Review of Literature

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Researcher needs literatures

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE By Pascaline David Lecturer

DEFINITION:

DEFINITION The review of literature is defined as a broad, comprehensive, in depth, systematic and critical review of scholarly publications, unpublished printed or audiovisual materials and personal communications. S. k. Sharma, 2005

DEFINITION:

DEFINITION A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of knowledge on a particular topic of research. ANA, 2000

PURPOSES OF ROL:

PURPOSES OF ROL Determine how well theory and research are developed in the study. Determine what is already known and not known about the topic. Locate theoretical or conceptual frame work that will help to guide the proposed study. Define concept .

CONT…:

CONT… Examine research design, methods and scales, instruments, measures and techniques of data collection and analysis used by others. Identify a study for replications or comparison. Examine difficulties reported by others. Define ethical implications of similar studies.

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CONT … Identify a guide to use in writing the research report. Describe the relationship of each study to other research studies under consideration. Identify new ways to interpret and shed light on any gaps in previous research. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies.

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CONT … Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort. Point a way forward for further research. Develop general explanation for observed variations in a behaviour or phenomenon.

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CONT … Identify potential relationship between concepts and to identify researchable hypothesis. Identify data sources that other researcher have used. Develop alternative research projects.

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CONT … Discover how a research project is related to the work of others. Place one’s original work in context of the existing literature.

OBJECTIVES OF ROL:

OBJECTIVES OF ROL Identification of a research problem and development or refinement of research question. Generation of useful research questions or projects /activities for the discipline. Orientation to what is known and not known about an area of inquiry to ascertain what research can best contribute to knowledge.

CONT…:

CONT… Determination of any gaps or inconsistencies in a body of knowledge. Discovery of unanswered questions about subjects, concepts, or problems. Determination of a need to replicate a prior study in different study setting or different samples or sizes or different study populations.

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CONT… Identification or relevant theoretical or conceptual framework for research problems. Description of the strengths and weakness of designs/methods of inquiry and instruments used in earlier research work. Development of hypothesis to be tested in a research study .

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CONT… Helps in planning the methodology of the present research study. It also helps in development of research instruments. Identification of suitable design and data collection methods for a research study. Assistance in interpreting study findings and in developing implications and recommendations.

SCOPE OF ROL :

SCOPE OF ROL A review included in a research report. The introduction to research reports typically includes a brief literature review that has two goals. To provide readers with an overview of existing evidence on the problems being addressed. To develop an arguments that demonstrates the need for the new study.

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CONT… A review included in a proposal . Research proposals designed to persuade funders about the merits of a proposed study include a literature review section. A review in a thesis or dissertatio n. Doctoral dissertations in the traditional format often include a thorough, critical review of the research on the problem area.

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CONT … Free standing literature review. Nurses also prepare literature reviews that critically appraise and summarize a body of research.

USES OF ROL:

USES OF ROL The literature reviewed can be utilized for both research and non-research activities. Research It is usually a step of the research process and used in developing all the steps of the research process. It is used in both qualitative and quantitative type of research.

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CONT … Non research Educational setting In educational setting the literature review is used by students to develop academic scholarly papers, prepare oral presentation or debates of a topic , problem or issue. It is used by the faculty to develop and revise curricula and to develop theoretical papers for presentation and or publications.

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CONT … Clinical setting Implement research based nursing interventions. Develop hospital specific nursing protocols or policies, and standards related to patient care.

IMPORTANCE OF ROL:

IMPORTANCE OF ROL Literature reviews provides a handy guide to a particular topic. For professionals they are useful reports that keeps them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writers in their respective fields.

CONT…:

CONT… It provides solid back ground for a research study.

CRITERIA FOR SELETION OF RESOURCES:

CRITERIA FOR SELETION OF RESOURCES Primary source Secondary source Current Simple Original Accessible/available easily Accurate Affordable.

SOURCES OR ROL :

SOURCES OR ROL There are two types of sources. Theoretical and Empirical. 1]Theoretical literature includes concept analyses, models, theories and conceptual frame works that support a selected problem and purpose. Sources: periodicals and monographs.

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CONT… Periodicals – Published over time, numbered sequentially for the years published- journals. Monographs are written once- books and booklets of conference proceedings.

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CONT… In a published study, theoretical and conceptual sources are described and summarized to reflect the current understanding of the research problem and to provide basis for the study frame work.

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CONT… 2]Empirical Literature includes relevant studies that are published in the journals or books as well as unpublished studies such as Master’s thesis and doctoral dissertations. A thesis is a project completed by the master’s student as part of the requirement for a masters degree.

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CONT… A dissertation is an extensive usually an original research project that is completed by the doctoral student as part of the requirement for a doctoral degree.

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CONT… Primary Source – is written by a person who originated or responsible for generating the ideas published. In theoretical publication the primary source is written by the theorist who developed the theory. In empirical publications the primary source is written by the person who conducted the research.

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CONT… A secondary source summarizes or quotes from the primary sources. Authors of the secondary source paraphrases the works of researchers and theorists. The interpretation of the author may be biased hence secondary sources are used only if primary sources cannot be located.

PRINT SOURCES:

PRINT SOURCES Indexes Indexes contain reference materials on periodicals and some books. Printed indexes are library resources that provide assistance in obtaining journal articles and other publications relative to a topic of interest.

CONT…:

CONT… The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) CINAHL was first published in 1961, and continues to be published today. It covers nursing and allied health journals, including dental, hygiene, medical records, nutrition and dietetics, occupational therapy, physical therapy, physician’s assistant, and respiratory therapy.

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CONT… Nursing studies Index(NSI ) NSI was prepared at the Yale University, School of Nursing under the guidance of Virginia Henderson. Provides an annotated guide to English –language reports of studies and historical and biographical materials concerning nursing. Published in four volumes.

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CONT… Index Medicus . [oldest one] Index Medicus stopped publication in 2004. Most well known index of medical literature. It covers all aspects of biomedicine and includes nursing and other allied health fields.

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CONT… International nursing index Current index to journals in education Card catalogues:- list books, monographs, thesis, dissertations. Hospital literature index

ABSTRACT:

ABSTRACT Abstracts contain brief summaries of articles. Research abstracts contain the purpose, methods and major findings of the studies.

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CONT… Nursing Research Abstracts . From 1960-78 abstracts of research studies significant to nursing were published in the bimonthly issues of Nursing Research .

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CONT… Psychological abstracts. – Published by American Psychological Association since 1927. These abstracts covers journals, technical reports, book chapters and books in the field of psychology including psychologically oriented articles from nursing journals.

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CONT… Dissertation Abstracts International DAI. Since 1938. Section A - Humanities and social sciences, B-Sciences and engineering, C- Non North American materials.

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CONT… Masters Abstract International(MAI)- Contains author -written 150 word abstracts of master’s theses.

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CONT … Sociological abstract.

ELECTRONIC SOURCES:

ELECTRONIC SOURCES Electronic communication is changing how information is retrieved and disseminated and it is also impacting the conduct and communication of research results. Electronic sources include online catalogs, CD-ROMs, and online database.

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CONT… Online catalogs A computerised system to catalogue and Organise materials in a library  . C ontains alphabetical listings of books under different categories such as title, author, subject heading and key word.

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CONT … A listings of books held by libraries throughout the world may be obtained through the Online Computer Library Center(OCLC).

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CONT… CD-ROM s -Many database have been available on CD ROMs [ Compact Disc-Read Only Memory]. It can store 275, 000 pages of text.

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CONT … Online Bibliographical Databases: A database is an organized collection of data. U se a search engine-yahoo, Google, (when you don’t know where to search)

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CONT… If you know exactly where to wish to go on the web, enter the URL(Uniform Recourse Locator)of the source. These usually begin with http(Hyper Text Transfer Protocol). It is not necessary to type the http part of the URL .The browser automatically begins with http. Some URLs are case sensitive(capital Letters)

CONT…:

CONT… CINHAL: The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) database Access is provided for 1800 journals in Nursing and 17 other disciplines.

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CONT… This data base provides records from journals as well as books, book chapters, pamphlets, educational software, nursing dissertations, conference proceedings and standards of professional practice. As on Oct. 2005 the data base contained over 1.1 million Records and it is updated weekly. 12000 subject headings.

CONT…:

CONT… CINHAL Plus with Full Text . – Available only through libraries. – Contains materials from over 3000 journal.

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CONT … Registry of Nursing Research. Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing makes this data base available through its Virginia Henderson International Library.

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CONT… More than 22, 000 research article abstracts and conference abstracts are available. Free access to this data base is found at www. Nursing library. org.

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CONT… MEDLINE( Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) Online counterpart of Index Medicus. Provides access to journals in the life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine. Available through the NLM home page at www.nlm.nih.gov and can be searched for free. Access it through www.pubmed.gov .

CONT…:

CONT… OLDMEDLINE. OLDMEDLINE contains approximately 2 million citations from 1950-1960. Medlineplus - Covers over 700 topic for health care consumers.

CONT…:

CONT… Cochrane Database Of Systematic reviews. Available directly from Cochrane library through www.cochrane.org Named after Archie Cochrane a British epidemiologist. Examine the best evidence available about health care interventions. Abstracts are available free of charge.

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CONT … The ERIC [education resource information center] data base. Largest source for education information and sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences(IES) of the U S dept of Education. Free access= www.eric.ed.gov

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CONT… psycINFO database – C orresponds to print Psychological Abstracts. Includes nursing journals ( not free) This service is available through psycINFO Direct at www.psychinfo.com .

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CONT… Dissertation Abstracts Online- Produced by ProQuest Information and Learning. Other online Databases. Haz-Map[Hazardous Agents] hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/ AIDSinfo[HIV/AIDS information] aidsinfo.nih.gov/ CHID(Combined Health Information Database) chid.nih.gov/ Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/

CONT…:

CONT… Online Journals and magazines An increasing number of journals are now available both in print and online. Online journals are often called e-journals. Online magazines are called e-zines.

CONT…:

CONT… Imprint(Magazine for nursing students) www.nsna.org . Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice www.ispub.com/ostia/index.php!xm lFilePath=journals/ijanp/front.xml Online Journal of Issues in Nursing - www.nursingworld.org/ojin .

CONT…:

CONT… Online Journal of Nursing Informatics- www.eaa-knowledge.com/ojni/# Nurse Week www.nurseweek.com Journal of undergraduate nursing scholarship www.juns.nursing.arizona.edu

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CONT… Main Sources Books Journals Conference papers Thesis and dissertations

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CONT… Encyclopedia and dictionary Research reports Magazines and newspapers Electronic databases

STEPS OF ROL:

STEPS OF ROL

CONT…:

CONT… Annotated bibliography:- At this stage, researchers read articles, books, and other types of literature related to the topic of research, and write a brief critical synopsis of each review. Thematic organization:- At this stage, researcher try to find common themes of research topic and organize the literature under these themes, subthemes or categories.

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CONT… More readings :- Based on the knowledge gained through primary reading, researchers have a better understanding about the research topic and the literature related to it. At this stage, researcher try to discover specific literature materials relevant to the field of study or research.

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CONT… Write individual sections:- At this stage, researchers start writing the literature under each thematic section by using previously collected drafts of annotations. Here they organize the related articles under each theme by ensuring that every articles related to each other.

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CONT… Integrate section:- In this section, researchers have a list of the thematic sections and they tie them together with an introduction, conclusion and some additions and revisions in the sections to show how they relate to each other and to the overall theme.

RECORDING STUDIES :

RECORDING STUDIES Author’s name / Title Publication date / Journal Description Problem statement Conceptual framework Hypothesis Method of research Instruments used Data analysis Findings / summary

ELEMENTS OF WRITTEN LITERATURE:

ELEMENTS OF WRITTEN LITERATURE

CONT…:

CONT… Writing the introduction:- Define or identify the general topic, issues or areas of concern , thus providing appropriate content for reviewing the literature. Point out overall trends in what has been published about the topic or conflicts in theory, methodology, evidence, and conclusion or gaps in research and scholarship or a single problem or new perspective of immediate interest.

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CONT… Establish the writer’s point of view for reviewing literature, explain the criteria to be used in analysing and comparing literature and organization or review, and when necessary, state why certain literature is or not included[scope].

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CONT… Writing the body:- Group research studies and other types of literature Summarize individual studies or articles with as much as or as little detail as each merits according to its comparative importance in the literature, remembering that space denotes significance.

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CONT… Assist the reader with strong umbrella sentences at the beginning of paragraphs,

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CONT… Writing the conclusion Summarize major contributions of significant studies and articles to the body of knowledge under review, maintaining the focus established in the introduction.

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CONT… Evaluate the current state of the art for the body of knowledge reviewed, pointing out major methodological flaws or gaps in research, inconsistencies in theory, and finding and areas of issues pertinent to future study.

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CONT… Conclude by providing some insight into the relationship between central topic of the literature reviews and larger area of study such as a discipline, a scientific endeavour or a profession.

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR ROL:

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR ROL Be specific and be succinct Be selective Focus of current topics Ensure evidence for claims Focus on sources of evidences Account of contrary evidences Reference citation

CONT…:

CONT… Organization of literature review Referring original sources Avoid abbreviations Simple and accurate sentences structure

GUIDE LINES FOR CRITIQUING THE LITERATURE REVIEW:

GUIDE LINES FOR CRITIQUING THE LITERATURE REVIEW Is the literature Review comprehensive and concise? Is the literature review clearly organized and logically developed? Are all the sources relevant to the study topic? Are relevant theories identified and described?

CONT…:

CONT … Are the sources current? Are relevant landmark studies described? Are the sources paraphrased to promote the flow of the content? Are both supporting and opposing theory and research presented?

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CONT … Are most of the references primary sources? Are all the sources that are cited in the study found on the reference list? Do the references appear to be free of citation errors? Does the literature review clearly provide a basis for the study conducted?

BIBLIOGRAPHY e.g:

BIBLIOGRAPHY e.g American Psychological Association,(1994). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (4 th ed.), Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Amen,K.,King, C.R.,& Reiger, P. T.(2005), The bane of accurate referencing: How to achieve “ Perfection.”Oncology Nursing Forum, 32,734-736 Zakon, R. H.(2005), Hobbes’ Internet timeline V8.1. Retrieved October 12, 2005, at www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/.

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