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Global nature of TV industry Tube Manufacturers: 

Global nature of TV industry Tube Manufacturers 10 North America 8 Europe 6 Japan 7 S. E. Asia 3 Korea 9 Rest of world

CRT Glass Plants: 

CRT Glass Plants American Video Glass New Stanton, PA Corning Ashai Video State College, PA Techneglas, Inc. Columbus, OH Techneglas, Inc. Pittston, PA Thomson Consumer Circleville, OH

US Market Trends & Facts: 

US Market Trends & Facts 98.3% of households have TV 99.5% of TV households have color set 2.32 TV sets per household 2.82 sets in multi-set households over 220,000,000 TV sets installed base

North American CRT Industry: 

North American CRT Industry Manufacture CRT glass for television sets and limited color computer monitors 1996 Sales Color sets 25 MM 90% domestic Color monitors 17 MM 5% domestic

North American CRT Glass Trends: 

North American CRT Glass Trends Stability of compositions - last 25 years Increased x-ray protection- higher voltages No-lead panel glass composition Entertainment TV Color monitors HDTV (High Definition TV)

CRT Types: 

CRT Types Monochrome One phosphor One electron gun One glass type per unit Glass to glass seal Non-hazardous Not produced in North America

CRT Types: 

CRT Types Color Three phosphors Three electron guns Multiple glass types per unit Frit seal glass components Shadow mask Hazardous

Glass Compositions: 

Glass Compositions All basic glass compositions are 65% sand with various heavy metals added for x-ray attenuation

Driving Forces for CRT Recycling: 

Driving Forces for CRT Recycling Environmental regulation Economic impacts Product stewardship Municipal waste incineration/landfill

Cullet: 

Cullet Definition Broken glass used as a raw material in the glass making operation

Cullet Advantages: 

Cullet Advantages Replacement for raw materials Improves batch melting characteristics Improves heat transfer Lowers energy consumption Improves glass quality Totally recyclable Lower emissions

Cullet Disadvantages: 

Cullet Disadvantages Potential contamination Potential glass defects Cord Viscous Redox issues

Recycling of CRT Cullet for CRT Manufacturing: 

Recycling of CRT Cullet for CRT Manufacturing Treat as a raw material Let economic forces drive recycle Make environmental costs a component for consideration Avoid mandates which make recycling impractical

Impediments to CRT Recycling: 

Impediments to CRT Recycling Cost of raw materials $250/ton delivered Collection infrastructure Transportation costs Population density Economic models being evaluated Market lag time Estimated 15 year life of TV

Impediments to CRT Recycling: 

Impediments to CRT Recycling Identification of glass Chemical and physical differences Cost of demanufacturing Labor intensive Large space requirements Contamination From manufacturing/demanufacturing

Contaminants: 

Contaminants Foreign glass Phosphors Aluminum Non-ferrous metals Dag coating Frit Ceramics

Impediments to CRT Recycling: 

Impediments to CRT Recycling Limited markets for other materials Plastics Ceramics Metals Downcycling opportunities Regulatory barriers RCRA Transportation

CRT Glass Recylers: 

CRT Glass Recylers Currently 2 recyclers returning glass to the CRT glass industry Dlubak Glass Envirocycle

CRT Glass Recylers: 

CRT Glass Recylers Market evolving into limited recyclers specializing in glass In order to be cost effective - need large volumes of glass

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