History of Hispanics and Latinos/as in America: History of Hispanics and Latinos/as in America History: -Cortes destroys Aztecan
city of Tenochtitlan and
builds Mexico City
-Spaniards take land and force Native American slaves to cultivate it
-Portuguese bring disease to the Brazilian region, devastating the local population. They begin to import African slaves to farm their land. History History: -1859 Cubans find
employment in Cuban
cigar factories in U.S.
-1880s Latinos immigrate
to the U.S. to help build
-1910 Mexican Revolution causes immigration to Southwestern U.S. History History: -1917 Latino farmers, railroad laborers, and miners allowed to enter U.S. for “temporary” work
-1921 Limits on number of immigrants allowed to enter the United States each year are imposed
-1925 Congress creates Border Patrol to stop illegal immigration
-Great Depression in U.S. causes sharp decline in Immigration History History: - 1930s to 1940s Latino agricultural laborers displaced by southern white and black migrant workers
1951-1964 Mexican Farm Labor Supply Program brings 350,000 Mexicans into the U.S. each year
- 1954-1958 Operation Wetback locates and deports undocumented Mexican workers (thousands of U.S. citizens with Mexican heritage also arrested and detained) History History: -1959 Cubans migrate to U.S. after Fidel Castro assumes power in Cuba
1962 Cesar Chavez leads California United Farm Workers Organizing Committee in grape picking strike…Cesar Chavez day made a paid state holiday
-1965 Maquiladoras (assembly plants) offer Mexicans near U.S./Mexico border jobs under poor working conditions and with little pay
History History: -1980-88 Reagan administration promotes quotas in affirmative action… reverse discrimination results
-1980-88 Number of Hispanics in the workforce increases by 48%
-1991 Unemployment among Hispanics in U.S. reaches 10.3%, double the rate for whites
-2003 Hispanics become nation's largest minority group (U.S. Hispanic population at 37.1 million) History Slide10: Who are Latinos/ Hispanics? LET’S PLAY: LET’S PLAY What countries are the following Hispanic people from? Game: Game Mexico Photo courtesy of www.wikpedia.org Game: Columbian Game
Photo courtesy of www.indy.cc.ks.us Game: Game Photo courtesy of www.paulsplanet.com Argentina Game: Game Spain Photo courtesy of www.casareal.es/casareal/home.html Game: Game Guatemalan Photo courtesy of www.cnn.com Guatemalan Game: Game Paraguay Photo courtesy of www.paulsplanet.com Game: Game PERU Photo courtesy of www.infoplease.com Game: Game Brazil Photo courtesy of www.paulsplanet.com Slide22: Hispanic, Latino, Chicano, Boricua, etc ?? Latino vs. Hispanic
– More “mainstream” - Title assigned by the government for census
– Denotes Spanish origin, stems from Iberian Peninsulares
– Dismisses Indigenous people and Latin America as it’s own entity
- Denotes Latin American origin
- Implies a culture independent of it’s Spanish roots, and
- Includes the Indigenous cultures that are integrated among Latin American society
- Does not exclude non Spanish cultures, such as Brazil’s Portuguese roots.
Specialized terms (Chicano) are country specific – Mexico, Puerto Rico, etc.
Slide23: Self description
88% of Latino’s sometimes identify themselves by the country where they, their parents, or their ancestors were born
ie. “Mexican” or “Cuban
81% sometimes use Latino or Hispanic to describe themselves
54% would first choose their parents country of origin
24% choose Latino or Hispanic
21% choose American
Pew Hispanic Center/Kaiser Family Foundation 2002 National Survey Of Latinos Choice of Titles Challenges in the Work Place: Challenges in the Work Place Population Demographics: Population Demographics 43 million Latinos in the United States, grow by 1.7 million a year. 5,000 per day.
13% of population is Hispanic.
40% of the 43 million Latinos are foreign born, but 70% are US citizens either by birth or by naturalization.
35% of Latinos are under the age of 18 compared to 25.7% of the entire population.
28% of nation’s Latino children live in families below the poverty line. Triple the number of white non-Hispanic children. Hispanics and Education: Hispanics and Education 70% of all Latino children attend overcrowded schools in highly urbanized and economically depressed areas.
Incidence of low academic achievers is higher in these schools.
Age 18-24: 95% of Asian students, 92% of 84% of African American and 64% percent of Latino completed a high school credential.
79% of Asian students, 72% of white students, 51% of African American, and 52% of Latino completed such credentials on time.
Overall, the high school dropout rates for Latino children are 21%
Slide27: And it is reflected in college graduation rates. In 1999:
- 75% of white students completed college;
- 61% of Latino students completed college
Undocumented young adults are generally unable to attend universities.
No scholarships or grants
Required to pay expensive out of state tuition
Representation in the Workforce: Representation in the Workforce Latinos 10.3% of workforce.
4.5% of managers and 3.8% are professionals.
Corporate Board seats include less than 1.7% and less than 1% of executive positions are Latinos. Slide29: 1/3 of Latino workers do not participate in private pension plans. (Highest of any group)
2/3 reported they had not received employer provided retirement education materials
14% of Latino workers cited employer funded plans as a source of income. Slide30: Latinos tend to take dangerous jobs, experience language barriers, have limited safety training, and if undocumented fear deportation if they complain.
Workplace fatalities rose by 57% in the last ten years.
-840 Latinos died on the job last year.
Slide31: 50% of U.S. farm workers are foreign born Latinos.
48% reported having worked in fields with pesticides
36% reported having been sprayed with pesticides either directly or indirectly
Hispanics in Corporate America: Hispanics in Corporate America Hispanic males who completed a college degree earned 146% more than Hispanic men who had not completed high school.
Of Latinos in Corporate America who hold a Bachelors degree, 84% held an MBA degree as well. Slide33: Of those Hispanics who were in professional positions, finding a mentor was problematic and discrimination was felt.
70% of interviewed Latinos reported that potential mentors did not notice them
60% cited their ethnicity as the reason. Slide34: 38% reported some form of discrimination.
76% did not feel that they were excluded from work activities.
48% did perceive their ethnicity as a limitation. Slide35: Historically, nearly half of all employees report a violation of psychological contract.
Ethnicity has only recently been studied.
Nearly 67% of Hispanics report a violation of their contract
Latinas or female Hispanics: Latinas or female Hispanics Latinas receive lower wages than white non-Hispanic or African Americans.
Latinas earn 52 cents for every dollar earned by a white man.
White non-Hispanic women earn 72 cents per dollar Latinas as compared to other female minorities: Latinas as compared to other female minorities
Latinas earned 72 percent as much as white non-Hispanic women.
Latinas earned 89 percent as much as African American women. Slide38: Latinas believe that their No 1 workplace challenge is finding a mentor.
21 percent of Latinas surveyed cite family commitments as a barrier to advancement; 14 percent to other minority women. Latino Workplace Laws: Latino Workplace Laws Laws: Laws -The Naturalization Act of 1798…states that immigrants must live in U.S. for 14 years before gaining citizenship
-1868 Fourteenth Amendment to U.S. Constitution declares all people of Hispanic origin born in the U.S. to be citizens
-Immigration Act of 1917 imposes a literacy requirement on all immigrants, inhibiting Hispanic immigration
The Law in Everyone’s Presentation: The Law in Everyone’s Presentation Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of:
(Thomas 34-35) How it helps Latinos: How it helps Latinos Before 1965 cognitive ability tests were seen to have most adverse impact against African-Americans and Latinos.
Title VII narrows what questions can be asked in interviews, helping Latinos.
(Thomas 36) Laws: Laws -1965 Congress abolishes U.S. national origin quota system
-1974 Equal Educational Opportunity Act makes bilingual education available to Hispanic youth
-Voting Rights Act Amendment of 1975 bans literacy tests and mandates bilingual ballots in certain areas
-Refugee Act of 1980 allows thousands to enter the U.S. as refugees Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) was passed to control unauthorized immigration to the United States.
Employer sanctions, increased appropriations for enforcement, and amnesty provisions of IRCA are the main ways of accomplishing its objective.
The employer sanctions provision designates penalties for employers who hire aliens not authorized to work in the United States.
Under the amnesty provision, illegal aliens who lived continuously in the United States since before January 1, 1982, could have applied to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for legal resident status by May 4, 1988, the application cutoff date. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, What it does for Latinos: Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, What it does for Latinos Made it so all illegal immigrants living in the US could become legal residents.
Theoretically gave agricultural workers more legal rights.
"Immigration Reform and Control Act."
Laws: Laws -1994 Proposition 187 in California bans undocumented immigrants from receiving public education and public benefits; makes it a felony to manufacture, distribute, sell, or use false citizenship or residence documents; and requires teachers, doctors, and other public figures to report suspected illegal aliens to the California attorney general and the INS
-Governor Pete Wilson implements initiative by cutting off government services to undocumented pregnant women and nursing home patients Laws: Laws -1994 Judge William Matthew Byrne, Jr. blocks enforcement of Prop. 187 on the basis that it raises constitutional questions…is later ruled unconstitutional
-1996 Proposition 209 in California bars preferential treatment based on race or gender, eliminating affirmative action
-Proposition 227 in California bans bilingual classroom education and ESL programs…one-year intensive English immersion program required instead Supreme Court Decisions: Supreme Court Decisions Watson vs. Fort Worth Bank and Trust (1988) – Adverse impact is illegal in subjective interviews.
Wards Cove vs. Atonio (1989) – All hiring channels must be open to all workers. (i.e. all of the Latino employees can’t work in the warehouse while the white employees in the office and be called fair and balance.)
Connecticut vs. Teal (2001) – Clarified that all stages of recruitment and promotion processes must be non-discriminatory, not just the “bottom-line.”
Thomas (47-49) Programs protecting Latinos: Programs protecting Latinos 2003, U.S. labor Department Initiated a program called “Justice and Equality in the Workplace. Increases safety in workplace for Latinos.
All other minority fatalities in the workplace have gone down drastically while Latinos workplace death rate increased by 53% from 1992 to 2001, mainly due to the language barrier.
(Thomas 135) Cultural Differences of Hispanics/Latinos : Cultural Differences of Hispanics/Latinos Collectivist Culture
Time, Space, and Eye Contact
Collectivist Culture: Collectivist Culture Goals of the group are more important than goals of the individual
Value group membership
Emphasis on relationship building
•This cultural difference can lead to problems in the work place because Americans tend to value the goals of the individual over those of the group
•Relationships in the workplace are vital to creating a positive work environment, inspiring employee motivation and job satisfaction. Collectivist Culture: Collectivist Culture Hispanics/Latinos value those with simpatia qualities
Collectivist Culture: Collectivist Culture Hispanics/Latinos have expectations that others will not
•Put them down
•Fight with them
These expectations can lead to misunderstandings in the workplace because some of these same values are not shared by the majority group. Fatalism: Fatalism Fatalism- the belief that it does no good to plan for the future because one does not have control over destiny.
Foreign born Hispanics/Latinos and predominately Spanish speaking Hispanics/Latinos agree with this viewpoint, that is they do not believe in the 5 year plan, the 10 year plan…
•Fate or other external forces determine the events and direction of the future
However, Hispanics/Latinos born in the United States and those who primarily use English disagree with this viewpoint. They are more likely to believe that individuals can control or influence their future.
•High locus of control-individuals determine the events and direction of the future. Time, Space and Eye Contact: Time, Space and Eye Contact Latinos/Hispanics tend to view time as more flexible than Americans.
Latinos/Hispanics are more comfortable being in close proximity to others.
Latinos/Hispanics do not use heavy eye contact during conversation.
This is often times interpreted by Americans as a sign of disrespect or a desire to withdraw from conversation.
Family Values : Family Values Hispanics/Latinos express views that emphasize the importance of family ties.
•Hispanics/Latinos believe that they should do what is best for themselves and for their family rather than what is best to be successful in the workplace.
Example: Hispanics/Latinos disagree with working excessively long hours at the expense of their family.
•73% believe that elderly parents should reside with adult children; compared with 53% of Whites and 68% of Blacks. Family Values : Family Values Hispanics/Latinos have more conservative values than Whites, but these views are often times similar to African American views on issues such as…
Language : Language Hispanics/Latinos, particularly those who primarily speak Spanish, feel strongly that learning English is essential for success in the United States.
Spanish remains the dominant language in the adult Hispanic population. English, however is gaining ground. The second generation of Hispanics/Latinos predominantly speak English or are bilingual. Hispanic parents report that English is the language their children generally use when speaking to their friends.
Language : Language Although I was unable to conduct a formal interview with various individuals near my place of employment, I was able to gain insightful information through casual conversation regarding English as a necessary tool in becoming employed in the United States. Each individual I spoke with expressed the belief that English proficiency was vital to their success in the workplace.
Each individual that I spoke with told me that they were self taught and that they had gained employment due to the ability to communicate in both English and Spanish. Two of these individuals were able to become self employed operating successful businesses in the community.
Language and Discrimination : Language and Discrimination 35% of Hispanics/Latinos report that they were discriminated against due to the language they speak
Common source of conflict in the workplace
Hispanics/Latinos overwhelmingly report that discrimination against them is a problem, both in general and in specific situations, such as school and the workplace.
1 in 7 (14%) of Hispanics/Latinos report personally experiencing employment related discrimination, ranging from not being selected for employment to not being promoted based on race or ethnicity.
Discrimination : Discrimination Many Hispanics/Latinos report much more subtle forms of discrimination
•45% feel they are treated with less respect
•41% feel they receive lower quality customer service
•30% have been called names or been insulted
Discrimination : Discrimination 83% of Hispanics also report that discrimination by Hispanics against other Hispanics is a problem. Hispanics/Latinos are most likely to attribute this type of discrimination to differences in income and education. However, a significant number also feel that Latinos discriminate against other Latinos because they or their parents or ancestors are from a different country of origin.
That's why peoplehate you piece of shit Mexicans. You whine and complain, then don't know when to shut the fuck up. You are just another dirty beaner, and you shuld have died in the desert with that litle brown baby. We wouldnt expect a dumb wetback to understan how a real American acts becaus you will never be a real American, so shut up, go back to your country before you get hurt. Leave the res of us alone, becuase nobody careswhat you think. Go ahead and cry to the teacher, because she can't change the piece of shit you are. Final Thoughts: Final Thoughts Differences between individuals within any given culture are much greater than the differences between entire cultures or ethnic groups.
Education, social standing, religion, personality, belief structure, past experience, affection shown in the home, and a myriad of other factors will affect human behavior.
Embrace Diversity: Embrace Diversity Our belief, then, is not that there are no cultural differences-simply that those differences can enrich and strengthen our lives when we allow for further understanding and acceptance of others. People everywhere have much more in common than we tend to believe, such as a need for affiliation, love, participation, and contribution. When the exterior is peeled off, there are not so many differences after all. Differences do not need to divide us… embrace diversity.
Resources: Resources Try the implicit association test to better identify and understand your unconscious biases. You can find the test at https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/index.jsp
There is also great information at http://www.tolerance.org/hidden_bias/02.html Fight Hate and Promote Tolerance