transformation Avoid hazardous zones: Avoid hazardous zones Choose locations that are sheltered from hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, tsunamis and other natural disasters. Slide71: Information technologies
Etc. So, can technologies help?: So, can technologies help? Technologies can help : Technologies can help to decrease resource consumption per unit of delivered services/goods
in generating environmental impacts and then dealing with them
In disseminating relevant information and knowledge
In facilitating the communication between
in processing vast amounts of information and managing complex systems
in enhancing in multiple ways the quality of the travel experience Slide74: But they cannot
Exercise political will or leadership
Define our value systems or generate our visions
Go the extra voluntary mile From: http://www.innovationtools.com/Quotes/Quotes.asp?offset=40, as acessed 070619: From: http://www.innovationtools.com/Quotes/Quotes.asp?offset=40, as acessed 070619
"What's missing isn't the ideas… it's the will to execute them."–
Seth Godin (2006)
Slide76: We should draw on our power of innovation to do something about that Slide77: The human desire and ability to travel and savour the world across magically diminishing boundaries needs to be responsibily harmonized with the rapidly changing priorities of our global village
which some of us roam,
and all of us share.
From : http://www.illustration.moonfruit.com (via www.mind-mapping.co.uk/mind-maps-examples.htm), as accessed 070619 : From : http://www.illustration.moonfruit.com (via www.mind-mapping.co.uk/mind-maps-examples.htm), as accessed 070619 TBL?