Indian Railways .Wikipedia Details

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Indian Railways is known to serve the largest democracy of the world. It has a glorious history. This pdf has been generated from Wikipedia.

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In di an Ra i l w a y s Thi s arti c l e i s a bo ut th e o r g ani sa ti o n. F o r g e n e ra l i nf o rm a ti o n o n ra i l w a y s i n In di a see Ra i l tran s po rt i n In di a . W arni ng: P a g e us i ng Template:Infobox c o mpan y wi th unkn o wn param e te r “El ec tri fi ed” thi s m e ssa g e i s s h o wn o nl y i n p r e vi e w. W arni ng: P a g e us i ng Template:Infobox c o mpan y wi th unkn o wn param e te r “T ra c k Le ngth” thi s m e ssa g e i s s h o wn o nl y i n p r e vi e w. W arni ng: P a g e us i ng Template:Infobox c o mpan y wi th unkn o wn param e te r “Ro ute Le ngth” thi s m e ssa g e i s s h o wn o nl y i n p r e vi e w. W arni ng: P a g e us i ng Template:Infobox c o mpan y wi th unkn o wn param e te r “g a u g e” thi s m e ssa g e i s s h o wn o nl y i n p r e v i e w. In di an Ra i l w a y s r e po rti ng m ar k IR i s an In di an s ta te-o wn ed e n te rp ri se o wn ed an d o pe ra ted b y th e Go v e rnm e n t o f In di a thr o u g h th e Mi ni s try o f Ra i l w a y s . It i s o n e o f th e w o r l d’s lar g e s t ra i l w a y n e tw o r k s c o mp ri s- i ng 115000 km 71000 mi o f tra c k o v e r a r o ute o f 67312 km 41826 mi an d 7112 s ta ti o n s. 3 In 2014- 15 IR c arri ed 8.397 b i lli o n passe ng e rs ann ua ll y o r m o r e th an 23 mi lli o n passe ng e rs a da y r o u g hl y h a lf o f w h o m w e r e s u b ur ban passe ng e rs an d 1058.81 mi lli o n to n s o f f r e i g h t i n th e y e ar. 3 In 2014–2015 In di an Ra i l w a y s h a d r e v e n ue s o f ₹1634.50 b i lli o n U S24 b i lli o n w hi c h c o n- s i s ts o f ₹1069.27 b i lli o n U S16 b i lli o n f r o m f r e i g h t an d ₹402.80 b i lli o n U S6.0 b i lli o n f r o m passe ng e rs ti c k e ts. 2 Ra i l w a y s w e r e fi rs t i n tr od uc ed to In di a i n th e y e ar 1853 f r o m Mum ba i to Th an e . In 1951 th e s y s te m s w e r e n a- ti o n a li sed as o n e uni t th e In di an Ra i l w a y s bec o mi ng o n e o f th e lar g e s t n e tw o r k s i n th e w o r l d. IR o pe ra te s both l o ng di s tan c e an d s u b ur ban ra i l s y s te m s o n a m u l ti- g a u g e n e tw o r k o f b r oa d m e tr e an d n arr o w g a u g e s . It a l so o wn s l oc o m oti v e an d c oa c h p r od uc ti o n f a c i li ti e s a t se v- e ra l p la c e s i n In di a wi th ass i gn ed c od e s i d e n ti f yi ng th e i r g a u g e ki n d o f po w e r an d type o f o pe ra ti o n. Its o pe ra- ti o n s c o v e r tw e n ty ni n e s ta te s an d se v e n uni o n te rri to ri e s an d a l so p r o vi d e li mi ted i n te rn a ti o n a l se rvi c e s to Ne pa l Bang la d e s h an d P a ki s tan . In di an Ra i l w a y s i s th e w o r l d’s se v e n th lar g e s t c o mm e r- c i a l o r uti li ty e mp l o y e r b y n um be r o f e mp l o y ee s wi th o v e r 1.376 mi lli o n e mp l o y ee s as o f las t p u b li s h ed fi g- ur e s i n 2013. IR’s r o lli ng s toc k c o mp ri se s o v e r 245267 Fr e i g h t W a g o n s 66392 P asse ng e r Coa c h e s an d 10499 Loc o m oti v e s 43 s te am 5633 di e se l an d 4823 e l ec tri c l oc o m oti v e s . 3 Th e tra i n s h a v e a 5 di gi t n um be ri ng s y s- te m an d run s 12617 passe ng e r tra i n s an d 7421 f r e i g h t tra i n s da i l y. 4 As o f 31 Mar c h 2016 27999 km 17398 mi 41.59 o f th e tota l 67312 km 41826 mi r o ute l e ngth w as e l ec tri fi ed. 5 Si n c e 1960 a lm os t a ll e l ec tri- fi ed sec ti o n s o n IR use 25000 V o l t AC tra c ti o n thr o u g h o v e r h e a d c a te n ary o f d e li v e ry. 1 Hi s to ry Ma i n arti c l e: Hi s to ry o f ra i l tran s po rt i n In di a Th e hi s to ry o f ra i l tran s po rt i n In di a be g an i n th e mi d- India’s fir st tr ain r an between Bomba y and Thane ni n e tee n th c e n tury. Th e c o r e o f th e p r e ss ur e f o r b u i l d- i ng Ra i l w a y s In In di a c am e f r o m Lo n d o n. In 1848 th e r e w as n ot a s i ng l e ki l o m e te r o f ra i l w a y li n e i n In di a. Th e c o un try’s fi rs t ra i l w a y b u i l t b y th e Gr e a t In di an P e ni n- s u la Ra i l w a y GIPR o pe n ed i n 1853 be tw ee n Bo m- ba y an d Th an e. 6 Th e Eas t In di an Ra i l w a y Co mpan y w as e s ta b li s h ed 1 Jun e 1845 i n Lo n d o n b y a d eed o f se t- tl e m e n t wi th a c a p i ta l o f £4000000 lar g e l y ra i sed i n Lo n d o n. 7 Th e Gr e a t So uth e rn In di a Ra i l w a y Co. w as f o un d ed i n Bri ta i n i n 1853 an d r e gi s te r ed i n 1859. Co n- s truc ti o n o f tra c k i n Ma dras P r e s i d e n c y be g an i n 1859 an d th e 80-mi l e li nk f r o m T ri c hi n o po l y to Ne g a pa tam w as o pe n ed i n 1861. Th e Carn a ti c Ra i l w a y f o un d ed i n 1864 o pe n ed a Ma dras - Ara kk o n am - Kan c h ee p uram li n e i n 1865. Th e Gr e a t So uth e rn In di a Ra i l w a y Co m- pan y w as s u bseq ue n tl y m e r g ed wi th th e Carn a ti c Ra i l- w a y Co mpan y i n 1874 to f o rm th e So uth In di an Ra i l w a y Co mpan y . 8 9 A Bri ti s h e ngi n ee r Ro be rt Ma i tlan d Br e r e to n w as r e- s po n s i b l e f o r th e e x pan s i o n o f th e ra i l w a y s f r o m 1857 o n- w ar d s. Th e Alla h a ba d-Ja ba l p ur b ran c h li n e o f th e Eas t In di an Ra i l w a y h a d bee n o pe n ed i n Jun e 1867. Br e r e- to n w as r e s po n s i b l e f o r li nki ng thi s wi th th e GIPR r e- 1

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2 1 H I S T O R Y R obert M aitland B r er eton The B.B. C.I. R ail wa y H ead O ffices 1905 s u l ti ng i n a c o m b i n ed n e tw o r k o f 6400 km 4000 mi. He n c e i t bec am e poss i b l e to tra v e l di r ec tl y f r o m Bo m ba y to Ca l c ut ta . Thi s r o ute w as o ffi c i a ll y o pe n ed o n 7 Mar c h 1870 an d i t w as part o f th e i n s p i ra ti o n f o r Fr e n c h wri te r Ju l e s V e rn e s boo k Ar o un d th e W o r l d i n Ei g h ty Da y s . A t th e o pe ni ng c e r e m o n y th e Vi c e r o y Lo r d Ma y o c o n c l ud ed th a t “it was thought desir able that i f possible at the ear li- est possible moment the whole country should be co ver ed with a networ k o f lines in a uni f orm s ystem”. 10 By 1875 a bo ut £95 mi lli o n w e r e i n v e s ted b y Bri ti s h c o m- pani e s i n In di a. 11 By 1880 th e n e tw o r k h a d a r o ute mi l e a g e o f a bo ut 14500 km 9000 mi m os tl y ra di a t- i ng i n w ar d f r o m th e thr ee m a j o r po rt c i ti e s o f Bo m ba y Ma dras an d Ca l c ut ta . By 1895 In di a h a d s tarted b u i l d- i ng i ts o wn l oc o m oti v e s an d i n 1896 se n t e ngi n ee rs an d Extent o f the r ail wa y networ k in 1909. Indian R ail wa ys headquarter s Delhi l oc o m oti v e s to h e l p b u i l d th e U g an da Ra i l w a y s . In 1900 th e GIPR bec am e a g o v e rnm e n t o wn ed c o m- pan y. Th e n e tw o r k s p r e a d to th e m od e rn da y s ta te s o f Assam Ra j p uth an a an d Ma dras P r e s i d e n c y an d soo n v ar- i o us a uto n o m o us ki ng d o m s be g an to h a v e th e i r o wn ra i l s y s te m s. In 1905 an e ar l y Ra i l w a y Boar d w as c o n s ti- tuted b ut th e po w e rs w e r e f o rm a ll y v e s ted un d e r Lo r d Curzo n . 12 It se rv ed un d e r th e De partm e n t o f Co mm e r c e an d In d us try an d h a d a g o v e rnm e n t ra i l w a y o ffi c i a l se rv- i ng as c h a i rm an an d a ra i l w a y m an a g e r f r o m Eng lan d an d an a g e n t o f o n e o f th e c o mpan y ra i l w a y s as th e oth e r tw o m e m be rs. F o r th e fi rs t ti m e i n i ts hi s to ry th e Ra i l w a y s be g an to m a k e a p r o fi t. In 1907 a lm os t a ll th e ra i l c o mpani e s w e r e ta k e n o v e r b y th e g o v e rnm e n t. Th e f o ll o wi ng y e ar th e fi rs t e l ec tri c l o- c o m oti v e m a d e i ts a p pe aran c e. Wi th th e arri v a l o f W o r l d W ar I th e ra i l w a y s w e r e used to m ee t th e n eed s o f th e Bri ti s h o uts i d e In di a. Wi th th e e n d o f th e w ar th e ra i l- w a y s w e r e i n a s ta te o f di s r e pa i r an d c o lla pse. Lar g e sc a l e c o rru pti o n b y Bri ti s h o ffi c i a l s i n v o l v ed i n th e run- ni ng o f th e se ra i l w a y s c o mpani e s w as rampan t. P r o fi ts w e r e n e v e r r e i n v e s ted i n th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Bri ti s h c o l o- ni a l In di a . 13 In 1920 wi th th e n e tw o r k h a vi ng e x pan d ed to 61220 km 38040 mi 14 a n eed f o r c e n tra l m an a g e m e n t w as

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3 M a p o f the completed and planned r ail wa y lines in India in 1871 thirteen year s a f ter the end o f C ompan y rule. Inter ior o f G atiman Expr ess. m ooted b y Si r Wi lli am A c w o rth. Based o n th e Eas t In di a Ra i l w a y Co mmi t tee c h a i r ed b y A c w o rth th e g o v e rnm e n t too k o v e r th e m an a g e m e n t o f th e Ra i l w a y s an d d e ta c h ed th e fi n an c e s o f th e Ra i l w a y s f r o m oth e r g o v e rnm e n ta l r e v- e n ue s. Th e pe ri od be tw ee n 1920 an d 1929 w as a pe ri od o f ec o- n o mi c boo m th e r e w e r e 41000 mi 66000 km o f ra i l- w a y li n e s se rvi ng th e c o un try th e ra i l w a y s r e p r e se n ted a c a p i ta l v a l ue o f so m e 687 mi lli o n s te r li ng an d th e y c arri ed o v e r 620 mi lli o n passe ng e rs an d a p p r o xi m a te l y 90 mi lli o n to n s o f g ood s e a c h y e ar. 15 F o ll o wi ng th e Gr e a t De p r e ss i o n th e ra i l w a y s s uff e r ed ec o n o mi c a ll y f o r th e n e x t e i g h t y e ars. Th e Sec o n d W o r l d W ar se v e r e l y c ri p p l ed th e ra i l w a y s. S tarti ng i n 1939 a bo ut 40 o f th e r o lli ng s toc k i n c l udi ng l oc o m oti v e s an d c oa c h e s w as ta k e n to th e Mi d dl e Eas t. Th e ra i l w a y s w o r k s h o ps w e r e c o n v e rted to amm uni ti o n s w o r k s h o ps an d m an y ra i l w a y tra c k s w e r e di s m an tl ed to h e l p th e Alli e s i n th e w ar. By 1946 a ll ra i l s y s te m s h a d bee n ta k e n o v e r b y th e g o v e rn- m e n t. 2 Or g ani sa ti o n a l s truc tur e Ma i n arti c l e: In di an Ra i l w a y o r g ani sa ti o n a l s truc tur e 3 Ra i l w a y zo n e s Furth e r i nf o rm a ti o n: Zo n e s an d di vi s i o n s o f In di an Ra i l- w a y s In di an Ra i l w a y s i s di vi d ed i n to 17 zo n e s 16 w hi c h ar e Indian R ail wa y z onal map. f urth e r s u b-di vi d ed i n to di vi s i o n s . Th e n um be r o f zo n e s i n In di an Ra i l w a y s i n c r e ased f r o m s i x to e i g h t i n 1951 ni n e i n 1966 an d s i x tee n i n 2003. 17 18 Ea c h zo n a l ra i l- w a y i s m a d e u p o f a c e rta i n n um be r o f di vi s i o n s e a c h h a vi ng a di vi s i o n a l h e a d q uarte rs. Th e r e ar e a tota l o f s i x ty-e i g h t di vi s i o n s. 19 20 Ea c h zo n e i s h e a d ed b y a g e n e ra l m an a g e r w h o r e po rts di r ec tl y to th e Ra i l w a y Boar d. Th e zo n e s ar e f urth e r di- vi d ed i n to di vi s i o n s un d e r th e c o n tr o l o f di vi s i o n a l ra i l- w a y m an a g e rs DRM. Th e di vi s i o n a l o ffi c e rs o f e ngi- n ee ri ng m ec h ani c a l e l ec tri c a l s i gn a l an d te l ec o mm uni- c a ti o n a c c o un ts pe rso nn e l o pe ra ti ng c o mm e r c i a l se- c uri ty an d saf e ty b ran c h e s r e po rt to th e r e s pec ti v e Di vi- s i o n a l Ra i l w a y Man a g e r an d ar e i n c h ar g e o f o pe ra ti o n an d m a i n te n an c e o f asse ts. Furth e r d o wn th e hi e rar c h y tr ee ar e th e s ta ti o n m as te rs w h o c o n tr o l i n di vi d ua l s ta- ti o n s an d tra i n m o v e m e n ts thr o u g h th e tra c k te rri to ry un- d e r th e i r s ta ti o n s’ a dmi ni s tra ti o n.

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4 4 R O LLI N G S T OC K Th e c h art be l o w b ri e fl y d e p i c ted th e In di an Ra i l w a y’s zo n e s Ro ute Km e l ec tri fi ed r o ute n um be r o f s ta ti o n s an d di vi s i o n s. A pantogr aph on an I R tr ain. 3.1 Rec ru i tm e n t an d tra i ni ng Ma i n arti c l e: Ce n tra li sed T ra i ni ng In s ti tute s o f th e In di an Ra i l w a y s S taff ar e c lass i fi ed i n to g aze t ted Gr o u p A an d B an d n o n-g aze t ted Gr o u p C an d D e mp l o y ee s. 23 Th e r e- c ru i tm e n t o f Gr o u p A g aze t ted e mp l o y ee s i s c arri ed o ut b y th e U ni o n Pu b li c Se rvi c e Co mmi ss i o n thr o u g h e x am s c o n d uc ted b y i t. 24 Th e Rec ru i tm e n t o f Gr o u p B f o r th e f o ll o wi ng pos t Sec ti o n Offi c e rsJuni o r Engi n ee rsDe pot Ma te ri a l Su pe ri n te n d e n t pos ts i s c o n d uc ted b y Ra i l w a y Rec ru i tm e n t boar d. 25 Th e r ec ru i tm e n t to Gr o u p C an d D e mp l o y ee s o n th e In di an Ra i l w a y s i s d o n e thr o u g h 21 Ra i l w a y Rec ru i tm e n t Boar d s an d Ra i l w a y Rec ru i tm e n t Ce ll s w hi c h ar e c o n tr o ll ed b y th e Ra i l w a y Rec ru i tm e n t Co n tr o l Boar d RRCB. 26 Th e tra i ni ng o f a ll c a dr e s i s e n trus ted an d s h ar ed be tw ee n s i x c e n tra li sed tra i ni ng i n- s ti tute s. Sapt K r anti Expr ess waiting f or departur e to A nand V ihar T er- minal at Muz a ff arpur J unction In di an Ra i l w a y s r ec ru i ts f o r l o w e r l e v e l pos i ti o n s li k e A SM Good s Guar d Cl e r k T A CA JE S taff Nurse Gr o u p D e tc. thr o u g h i t RRB NTPC Ra i l w a y Rec ru i t- m e n t Boar d No n T ec hni c a l e x ami n a ti o n. F o r y e ar 2016 th e e x ami n a ti o n w as c o n d uc ted to r ec ru i t ar o un d 18000 pos i ti o n s. 27 W D P4 Diesel Locomoti ve Baaz which is no w at N e w J alpaigur i Sapt K r anti Expr ess W D P-4B at 120 kmph . 4 Ro lli ng s toc k 4.1 Loc o m oti v e s Ma i n arti c l e: Loc o m oti v e s i n In di a Loc o m oti v e s i n In di a c o n s i s t o f e l ec tri c an d di e se l l o- c o m oti v e s . Th e w o r l d’s fi rs t CNG Co mp r e ssed Na tu- ra l Gas l oc o m oti v e s ar e a l so be i ng used. 28 S te am l oc o- m oti v e s ar e n o l o ng e r used e x c e pt i n h e ri ta g e tra i n s . In In di a l oc o m oti v e s ar e c lass i fi ed a c c o r di ng to th e i r tra c k g a u g e m oti v e po w e r t h e w o r k th e y ar e s u i ted f o r an d th e i r po w e r o r m od e l n um be r. Th e c lass n am e i n c l ud e s thi s i nf o rm a ti o n a bo ut th e l oc o m oti v e. It c o mp ri se s 4 o r 5 l e t te rs. Th e fi rs t l e t te r d e n ote s th e tra c k g a u g e. Th e sec o n d l e t te r d e n ote s th e i r m oti v e po w e r Di e se l o r Al te r- n a ti ng c urr e n t El ec tri c an d th e thi r d l e t te r d e n ote s th e

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4.2 G oods wag ons 5 C L W made W AP-5 30022C L W made W AP-5 locos dont ha ve fluted bod y shell r ests at B hopal W AP 7 Two histor ical steam engines at water r e filling station at A gr a station ki n d o f traffi c f o r w hi c h th e y ar e s u i ted g ood s passe ng e r Mu l ti o r s h un ti ng. Th e f o urth l e t te r used to d e n ote l o- c o m oti v e s’ c hr o n o l o gi c a l m od e l n um be r. Ho w e v e r f r o m 2002 a n e w c lass i fi c a ti o n sc h e m e h as bee n a d o pted. U n- d e r thi s s y s te m f o r n e w e r di e se l l oc o m oti v e s th e f o urth l e t te r wi ll d e n ote th e i r h o rse po w e r rang e. El ec tri c l oc o- m oti v e s d o nt c o m e un d e r thi s sc h e m e an d e v e n a ll di e se l l oc os ar e n ot c o v e r ed. F o r th e m thi s l e t te r d e n ote s th e i r m od e l n um be r as us ua l. A l oc o m oti v e m a y so m e ti m e s h a v e a fi f th l e t te r i n i ts A Be yer G arr att 6594 Engine seen at the N ational R ail Museum n am e w hi c h g e n e ra ll y d e n ote s a tec hni c a l v ari an t o r s u b- c lass o r s u btype. Thi s fi f th l e t te r i n di c a te s so m e s m a ll e r v ari a ti o n i n th e bas i c m od e l o r se ri e s pe r h a ps di ff e r- e n t m oto rs o r a di ff e r e n t m an uf a c tur e r. Wi th th e n e w sc h e m e f o r c lass i f yi ng di e se l l oc o m oti v e s as m e n ti o n ed a bo v e th e fi f th i te m i s a l e t te r th a t f urth e r r e fi n e s th e h o rse po w e r i n di c a ti o n i n 100 hp i n c r e m e n ts: A f o r 100 hp B f o r 200 hp C f o r 300 hp e tc. So i n thi s sc h e m e a WDM-3A r e f e rs to a 3100 hp l oc o w hi l e a WDM-3D w o u l d be a 3400 hp l oc o an d WDM-3F w o u l d be 3600 hp l oc o. N ote: This classi fication s ystem does not appl y to steam locomoti ves in India as the y ha ve become non-f unctional no w. The y r etained their or iginal class names such as M class or W P class . Di e se l Loc o m oti v e s ar e n o w fi t ted wi th A uxi li ary P o w e r U ni ts w hi c h sa v e s n e ar l y 88 o f Fue l d uri ng th e i dl e ti m e w h e n tra i n i s n ot runni ng. 29 4.2 Good s w a g o n s Th e n um be r o f g ood s w a g o n s w as 205596 o n 31 Mar c h 1951 an d r e a c h ed th e m axi m um n um be r 405183 o n 31 Mar c h 1980 af te r w hi c h i t s tarted d ec li ni ng an d w as 239321 o n 31 Mar c h 2012. Th e n um be r i s f ar l e ss th an th e r eq u i r e m e n t an d th e In di an Ra i l w a y s k ee ps l os i ng f r e i g h t traffi c to r oa d. In di an Ra i l w a y s c arri ed 93 mi l- li o n to nn e s o f g ood s i n 1950–51 an d i t i n c r e ased to 1010 mi lli o n to nn e s i n 2012–13. 30 Ho w e v e r i ts s h ar e i n g ood s traffi c i s m uc h l o w e r th an r oa d traffi c. In 1951 i ts s h ar e w as 65 an d th e s h ar e o f r oa d w as 35. No w th e s h ar e s h a v e bee n r e v e rsed an d th e s h ar e o f ra i l w a y s h as d ec li n ed to 30 an d th e s h ar e o f r oa d h as i n c r e ased to 70. 4.3 P asse ng e r c oa c h e s In di an ra i l w a y s h as se v e ra l type s o f passe ng e r c oa c h e s. Th e c oa c h e s used i n In di an Ra i l w a y s ar e p r od uc ed a t In te gra l Coa c h F a c to ry Ra i l Coa c h F a c to ry i n c l udi ng

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6 5 T R A C K AN D G A U G E th e n e w LHB c oa c h e s. P asse ng e r c oa c h e s n um be r ed 46722 o n 31 Mar c h 2012. O th e r c oa c h e s l u gg a g e c oa c h par c e l v an guar d’s c oa c h m a i l c oa c h e tc. n um be r ed 6560 o n 31 Mar c h 2012. El ec tri c Mu l ti p l e U ni t EMU c oa c h e s ar e used f o r s u b- ur ban traffi c i n lar g e c i ti e s – m a i nl y Mum ba i Ch e nn a i De lhi K o lk a ta Pun e Hy d e ra ba d an d Bang a l o r e . Th e se c oa c h e s n um be r ed 7793 o n 31 Mar c h 2012. Th e y h a v e sec o n d c lass an d fi rs t c lass se a ti ng a c c o mm oda ti o n. 4.4 Fr e i g h t In di an Ra i l w a y s e arn s a bo ut 70 o f i ts r e v e n ue s f r o m f r e i g h t traffi c ₹686.2 b i lli o n f r o m f r e i g h t an d ₹304.6 b i lli o n f r o m passe ng e rs i n 2011–12. Mos t o f i ts p r o f- i ts c o m e f r o m tran s po rti ng f r e i g h t an d thi s m a k e s u p f o r l osse s o n passe ng e r traffi c. It d e li be ra te l y k ee ps i ts passe ng e r f ar e s l o w an d c r oss-s u bs i di se s th e l oss-m a ki ng passe ng e r traffi c wi th th e p r o fi t-m a ki ng f r e i g h t traffi c. Si n c e th e 1990s In di an Ra i l w a y s h as s to p ped s i ng l e- w a g o n c o n s i gnm e n ts an d p r o vi d e s o nl y f u ll ra k e f r e i g h t tra i n s W a g o n type s i n c l ud e: 31 BOXNHL BOBYN BCN BCNHL 5 T ra c k an d g a u g e In di an ra i l w a y s use s f o ur g a u g e s th e 1676 mm 5 f t 6 i n b r oa d g a u g e w hi c h i s wi d e r th an th e 1435 mm 4 f t 8 1 ⁄ 2 i n s tan dar d g a u g e th e 1000 mm 3 f t 3 3 ⁄ 8 i n m e tr e g a u g e an d tw o n arr o w g a u g e s 762 mm 2 f t 6 i n an d 610 mm 2 f t. T ra c k sec ti o n s ar e ra ted f o r s peed s rangi ng f r o m 80 to 200 km/h 50 to 124 mp h.Th o u g h tra i n s d o nt r e a ll y c l oc k s peed s o f 200 km/h. Th e tota l l e ngth o f tra c k used b y In di an Ra i l w a y s i s a bo ut 115000 km 71000 mi w hi l e th e tota l r o ute l e ngth o f th e n e tw o r k i s 67312 km 41826 mi.A bo ut 27999 km 17398 mi o r 42 o f th e r o ute-ki l o m e tr e w as e l ec tri- fi ed as o f 31 Mar c h 2016. Br oa d g a u g e i s th e p r ed o mi n an t g a u g e used b y In di an Ra i l w a y s. In di an b r oa d g a u g e —1676 mm 5 f t 6 i n— i s th e m os t wi d e l y used g a u g e i n In di a wi th 108500 km 67400 mi o f tra c k l e ngth 94 o f e n ti r e tra c k l e ngth o f a ll th e g a u g e s an d 59400 km 36900 mi o f r o ute-ki l o m e tr e 91 o f e n ti r e r o ute-ki l o m e tr e o f a ll th e g a u g e s. The imag e sho ws still survi ving meter g aug e tr acks in G u jar at India N arr o w G aug e Tr ain at R a jim C hhattisg ar h In so m e r e gi o n s wi th l e ss traffi c th e m e tr e g a u g e 1000 mm 3 f t 3 3 ⁄ 8 i n i s c o mm o n a l th o u g h th e U ni g a u g e p r o j ec t i s i n p r o gr e ss to c o n v e rt a ll tra c k s to b r oa d g a u g e. Th e m e tr e g a u g e h as a bo ut 5000 km 3100 mi o f tra c k l e ngth 4 o f e n ti r e tra c k l e ngth o f a ll th e g a u g e s an d 4100 km 2500 mi o f r o ute-ki l o m e tr e 7 o f e n ti r e r o ute-ki l o m e tr e o f a ll th e g a u g e s. Th e Narr o w g a u g e s ar e p r e se n t o n a f e w r o ute s l y- i ng i n hi ll y te rra i n s an d i n so m e e rs tw hi l e p ri v a te ra i l- w a y s o n c os t c o n s i d e ra ti o n s w hi c h ar e us ua ll y di ffi c u l t to c o n v e rt to b r oa d g a u g e. Narr o w g a u g e s h a v e 1500 r o ute-ki l o m e tr e. Th e Ka lk a-Shi mla Ra i l w a y th e Kangra V a ll e y Ra i l w a y an d th e Dar j ee li ng Hi m a la y an Ra i l w a y ar e thr ee n ota b l e hi ll li n e s th a t use n arr o w g a u g e b ut th e Ni l gi ri Mo un ta i n Ra i l w a y i s a m e tr e g a u g e tra c k. 32 Th e se f o ur ra i l li n e s wi ll n ot be c o n v e rted un d e r th e U ni- g a u g e p r o j ec t. Th e s h ar e o f b r oa d g a u g e i n th e tota l r o ute-ki l o m e tr e h as bee n s te a di l y ri s i ng i n c r e as i ng f r o m 47 25258 r o ute- km i n 1951 to 86 i n 2012 w h e r e as th e s h ar e o f m e tr e g a u g e h as d ec li n ed f r o m 45 24185 r o ute-km to 10 i n th e sam e pe ri od an d th e s h ar e o f n arr o w g a u g e s h as d ec r e ased f r o m 8 to 3. A bo ut 27999 r o ute-km o f In di an ra i l w a y s i s e l ec tri fi ed. Sl ee pe rs ti e s ar e m a d e u p o f p r e s tr e ssed c o n c r e te o r s tee l o r c as t i r o n pos ts th o u g h te a k s l ee pe rs ar e s ti ll i n use o n a f e w o l d e r li n e s. Th e p r e s tr e ssed c o n c r e te s l ee pe r i s i n

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6.1 B io-T oilets on r ail wa ys 7 M a p o f Indian R ail wa ys networ k with population density wi d e use toda y. Me ta l s l ee pe rs w e r e e x te n s i v e l y used be- f o r e th e a d v e n t o f c o n c r e te s l ee pe rs. In di an Ra i l w a y s di- vi d e s th e c o un try i n to f o ur zo n e s o n th e bas i s o f th e rang e o f tra c k te mpe ra tur e. Th e gr e a te s t te mpe ra tur e v ari a ti o n s oc c ur i n Ra j as th an . 5.1 Re se ar c h an d d e v e l o p m e n t In di an Ra i l w a y s h as a f u ll-fl ed g ed o r g ani sa ti o n kn o wn as Re se ar c h De s i gn s an d S tan dar d s Or g ani sa ti o n RDSO l oc a ted a t L uc kn o w f o r a ll r e se ar c h d e s i gn s an d s tan dar d- i sa ti o n tas k s. In A u gus t 2013 In di an Ra i l w a y s e n te r ed i n to a partn e r- s h i p wi th In di an In s ti tute o f T ec hn o l o gy Ma dras to d e- v e l o p tec hn o l o gy to ta p so lar e n e r gy f o r li g h ti ng an d a i r- c o n di ti o ni ng i n th e c oa c h e s. Thi s w o u l d s i gni fi c an tl y r e- d uc e th e f oss i l f ue l d e pe n d e n c y f o r In di an Ra i l w a y s. 33 Rec e n tl y i t d e v e l o ped an d te s ted th e Imp r o v ed A uto- m a ted Fi r e Alarm Sy s te m i n Ra j dh ani Ex p r e ss T ra i n s. It i s i n te n d ed th a t th e s y s te m be a p p li ed to AC c oa c h e s o f a ll r e gu lar tra i n s. 34 6 Curr e n t an d f utur e d e v e l o p m e n ts Ma i n arti c l e: Futur e o f th e In di an Ra i l w a y s In r ec e n t y e ars In di an Ra i l w a y s h as un d e rta k e n se v- e ra l i ni ti a ti v e s to u p gra d e i ts a g e i ng i nf ras truc tur e an d e n- h an c e i ts q ua li ty o f se rvi c e. Th e In di an g o v e rnm e n t p lan s to i n v e s t ₹905000 c r o r e U S134 b i lli o n to u p gra d e th e ra i l w a y s b y 2020. 35 In di an Ra i l w a y s i s r e f ur b i s hi ng 12- 15 y e ar o l d c oa c h e s a t Carri a g e Re h a b i li ta ti o n W o r k s h o p i n Bh o pa l to e nh an c e passe ng e r am e ni ti e s an d fi r e saf e ty m e as ur e s. 36 37 Eastern end o f long est plat f orm in K ollam J unction r ail wa y sta- tion in India . This is the wor ld’s second long est r ail wa y plat f orm 6.1 Bi o-T o i l e ts o n ra i l w a y s Th e b i o-to i l e ts w hi c h h a v e bee n d e v e l o ped b y th e ra i l- w a y s an d th e De f e n c e Re se ar c h De v e l o p m e n t Or g ani- sa ti o n DRDO h a v e a c o l o n y o f an a e r o b i c ba c te ri a k e pt i n a c o n ta i n e r un d e r th e la v a to ri e s th a t c o n v e rt h um an w as te i n to w a te r an d s m a ll am o un ts o f g ase s. Th e g ase s ar e r e l e ased i n to th e a tm os p h e r e an d th e w a te r i s di s- c h ar g ed af te r c hl o ri n a ti o n o n to th e tra c k. Th e ra i l w a y s c urr e n tl y use s fl us h to i l e ts i n tra i n s i n w hi c h h um an w as te i s d umped di r ec tl y o n th e tra c k. Thi s m a k e s th e e n vi r o n- m e n t unh y gi e ni c an d ra i l w a y s ta ti o n s an e y e so r e a part f r o m th e f a c t th a t th e f a ec a l m a t te r c o rr od e s th e tra c k s. So uth e rn Ra i l w a y s o ffi c i a l s sa y th a t e x c e pt f o r th e fi rs t- an d tw o-ti e r AC c oa c h e s o f U zh a v an Ex p r e ss th e r e- m a i ni ng 34 c oa c h e s h a v e bee n fi t ted wi th b i o-to i l e ts. “Th e se to i l e ts a i m a t ze r o d e f ec a ti o n o n th e gr o un d” sa y s Vi n a y Sri v as ta v a f o rm e r di r ec to r-i n-c h ar g e o f th e b i o- to i l e t p r o j ec t w h o i s c urr e n tl y w o r ki ng as di r ec to r Mi n- i s try o f En vi r o nm e n t an d F o r e s ts. Mo r e b i o-to i l e ts h a v e bee n fi t ted i n to c oa c h e s thi s y e arth an th e tota l b i o-to i l e ts fi t ted i n th e las t thr ee y e ars. A c c o r di ng to an IR so ur c e th e n um be r o f b i o-to i l e ts fi t- ted i n passe ng e r tra i n c oa c h e s f r o m Ap ri l to Ju l y thi s y e ar w as 2285 a g a i n s t 1337 b i o-to i l e ts fi t ted d uri ng 2012- 13 169 d uri ng 2011-12 an d 57 d uri ng 2010-11. 6.2 Loc o m oti v e f a c to ri e s In 2015 p lan s w e r e di sc l osed f o r b u i l di ng tw o l oc o m oti v e f a c to ri e s i n th e s ta te o f Bi h ar a t Ma dh e p ura di e se l l oc o- m oti v e s an d a t Mar h o wra e l ec tri c l oc o m oti v e s. Both f a c to ri e s i n v o l v e f o r e i gn partn e rs hi ps. Th e di e se l l o- c o m oti v e w o r k s wi ll be j o i n tl y o pe ra ted i n a partn e r- s hi p wi th Ge n e ra l El ec tri c w hi c h h as i n v e s ted ₹2052 c r o r e U S305 mi lli o n f o r i ts c o n s truc ti o n an d th e e l ec- tri c l oc o m oti v e w o r k s wi th Al s to m w hi c h h as i n v e s ted ₹1293.57 c r o r e U S192 mi lli o n. Th e f a c to ri e s wi ll p r o vi d e In di an Ra i l w a y s wi th 800 e l ec tri c l oc o m oti v e s

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8 9 A C C O M M O D A T I O N C LA SS ES o f 12000 h o rse po w e r e a c h an d a mi x o f 1000 di e se l l oc o m oti v e s o f 4500 an d 6000 h o rse po w e r e a c h. 38 In No v e m be r 2015 f urth e r d e ta i l s o f th e ₹14656 c r o r e U S2 b i lli o n partn e rs hi p wi th GE w e r e ann o un c ed: In- di an Ra i l w a y s an d GE w o u l d e ng a g e i n an 11-y e ar j o i n t v e n tur e i n w hi c h GE w o u l d h o l d a m a j o ri ty s ta k e o f 74. U n d e r th e te rm s o f th e j o i n t v e n tur e In di an Ra i l w a y s w o u l d p ur c h ase 100 g ood s l oc o m oti v e s a y e ar f o r 10 y e ars be gi nni ng i n 2017 th e l oc o m oti v e s w o u l d be m odi fi ed v e rs i o n s o f th e GE Ev o l uti o n se ri e s . 39 Th e di e se l l o- c o m oti v e w o r k s wi ll be b u i l t b y 2018 GE wi ll i mpo rt th e fi rs t 100 l oc o m oti v e s an d m an uf a c tur e th e r e m a i ni ng 900 i n In di a f r o m 2019 a l so ass umi ng r e s po n s i b i li ty f o r th e i r m a i n te n an c e o v e r a 13-y e ar pe ri od. 40 In th e sam e m o n th a ₹20000 c r o r e U S3 b i lli o n partn e rs hi p wi th Al s to m to s u p p l y 800 e l ec tri c l oc o m oti v e s f r o m 2018 to 2028 w as ann o un c ed. 35 7 Li nk s to a d j a c e n t c o un tri e s See a l so: Ra i l tran s po rt i n In di a § In te rn a ti o n a l li nk s Exi s ti ng ra i l li nk s: Ne pa l – Br e a k-o f-g a u g e – Ga u g e c o n v e rs i o n un d e r uni-g a u g e p r o j ec t P a ki s tan – sam e Br oa d Ga u g e. Th ar Ex p r e ss to Kara c hi an d th e m o r e f am o us Sam jh a uta Ex p r e ss i n- te rn a ti o n a l tra i n f r o m La h o r e P a ki s tan to Amri tsar A t tari. Bang la d e s h – Sam e Br oa d Ga u g e. Th e Ma i tr ee Ex- p r e ss be tw ee n Dh a k a an d K o lk a ta s tarted i n Ap ri l 2008 us i ng th e Ged e-Darsan a r o ute i n a d di ti o n to a Fr e i g h t T ra i n se rvi c e f r o m Si ng h a ba d an d P e tra po l e i n In di a to Ro h anp ur an d Be n a po l e i n Bang la d e s h. A sec o n d passe ng e r li nk be tw ee n A g arta la In di a an d Akh a ura Upazi la Bang la d e s h w as a p p r o v ed b y th e Go v e rnm e n t o f Bang la d e s h an d In di a i n Se pte m- be r 2011. 41 U n d e r c o n s truc ti o n / P r o posed li nk s: Bh utan – Ra i l w a y s U n d e r Co n s truc ti o n – Sam e g a u g e My anm ar – Mani p ur to My anm ar un d e r c o n s truc- ti o n Vi e tn am – On 9 Ap ri l 2010 F o rm e r U ni o n Mi ni s te r o f In di a Sh as hi Th ar oo r ann o un c ed th a t th e c e n tra l g o v e rnm e n t i s c o n s i d e ri ng a ra i l li nk f r o m Mani p ur to Vi e tn am vi a My anm ar . 42 Th a i lan d – poss i b l e i f Burm a Ra i l w a y i s r e b u i l t. 43 8 Type s o f passe ng e r se rvi c e s T ra i n s ar e c lass i fi ed b y th e i r a v e ra g e s peed. 44 A f as te r tra i n h as f e w e r s to ps “h a l ts” th an a s l o w e r o n e an d us u- a ll y c a te rs to l o ng-di s tan c e tra v e l. 9 A c c o mm oda ti o n c lasse s A ir-conditioned C hair C ar C C coaches in an Shatabdi Expr ess . Ma i n arti c l e: In di an Ra i l w a y s c oa c hi ng s toc k In di an Ra i l w a y s h as se v e ra l c lasse s o f tra v e l wi th o r wi th o ut a i r c o n di ti o ni ng. A tra i n m a y h a v e j us t o n e o r m an y c lasse s o f tra v e l. Sl o w passe ng e r tra i n s h a v e o nl y unr e se rv ed se a ti ng c lass w h e r e as Ra j dh ani Dur o n to Sh a ta bdi g ari b ra th an d yu v a tra i n s h a v e o nl y a i r c o n- di ti o n ed c lasse s. Th e f ar e s f o r a ll c lasse s ar e di ff e r e n t wi th unr e se rv ed se a ti ng c lass be i ng th e c h e a pe s t. Th e f ar e o f Ra j dh ani Dur o n to an d Sh a ta bdi tra i n s i n c l ud e s f ood se rv ed i n th e tra i n b ut th e f ar e f o r oth e r tra i n s d oe s n ot i n c l ud e f ood th a t h as to be bo u g h t se para te l y. In l o ng- di s tan c e tra i n s a pan try c ar i s us ua ll y i n c l ud ed an d f ood i s se rv ed a t th e be rth o r se a t i tse lf. L uxury tra i n s s uc h as P a la c e o n Wh ee l s h a v e se para te di ni ng c ars b ut th e se tra i n s c os t as m uc h as o r m o r e th an a fi v e-s tar h ote l r oo m. A s tan dar d passe ng e r ra k e g e n e ra ll y h as f o ur unr e se rv ed a l so c a ll ed “g e n e ra l” c o mpartm e n ts tw o a t th e f r o n t an d tw o a t th e e n d o f w hi c h o n e m a y be e x c l us i v e l y f o r la di e s. Th e e x a c t n um be r o f oth e r c oa c h e s v ari e s a c c o r di ng to th e d e m an d an d th e r o ute. A l u gg a g e c o mpartm e n t c an a l so e xi s t a t th e f r o n t o r th e ba c k. In so m e m a i l tra i n s a se para te m a i l c oa c h i s a t ta c h ed. La v a to ri e s ar e c o mm un a l an d f e a tur e both th e In di an s ty l e as w e ll as th e W e s te rn s ty l e. Th e f o ll o wi ng ta b l e li s ts th e c lasse s i n o pe ra ti o n. A tra i n m a y n ot h a v e a ll th e se c lasse s. A t th e r e ar o f th e tra i n i s a s pec i a l c o mpartm e n t kn o wn as th e guar d’s c a b i n . It i s fi t ted wi th a tran sc e i v e r an d i s w h e r e th e guar d us ua ll y gi v e s th e a ll c l e ar s i gn a l be f o r e

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9 Seen her e is the Mumbai R a jdhani Expr ess . R a jdhanis ar e long- distance high-speed and high-pr ior ity tr ains connecting ma jor state capitals with N e w Delhi Seen her e is the Secunder abad Y esh wanthpur G ar ib-R ath Ex- pr ess. G ar ib-R ath’s ar e lo w cost A/c tr ains Inter ior o f a Fir st C lass1A compartment in the R a jdhani Ex- pr ess th e tra i n d e parts. 10 UNESCO w o r l d h e ri ta g e s i te s Th e r e ar e tw o UNESCO W o r l d He ri ta g e Si te s o n In- di an Ra i l w a y s. – Th e Ch a tra pa ti Shi v a ji T e rmi n us 48 an d Inter ior o f an air-conditioned C hair C ar coachC C in an J an Shatabdi Expr ess . Inside a 3-tier A C C ompartment o f the Dakshin Expr ess A typical sleeper class coach th e Mo un ta i n Ra i l w a y s o f In di a . Th e la t te r c o n s i s ts o f thr ee se para te ra i l w a y li n e s l oc a ted i n di ff e r e n t parts o f In di a: 49 Dar j ee li ng Hi m a la y an Ra i l w a y a n arr o w g a u g e ra i l- w a y i n W e s t Be ng a l . Ni l gi ri Mo un ta i n Ra i l w a y a 1000 mm 3 f t 3 3 ⁄ 8 i n m e tr e g a u g e ra i l w a y i n th e Ni l gi ri Hi ll s i n T ami l Na d u .

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10 11 N O T AB LE T R AI N S A tight loop A g on y P oint on the Dar jeeling Himala yan R ail wa y in W est Beng al Ka lk a-Shi mla Ra i l w a y a n arr o w g a u g e ra i l w a y i n th e Shi v a li k m o un ta i n s i n Hi m a c h a l P ra d e s h . In 2003 th e ra i l w a y w as f e a tur ed i n th e Gu i nn e ss Boo k o f W o r l d Rec o r d s f o r o ff e ri ng th e s tee pe s t ri se i n a l ti tud e i n th e s pa c e o f 96 ki l o m e te r. 50 11 Nota b l e tra i n s 11.1 T o uri s t tra i n s P alace on W heels i s a s pec i a ll y d e s i gn ed l uxury to uri s t tra i n se rvi c e f r eq ue n tl y h a u l ed b y a s te am l oc o m oti v e f o r p r o m oti ng to uri s m i n Ra j as th an . Th e tra i n h as a 7 ni g h ts 8 da y s i ti n e rary i t d e- parts f r o m Ne w De lhi Da y 1 an d c o v e rs Ja i p ur Da y 2 Sa w a i Ma dh o p ur an d Chi t ta ur g ar h Da y 3 U da i p ur Da y 4 Ja i sa lm e r Da y 5 Jodhp ur Da y 6 Bh ara tp ur an d A gra Da y 7 r e turn to De lhi Da y 8. 51 R o yal R a jasthan on W heels a l uxury to uri s t tra i n se rvi c e c o v e rs v ari o us to uri s t d e s ti n a ti o n s i n Ra- j as th an. Th e tra i n ta k e s to uri s ts o n a 7-da y/8-ni g h t to ur thr o u g h Ra j as th an. Th e tra i n s tarts f r o m Ne w De lhi s Saf dar j ung ra i l w a y s ta ti o n Da y 1 an d h as s to ps a t Jodhp ur Da y 2 U da i p ur an d Chi t ta ur g ar h Da y 3 Ran th am bo r e Na ti o n a l P ar k an d Ja i p ur Da y 4 Kh a j ura h o Da y 5 V aran as i an d Sarn a th Da y 6 A gra Da y 7 an d ba c k to De lhi Da y 8. 52 M ahar a ja Expr ess a l uxury tra i n o pe ra ted b y IRCT C run s o n fi v e c i r c u i ts 53 c o v e ri ng m o r e th an 12 d e s ti- n a ti o n s a c r oss No rth-W e s t an d Ce n tra l In di a m a i nl y c e n te r ed ar o un d Ra j as th an be tw ee n th e m o n th s o f Oc to be r to Ap ri l. Deccan Od ysse y l uxury to uri s t tra i n se rvi c e c o v e rs v ari o us to uri s t d e s ti n a ti o n s i n Ma h aras h tra an d Goa . Th e 7 Ni g h ts / 8 Da y s to ur s tarts f r o m Mum ba i Da y 1 an d c o v e rs Ja i g a d F o rt Gan a pa ti p u l e an d Ra tn a gi ri Da y 2 Si n dh ud ur g T ar k ar li an d Sa w an tw a di Da y 3 Goa Da y 4 K o lh a p ur an d Pun e Da y 5 A urang a ba d an d Ell o ra Ca v e s Da y 6 A j an ta Ca v e s an d Nas hi k Da y 7 an d ba c k to Mum ba i Da y 8. 54 The G olden C har iot l uxury tra i n run s o n tw o c i r c u i ts P r ide o f the South 55 an d Splendor o f the South . 56 M ahapar inirvan Expr ess an a/c tra i n se rvi c e a l so kn o wn as Bud dhi s t Ci r c u i t T ra i n w hi c h i s run b y IRCT C to a t tra c t Bud dhi s t p i l gri m s. Th e 7 ni g h ts/8 Da y s to ur s tarts f r o m Ne w De lhi Da y 1 an d c o v- e rs Bodh Ga y a Da y 2 Ra j gi r an d Na lan da Da y 3 V aran as i an d Sarn a th Da y 4 Kus hi n a g ar an d L um b i ni Da y 5 an d 6 Sra v as ti Da y 7 T a j Ma- h a l A gra Da y 8 be f o r e r e turni ng to Ne w De lhi o n Da y 8. 57 11.2 O th e r tra i n s Sam jhauta Expr ess i s a tra i n th a t run s be tw ee n In- di a an d P a ki s tan. Ho w e v e r h os ti li ti e s be tw ee n th e tw o n a ti o n s i n 2001 sa w th e li n e be i ng c l osed. It w as r eo pe n ed w h e n th e h os ti li ti e s s u bs i d ed i n 2004. An oth e r tra i n c o nn ec ti ng Kh o khra par P a k- i s tan an d Mun a ba o In di a i s th e Thar Expr ess th a t r e s tarted o pe ra ti o n s o n 18 F e b ruary 2006 i t w as e ar li e r c l osed d o wn af te r th e 1965 In d o-P a k w ar . Li f eline Expr ess i s a s pec i a l tra i n po p u lar l y kn o wn as th e “Hos p i ta l-o n-Wh ee l s” w hi c h p r o vi d e s h e a l th- c ar e to th e rura l ar e as. Thi s tra i n h as a c arri a g e th a t se rv e s as an o pe ra ti ng r oo m a sec o n d o n e w hi c h se rv e s as a s to r e r oo m an d an a d di ti o n a l tw o th a t se rv e as a pa ti e n t w ar d. Th e tra i n tra v e l s ar o un d th e c o un try s ta yi ng a t a l oc a ti o n f o r a bo ut tw o m o n th s be f o r e m o vi ng e l se w h e r e. A vie w o f the P amban R ail wa y B r idg e that links R amesh war am to the mainland F airy Queen i s th e o l d e s t o pe ra ti ng l oc o m oti v e i n th e w o r l d toda y th o u g h i t i s o pe ra ted o nl y f o r s pec i a l s be tw ee n De lhi an d Al w ar. J ohn B ull a l oc o m oti v e

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11 o l d e r th an F a i ry Quee n o pe ra ted i n 1981 c o mm e m- o ra ti ng i ts 150th anni v e rsary. Go ra khp ur ra i l w a y s ta ti o n a l so h as th e di s ti n c ti o n o f be i ng th e w o r l d’s l o ng e s t ra i l w a y p la tf o rm a t 4483 f t 1366 m. Th e Gh um s ta ti o n a l o ng th e Dar j ee li ng T o y T ra i n r o ute i s th e sec o n d h i g h e s t ra i l w a y s ta ti o n i n th e w o r l d to be r e a c h ed b y a s te am l oc o m oti v e. 58 Th e Mum ba i– Pun e Dec c an Quee n h as th e o l d e s t runni ng di ni ng c ar i n IR. V i vek Expr ess be tw ee n Di b ru g ar h an d Kan y a kum ari h as th e l o ng e s t run i n te rm s o f di s tan c e an d ti m e o n In di an Ra i l w a y s n e tw o r k. It c o v e rs 4286 km 2663 mi i n a bo ut 82 h o urs an d 30 mi n ute s. 12049/12050 H azr at Niz amuddin - A gr a C antt. G atimaan Expr ess is the f astest tr ain o f India ha ving a maximum speed o f 160 km/h and a ver ag e speed o f 112 km/h. 12001/12002 B hopal Shatabdi Ex- pr ess w as th e f as te s t tra i n i n In di a h a vi ng a m ax- i m um s peed o f 150 km/h o n th e F ari da ba d – A gra sec ti o n. Th e f as te s t s peed a t ta i n ed b y an y tra i n i s 184 km/h 114 mp h i n 2000 d uri ng te s t run s. Special Tr ains ar e th ose tra i n s s tarted b y In di an Ra i l- w a y s f o r an y s pec i fi c e v e n t o r c a use w hi c h i n c l ud e s Ja gri ti Y a tra tra i n s 59 Kum b h Me la T ra i n s. 60 e m e r g e n c y tra i n s e tc. 61 Do u b l e-d ec k e r AC tra i n s h a v e bee n i n tr od uc ed i n In di a. Th e fi rs t d o u b l e d ec k e r tra i n w as Pun e- Mum ba i Si nh a g a d e x p r e ss p l yi ng be tw ee n Pun e an d Mum ba i 62 w hi l e th e fi rs t d o u b l e-d ec k e r AC tra i n i n th e In di an Ra i l w a y s w as i n tr od uc ed i n No v e m be r 2010 runni ng be tw ee n th e Dh an ba d an d Ho wra h s ta ti o n s h a vi ng 10 c oa c h e s an d 2 po w e r c ars. 63 On 16 Ap ri l 2013 In di an Ra i l w a y s c e l e b ra ted i ts 160 y e ars o f n a ti o n wi d e c o nn ec ti vi ty wi th a tran s po rta- ti o n o f 23 mi lli o n passe ng e rs i n a da y. 64 12 P r o b l e m s an d i ss ue s In di an Ra i l w a y s i s c as h s tra p ped an d r e po rted a l oss o f ₹30000 c r o r e U S5b n i n th e passe ng e r se gm e n t f o r th e y e ar e n di ng Mar c h 2014. Ope ra ti ng ra ti o a k e y m e tri c used b y In di an ra i l w a y s to g a u g e fi n an c i a l h e a l th i s 91.8 i n th e y e ar 2014-15. Ra i l w a y s c arry a soc i a l o b li g a ti o n o f o v e r ₹20000 c r o r e 3.5b n. Th e l oss pe r passe ng e r-km i n c r e ased to 23 pa i se b y th e e n d o f Mar c h 2014. In di an Ra i l w a y s i s l e f t wi th a s urp l us c as h o f j us t ₹690 c r o r e 115mn b y th e e n d o f Mar c h 2014. 65 It w as s e s ti m a ted i n 2014 th a t o v e r ₹5 la kh c r o r e 85b n i s r eq u i r ed to c o mp l e te th e o ng o i ng p r o j ec ts a l o n e. Th e ra i l w a y i s c o n s i s te n tl y l os i ng m ar k e t s h ar e to oth e r m od e s o f tran s po rt both i n f r e i g h t an d passe ng e rs. 66 Ne w ra i l w a y li n e p r o j ec ts ar e o f te n ann o un c ed d uri ng th e Ra i l w a y Bud g e t ann ua ll y wi th o ut sec uri ng a d di ti o n a l f un di ng f o r th e m. Be tw ee n 2004 an d 2014 99 Ne w Li n e p r o j ec ts w o rth ₹60000 c r o r e 10b n w e r e san c ti o n ed o ut o f w hi c h o nl y o n e p r o j ec t i s c o mp l e te ti ll da te an d th e r e ar e f o ur p r o j ec ts th a t ar e as o l d as 30 y e ars b ut ar e s ti ll n ot c o mp l e te f o r o n e r e aso n o r an oth e r. 4 13 See a l so Ra i l tran s po rt i n In di a Hi g h-s peed ra i l i n In di a Ra p i d tran s i t i n In di a Li s t o f ra i l w a y s ta ti o n s i n In di a Li s t o f n am ed passe ng e r tra i n s o f In di a Li s t o f l o ng e s t tra i n se rvi c e s i n In di a Li s t o f c o un tri e s b y ra i l tran s po rt n e tw o r k s i ze All In di a S ta ti o n Mas te rs’ Assoc i a ti o n AISMA T a tk a l Sc h e m e 14 Re f e r e n c e s 1 “Ti m e s o f In di a” . The Times o f India . In di a. 15 Ap ri l 2010. 2 “Ra i l w a y s Fi sc a l Bud g e t 2015-16” PDF. Re tri e v ed F e b 26 2015. 3 http://indianrailways.gov.in/railwayboard/uploads/ directorate/stat_econ/IRSP_2013- 14/pdf/Statistical_ Summary/Summary20Sheet_Eng.pdf 4 http://www.indianrailways.gov.in/railwayboard/uploads/ directorate/finance_budget/2014- 15_Final/English 20- 20Railway20Budget20Speech202014- 15. pdf 5 http://www.core.indianrailways.gov.in/ 6 “A bo ut In di an Ra i l w a y s-Ev o l uti o n” . Mi ni s try o f Ra i l w a y s w e bs i te. 7 Bang la d e p i a 8 “Al w a y s th e sec o n d s ta ti o n” . Th e Hi n d u. 3 Ju l y 2006. 9 “In di an T ram w a y Li mi ted”. H er epath’s R ail wa y and C om- mer cial J ournal . 32 1595: 3. Jan uary 1 1870. 10 “R.P. Sax e n a In di an Ra i l w a y Hi s to ry Ti m e li n e” . Irse.b ra v e h os t.c o m. Re tri e v ed 2012-12-15.

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12 14 R E F E R E N C ES 11 Sh y am Rungta 1970. The R ise o f B usiness C orpor a- tions in India 1851–1900 . Cam b ri d g e U.P. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-07354-7 . Bri ti s h i n v e s tm e n t i n In di an ra i l w a y r e a c h e s £100m b y 1875 12 “Hi s to ry o f In di an Ra i l w a y s” . Irf c a.o r g. Re tri e v ed 2012- 12-15. 13 Sw ee n e ty S tuart 2015. Financing India’s Imper ial R ail- wa ys 1875–1914 . Lo n d o n: Ro utl ed g e. p p. 186–188. ISBN 1317323777. 14 “T o p In di an Ra i l w a y F a c ts” . In di an Ra i l w a y. 15 San d e s L t Co l E.W.C. 1935. The Military Engineer in India V ol I I . Ch a th am: Th e In s ti tuti o n o f Ro y a l Engi- n ee rs. 16 “Mi ni s try o f Ra i l w a y s Ra i l w a y Boar d" . www. indianrailways.gov.in . Re tri e v ed 2015-09-23. 17 http://www.indianrail.gov.in/ir_zones.pdf 18 Si ng h Vi j a y P ra ta p 27 F e b ruary 2010. “SMS c o mp la i n t s y s te m: A No rth e rn Ra i l w a y b ra i n w a v e s p r e a d s” . Indian Expr ess . Re tri e v ed 2012-01-19. 19 Indian R ail wa ys F acts and Figur es 2011–2012 . Mi ni s try o f Ra i l w a y s Go v e rnm e n t o f In di a . 2012. p. pe rso nn e l. Re tri e v ed 21 Ju l y 2013. 20 “Zo n e s an d th e i r Di vi s i o n s i n In di an Ra i l w a y s” PDF. In- di an Ra i l w a y s. Re tri e v ed 26 A u gus t 2011. 21 “Sa l e m ra i l w a y di vi s i o n f o rm ed i n 2005" . http://www. sr.indianrailways.gov.in/ . Re tri e v ed 2012-10-07. Ex te r- n a l li nk i n |p u b li s h e r h e l p 22 “Ne w ra i l w a y di vi s i o n i n Gu lbar g a to be un d e r SWR” . The Hindu . 2014-03-06. ISSN 0971-751X . Re tri e v ed 2015- 12-25. 23 “Ra i l w a y Boar d Di r ec to ra te s” . I N D I AN R AI L W A Y ES- T AB LI S H M E N T C O D E . In di an Ra i l w a y s. 24 “In di an Ra i l w a y s l e v e l w hi c h c o n s ti tute s th e Go v e rni ng Co un c i l o f Assoc i a ti o n” . i rts.o r g.i n. 25 “RRB Noti fi c a ti o n s " 26 “In di an Ra i l w a y s Es ta b li s hm e n t Man ua l” . rr c b.g o v.i n. 27 “RRB NTPC e x am 2016” . i n di an e x p r e ss.c o m. 28 http://www.rediff.com/business/report/ pix- indias- first- cng- train- flagged- off/20150115.htm . |fi rs t1 mi ss i ng |las t1 i n A uth o rs li s t h e l p Mi ss i ng o r e mpty |ti tl e h e l p 29 “Ne w T ec hn o l o gy a ll o w s Ra i l w a y s to sa v e Rs 20 La kh s Di e se l pe r Engi n e” . Re tri e v ed 6 Se pte m be r 2013. 30 In di an Ra i l w a y s j o i n s 1 b i lli o n to nn e c l u b i n f r e i g h t l oa d- i ng - Y a h oo Ne w s In di a . In.n e w s.y a h oo.c o m 2013-04- 02. Re tri e v ed o n 2013-07-16. 31 “BLC-A Co n ta i n e r Fla t W a g o n” . Ti ta g ar h W a g o n s Li m- i ted. Re tri e v ed 2014-04-27. 32 “T o y T ra i n s o f In di a” . Our Tr ips – R o yal Tr ain T our s . In di a Ca lli ng T o urs P Li mi ted. Re tri e v ed 12 Ma y 2007. 33 Ra i l w a y s IIT-Ma dras ti e u p to po w e r AC c oa c h e s wi th so lar e n e r gy | Ne w s | Ec o-Bus i n e ss - As i a’s Cl e an tec h Sus ta i n a b l e Bus i n e ss Co mm uni ty . Ec o-Bus i n e ss 2013- 08-05. Re tri e v ed o n 2013-08-17. 34 “In di an Ra i l w a y s d e v e l o ps A uto m a ti c Fi r e an d Sm o k e De- tec ti o n Sy s te m” . Re tri e v ed 5 Se pte m be r 2013. 35 “GE Al s to m lan d 5.6-b i lli o n d e a l s to s u p p l y l oc o m oti v e s f o r ra i l w a y s” . Economic Times . 10 No v e m be r 2015. Re- tri e v ed 13 No v e m be r 2015. 36 “In di an Ra i l w a y s g e ts fi rs t m od e l ra k e o f l uxury Ma k e i n In di a c oa c h e s” . Th e Ec o n o mi c Ti m e s. Be nn e t t Co l e m an Co. L td. 11 Jan uary 2016. Re tri e v ed 13 Jan uary 2016. 37 “In di an Ra i l w a y s un v e i l s Ma k e i n In di a tra i n c oa c h e s wi th n e w l oo k” . Th e Fi n an c i a l Ex p r e ss. Th e In di an Ex- p r e ss Gr o u p. 13 Jan uary 2016. Re tri e v ed 13 Jan uary 2016. 38 “Loc o m oti v e F a c to ri e s i n Bi h ar: In c o l d s to ra g e f o r y e ars tw o Ra i l w a y p r o j ec ts to s tart soo n” . Indian Expr ess . 30 Oc to be r 2015. Re tri e v ed 31 Oc to be r 2015. 39 “GE Ge ts 2.6 Bi lli o n In di an Ra i l w a y s Co n tra c t” . W all Str eet J ournal . 9 No v e m be r 2015. Re tri e v ed 9 No v e m be r 2015. 40 “Ra i l mi ni s try a w ar d s Rs 14656-c r Mar h o wra l oc o m oti v e p r o j ec t to GE” . B usiness Standar d . 9 No v e m be r 2015. Re tri e v ed 9 No v e m be r 2015. 41 “In di a a p p r o v e s n e w ra i l w a y li nk wi th Bang la d e s h” . Tw oCi r c l e s.n e t. Re tri e v ed 2012-12-15. 42 “Ra i l li nk f r o m Mani p ur to Vi e tn am o n c ar d s: Th ar oo r” . 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Re tri e v ed 5 Jan uary 2009. 50 “100 y e ars o f p i n e-sc e n ted tra v e l” . Re tri e v ed 14 F e b ruary 2009. |fi rs t1 mi ss i ng |las t1 i n A uth o rs li s t h e l p 51 “T ra i n Ro ute” . pa la c e w h ee l s.n e t. Re tri e v ed 2014-04-27.

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13 52 “Ro y a l Ra j as th an o n Wh ee l s Iti n e rary | T o ur P r o gram f o r 2014–15” . Ro y a l s ra j as th an o n w h ee l s.c o m. Re tri e v ed 2014-04-27. 53 “Th e Ma h ara j as’ Ex p r e ss T ra i n Jo urn e y s Se aso n 2014– 2015” . Th e-m a h ara j as.c o m. Re tri e v ed 2014-04-27. 54 Mi ni s try o f Ra i l w a y s Ra i l w a y Boar d 55 “T o ur Iti n e rary - T o ur Iti n e rary o f Go l d e n Ch ari ot T ra i n Iti n e rary o f Go l d e n Ch ari ot T ra i n” . Go l d e n c h ari ot- tra i n.c o m. Re tri e v ed 2014-04-27. 56 “So uth e rn Sp l e n d o ur T o ur - So uth In di a T o ur an d So uth In di a T o ur P a c k a g e” . Go l d e n c h ari ot tra i n.c o m. Re tri e v ed 2014-04-27. 57 “Mi ni s try o f Ra i l w a y s Ra i l w a y Boar d" . In di anra i l- w a y s.g o v.i n. Re tri e v ed 2014-04-27. 58 “Hi ll tra i n s” . Ar c hi v ed f r o m th e o ri gi n a l o n 22 A u gus t 2008. Re tri e v ed 14 F e b ruary 2009. 59 Ja gri ti Y a tra 8 Se pte m be r 2015. “Ja gri ti Y a tra - En- tr e p r e n e ur’s T ra i n Jo urn e y” . j a gri ti y a tra.c o m. Re tri e v ed 2015-09-08. 60 In di an Ra i l w a y s 11 A u gus t 2015. “Kum b h Me la Spec i a l T ra i n s” . c h ec k p nrs ta tus i r c tc.i n. Re tri e v ed 2015-08-11. 61 In di an Ra i l w a y s 17 Dec e m be r 2015. “Mum ba i Ce n tra l wi ll be fi rs t s ta ti o n to g e t f r ee hi g h s peed WiFi” . i n di- an tra i n.i n. Re tri e v ed 2015-12-17. 62 Mani s h U m b ra jk ar 8 Ju l y 2009. “Ol d- ti m e rs r ec o ll ec t d o u b l e-d ec k e r da y s” . Arti- c l e s.ti m e so fi n di a.i n di a ti m e s.c o m. Re tri e v ed 2012-12-15. 63 “Fi rs t AC Do u b l e Dec k e r T ra i n i n In di a” . Man a g eInf o. 16 Ju l y 2015. Re tri e v ed 2015-07-16. 64 “In di an Ra i l w a y s Li f e li n e to th e n a ti o n… – So uLS tee r Ma g azi n e” . So uLS tee r.c o m. 16 Ap ri l 2013. Re tri e v ed 2013-04-16. 65 http://www.indianrailways.gov.in/railwayboard/uploads/ directorate/finance_budget/2014- 15_Final/Budget 20Speech202014- 1520Highlights20_English_ PDF.pdf 66 http://www.livemint.com/r/LiveMint/Period1/2014/07/ 08/Photos/w_Rail_Budget_Precursor_grfx.jpg 15 Furth e r r e a di ng A gu i ar Mari an. Tr acking M odernity: India’s R ail- wa y and the Cultur e o f M obility 2011 Be ar La ura. Lines o f the N ation: Indian R ail wa y W or k er s B ur eaucr ac y and the Intimate Histor ical Sel f Co l um b i a U ni v e rs i ty P r e ss 2007 ISBN 978- 0-231-14002-7 Ti w ari Ram s w aru p D. R ail wa ys In M odern India 2007 1941 ISBN 978-1406748123 V.M. Go vi n d Kri s hn an N M R Nilgir i M ountain R ail wa y- F r om Li f eline to Obli vion 16 Ex te rn a l li nk s Mi ni s try o f In di an Ra i l w a y s Offi c i a l w e bs i te In di an Ra i l w a y s Li v e Inf o rm a ti o n Offi c i a l w e bs i te In di an Ra i l w a y s Ro lli ng S toc k Ma i n te n an c e

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14 17 T E X T AN D I M A G E SO U R C ES C O N T R I B UT O R S AN D LI C E N S ES 17 T e x t an d i m a g e so ur c e s c o n tri b uto rs an d li c e n se s 17.1 T e x t In di an Ra i l w a y s Sour ce: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Railwaysoldid732868286 C ontr ibutor s: Man as k b Si m o nP Ga ura v Ra h u le n wi ki Wi lli am M. Co nn o ll e y Se lk e t Ic eKarm a Tp b ra db ury Cl ed uc Kaa l Ed g2s Ma c k e n se n Ra u l654 Je ff q Goe th e an A uri c Sunra y Je r oe n Plan d u Nee l v k Rud o lf 1922 Ni c h a l p Bi n a d ot Mi c h a e l De v o r e RSc h e i be r Dun c h arri s Sun dar Bo b b l e wi k W m a- h an U tc ursc h Bo zMo Mu k e r j ee Joss i Rd s mi th4 Re ti r edUse r2 Bi n an d Pi c a p i c a DMG413 Es pe ran t Jo j o1000 RossP a t te rso n Ri c h F arm b r o u g h Sla d e n Eri c ami c k Murtasa As h w a th am Be n d e r235 Alr e n El C Dh oo m Ro yBo y Ma i ri Jp g o r d o n Ca usa s u i Bo bo192 Gi raff eda ta Dra j p ut Slam bo Gh ose b Kb i r1 Idl e gu y Jo n a th un d e r SPUI Nsaa JY o lk o w s ki Wi ki-u k Ba ba j o b u Ri c ky81682 Ra y- m o n d Geo r g eS te pan e k W tmi tc h e ll Ni khi la j a i n Twi s p Ge n e Ny g aar d IMp bt In s tan tn ood Bo b ra yn e r Al vi s Ary asan y a l W oo h oo ki t ty RHa w o rth Br h as pa ti Gu y M Gan e s hk Cr h ari s h Man dar d s W a d eSi mMi se r T a b l e to p K e li s i I64s SDC Phl e bas Ma ti l da Kbdank71 De v an j edi DePi e p Dw a i pa y an c T t j ose p h Vbe r g e re n wi ki R j wi lm s i Ti m P ra tee k01 T a w k e r Bri g h te r o rang e Th e wu b Bh a dani Ra vi k Ma psMan SNIy e r12 Sa k s h am Ian Pi tc hf o r d RCRC Ro be rtG Asee m s j o hri Red w o lf24 Ti j uan a Brass Mp ra d ee p Co n s um ed Crus ta c e an Russa vi a Guru b ra hm a DaGi zza Bgw hi te Gw e rn o l Y uri kBot Kaf zi e l RussBot Sp las h Op. Deo S to rm ba y Ga i us Co r- n e li us Rs ri k an th05 Gs i ng h Gc a p p1959 Ra k3s h Ca l s i c o l Th a td o g Fri tzG W e l s h R j e n se n Ho w c h e ng Re w ar d Sud ee pd e nni s Bl o r e bo y Su pte n Ma k eCh ooCh ooGoNo w Do n c ram Dee pa ke n wi ki Wkni g h t94 Mi k e Se li nk e r Br o ze n N.da vi e si c.a c.u k Gp pan d e T arun uee Joann eB Sh y am Wh o bot Tyr e ni us P ra th ee p ps Rr ed w e ll Ne i lN P r e mkud v a Ri y azus m an Plan e m a d Sm a c kBot Y e ll o wMo nk e y W a q as.us m an P g k Th un d e r bo l tz An as tr o p h e Ma u l s Y am a guc hi Ji mm yCra c k edCo rn Co mp la i n s ON a wi ki pedi a Gi lli am Pp n- to ri An w ar saa da t Chri s th e s pe ll e r Em uf arm e rs Sn a gra j Wi lli am All e n Si mpso n Shi v a p Милан Јелисавчић Orp h anBot W w2c e n so r Rr b ur k e Ru b be r so u l Ki ng d o n Ne0Fr eed o m Vp ra jkum ar Le g a l e a g l e86 Su b b u k am a tc hi T ec hPuri s m Sa l t Y e ung He nni ng Ma kh o lm Li gu l e m bot Oh c o nf uc i us Am arty a ba g Iba ll Sri k e i t Sara v an p Jo hn Gn t Mvi n oos Sh y am s un d e r Th e Si l e n t Co n tri b uto r Maxi m v s- Dec i m v s LarryBH T as tyP o uti n e Am b u j.Sax e n a P e te r Ho rn Sk a b ra h am Dl2000 Hu12 T o m w ood0 Y o urs tru l y P ram od pan v e l Re k- i s hiEJ Na tra j dr A bdaa l Ra viC Ni rax Ran dhi rr ed d y Al e j r b As hLi n WHA T a i n tNOc o un tryIe v e rHEARDo fDO th e ySPEAK e ng li s h- INw h a t Spo o ni s t Mdza ki an sari Chri sa hn K e n Ga lla g e r M j f dl Cy d e bot Co m ar4 Vi n oo202 Mi k e Chri s ti e Chi lam b u Rami tm a h a- j an Go g o Dod o Rm an o h ari y e r Co rp x Oxym an42 Vi sc i o us81 Dum bBOT Mo n s te r e a g l e Ri v a tp hi l K o zuc h P r ee ti k a poo r0 Sc arp y T AG.Od e ssa T e j as.B Ja y.He r e Th e vi k asIN Jam e sAM Ro h anDhru v a K g o n sa l Mi c h a e lXXLFe n wi ki Ra j a t Bh ar g a v Vi j a yP a di y ar Ch a l e y e r61 Ra vi p k b Mar o kwi tz V e l m uru g an84 Ran d o mRod e n t In di anGe n e ra li s t Si l v e r se r e n Gzli888 T ra k e s h t Qw e rty Bi n ary Mi k eLyn c h Ek a b hi s h e k Di n a k arr MER-C Th e T ran s h um ani s t NE2 D ji h ed Ch an a ky a th e gr e a t Ku w arOnli n e Hut 8.5 Bra c kn e ll Ra ji s h e v தொழில்நுட்பம்e n wi ki Ma t tIo w a1 Ak b ra i l Ma gi o la di ti s R c n t Fr eed o mli n ux A b 18 Jam e sBW a tso n P ra v ee np Ar- n a vwi k W aa c s ta ts Bruse g a di Je r o j e 28421u2232nf e nf c e n c Hami l to n s to n e Hk e lk ar P arun a c h De rHe x e r Vs ta ta Ma t ti n b gn Th e s ti c k P a u l y04 Dun c an7670 Sm arti nf otec k3 SI4 Ki o r e Ji m.h e n d e rso n Ra vi c h an dar84 K e i th D RnB Co mm o n sDe li nk e r A g arw a lSum ee t F c o n a w a y Gn an a p i ti Da vi dB601 A bec edar e Ma h e s h v e n u T e rr e k T uc k e rtuc k e rtuc k e rtuc k e r Rdhi n a k ar An c hi tk Bot-Sc h af te r Ka l y an gnp Jee pda y Ski e r Dud e La ll so n s Nan as ur Ah us k a y K y li eT as ti c Jos h ua Issa c Uh a i Sw a p ni l2809 Ni nni s hi p ra Seose rvi c e s Lo g- i c wi ki Bo n a d e a Angus Th eod e n1001 De b ra jb h a t t Lo gi cDi c ta te s P ri tam nk s Shra v an.b h a gw a t Sq u i d s an d Chi ps Do n vi kr o Si gn a l- h e a d V o lk o vBot Saf e m ari n e r Ca l vi ng a o Th o m as.W S tary as h Sm ra b Fun dam e n ta l m e tri c te n so r T e ssc ass Aln o k taBOT U m ar420e Phi li p T rue m an Jam e s.m e rwi n Gi mm eBot Vi p i nh ari Na v ee np f Mar c us334 Ch ar l e sdra k e w Me tas ur ARUNKUMAR P.R Ni kku l T ri400 As h o k p un di t A dam.J.W.C. 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Y a d v e n d u Gh j-AA4 Bi z- d o m GDi b y e n d u L u wi l t A d dbot Cod e.b l o wfi s h Nara y an s g Y oe ni t Gb i ssa Kn o w l ed g eHe g e m o n yP art2 P a tri c kFla h e rty V ee r li k e s y o u Ci tyv a l yu MrOlli e Li h aas Je ll e v c Ro ux F a v o ni an Li nkF A-Bot Co n ti n e n ta lA v e Fi r e ax e888 Jase p l Ga i l Zo rr o bot Gi r gi ry a A b h a y03533 En th us i as t10 As hi s h b i j w e24 Y o bot T ra c kCo nn ec t P t bot g o ur o u Fra gg l e81 Mu lli g a ta wn y08 KHP2 Df c o n w a y 12s y d An o mi eBOT Ma di ra o7 De m oc ra ti cL un tz Ji m1138 P o k a larudra Pi an o n o n tr o p po Khi c h di2008 Ran d o mA c t Ma te ri a l sc i e n ti s t Ci- ta ti o n bot An u jkh an d e l w a l Li lHe l pa Am ar kh a d e123 X q bot Ra j a ta g l Knp ra d ee p77 S h i v a Vi s n u Ki ran s ri ng e ri Ca p ri c o rn42 Arn a b kl4 Mzzyzx Le l e gi ann o ni Am boe i ng747 Gan j ud ee pa k Ji t.g h os h20 V gri c h ar d s SassoBot Th e In te ri o r Saa l s ti n Ro hi t1987 P ran a v011 Mi t ta l.f dk In c i di o us P ra gv an s h P e te r Skuc e En d oth e rmi c A b hi las hk o us hi k6 Th e h e l p f u lbot Sk c p u b li c Fr e sc oBot Note th- e r e n ot In di anp i t ta Hpc os Am o ln a i k3k Ma y ankv e rm a.p Ge n s to rm555 T ran s p m as te r995 Pi n e thi c k e t I dr e am o f h o rse s De b k a l pa Sus pe n d edSky Jo n e se y95 T o m.Redi ng SAMUDAR Se r o l s De v o pam Ku be ran s w e Maxi m um927 Ni ri n sani ty Ju be l j o y T ra i n2104 Ak2431989 Me r li n so r c a Di ann aa U dangng W o r l d8115 Ba la b li tz Me an as c us tar d R j wi lm s iBot Be n to00 Mars h a ll1984 Bh a w ani Ga u- tam Ra j a kum arra j a T o j o667 Darni r r edh a t V e nk a tarv Is h tar456 Sh s hnk Em a usBot Jo hn o f Re a di ng A v e n ue X a t Ci c e r o Loo k2See1 An ura g to b y An s h um an.j rt Go i ngBa t ty Ma h e s h Na gr e A j a i 56789 Vi j e thn b h ara d w a j T o mm y2010 Bh ara th K As rani In c razy Ani rudh Em ani Kkm010 F æ Jos v e05a T ri ni da d e P ra di p g ara la Jo hn s mi th0097 H3llBot Ranm5 QEDK Ka i v a l y ara w a l Bra j8051 Do nn e r60 Akhi r oc k s h e r e T axi bo y277 As hi s h i tc t Aze0098 Ge rm anJoe Nz101 ClamDi p S ta ti c d Sh o b hi t Gosa i n Me g h d oot b 28bot Kl eo pa- tra Da v e y2010 He l pso m e Cl ueBot NG Gar e th Gri ffi th-Jo n e s In d w ar Mus hr oo m9 Ma pso fi n di a1 Wi ki s ur e Vi n a y k1980 KALX999 Ti np i sa Sn ot bot Bruc e fi s h Wi dr Nan dan l e l e1 A di ty am a dh a v83 Sank da d ud e Ranm92 He l p f u l Pi xi e Bot Ba b u lba i s h y a Be n a i a h.j o hn S tri k e Ea g l e Arun Kum ar Gu pta DBi gXra y Wi kiGu i tari s t BG19bot Ranm55 MKar Dhru vpa t Noo p ur28 Akhi l.j a i n93 Ci tyOfSi l v e r Na v h us So lari s t 99 P ri y a kun d u Vi j e thm o v e Vk s f oe Mus i kAni m a l Apos tl eV o nCo l o ra d o A v oc a toBot Am o g h.C Alang ar Mani c k am So um y a wi ki e r Fl y2Bl ue De v a d yuti n a g T a p uu Co mp f r e a k7 Vi n a yn b h ar d w a j Ni g h ti ng a l ec Chri s to.se bas ti n Ch a ll e ng e th e li mi ts Ak- s h a ySe th20 Vi n09 Ja y a d e vp13 A ar o n-T ri pe l An an dra vi S tri k e r18 Ani rudh sax e n a RGl o uc e s te r A a gn e y aa tr e y a A y an wi ki Fr ee te n d e rs Pu lki t.26m ar T anm o y705 A di2999 Ba t tyBot Ami tr oc h a te s Su pe rn o v aEx p l os i o n P ra tyy a Gh os h Vi c to r Y us Ir k arthi k 27 As g19 Cy- be r bot II Ak bar795 Ka li f786 Vi k1697 Oran jb l ud As h uraza Mi n2wi ni t Kh azar2 Cpt.a.h a d d oc k De x bot Bi gJo ll y9 Ma g e n ti c Mani- f e s ta ti o n s Bi li ngua l2000 25 Ce n ts FC Mo gi s m Sw aru ps k d.wi ki As h wi n147 Gf osank ar L u gi a2453 Co p pe r c hl o ri d e Ar j un c m3 Je m a p- pe ll e ung ar c o n Jam e s x12345 Josc eo Josc eo b l Ra jkum ar420a b P ank a j Oudhi a Muni y ank aru p pan Nee lk am a la 900mi ll Y u v aAs hi s h Ni thi nn an da kum aar F a i zan Ep i c g e ni us Seq q i s P ra c hi.j n u Ra ji v11112 Ai s m a thi ruc hi He m an t.m e h ta86 Mo h an ta dh an an j a y P o n s un- dar87 On e fi v e ni n e7 Jo hn Sn o w II T e n ti n a to r Ak s h un s Ir c tc l o gi n Ra h u lHe x Ev an o1v an E tri pa thi1994 Sam b i tu pa dh y a y2000 An- i te k b h a t ta c h ary a Co mm o n s s i b i He r o919 San j ee v s i ng h144 Ri zw anm a h a i Wi ki use r13 U g o g Ni zdas t Ni khi lmn2002 My n am e i s n ot

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17.2 Imag es 15 da v e P ri th vi2003 Not th e be s tuse rn am e K oo l so l Alan w a k e35 Ka i las h e r Quartzd Ri s h a v ra k s hi t 12vi sa kh v a FrB.T G Co nn ym e nze l ARUNEEK Ja c o n aFr e r e La kun.pa tra Wi s i t007 Ri n ji th Ti m eSku ll Arun vrpara vur Bri j e s h 123 T ra v e lKh an a V arti k a35 Sh oe bs i d- di q ue Sam y a k o nli n e i n di a Fi l ed e li nk e r bot Bo n dban a d o n 27kk Su b ra t330 Ra ji v77 SR0330 L u i giBarzi ni Hars h a lkr Ra j e n dra n ara y an di gi A b hi s h e k151986 P nrs ta tus wi ki Vk859179 Vi s hn usan th os K o ba ki AAKA SH KHET AN T anm a y aP an da Kun a l Nar e n dra Sar k ar Mura li.r1982 Sa tee s h s u j ee v Vi m a lkr h an s Ras hmi k a k a d Go l u7276 Jo n a th an arp i th Guth e.gi ri s h T anm a y T arun Ar g h a2399 So n a1994 Nar ky Bl e rt A b hi kh o pa d e123 Vi m a lkv e rm a Ramp rasa d V e nk a te s h a Ra i lf anmi hi r Ch o kk a.ra g h u v ee r Mi k e3688 Coo l yu vi91 T e j a s ri ni v as Vi vu para d e Sa y am bo hra Am o g h j os hi.46 Sudhi r d e s h w a l Inf e rn o2020 F e r o ze Ahm a d 2 In di a mi ss i o n 2024 Vi v e kkus h1983 Ankus h 89 Sa ury a s hi v a Ti g e r7253 Kas parBot F c u ki n di a Ca pank a j s mi l y o ArtZ72 A usLo n d o n d e r P r e ri k a gu pta g k Do ng ar Ka th o r e k ar A vi Dh a ll Kun a l AN Sar k ar Sa i pa w an1 Dus h an y k Ra j e s h.rps P ri y a dars hi vi s h a l23 Dus h an7k Man a g e i nf o Vi n yS Fi l p r o Mo h d T o u k ee r S tartu pAs h Ran u s h arm a gw Man o jAMK Jo hn so nk a t007 CLCS tud e n t Kaa basan e An u j e ngg Is h a q ue.m o h amm ed8 All th e- f o x e s Dps hmrt Hum an w e b Mo h an Bh ar g a v a Ne ts tar1 Sa h aArn a b Di gi2016 Se li m s k33 Wi nk d o m Ch an dra p urn a d e v Aru pe s h Sar k ar Gr.m a dh u k ar Sh a h a b ud di nm In s i d e i n di a an d An o n ym o us: 993 17.2 Im a g e s File:Agony_point_1921.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Agony_point_1921.jpg License: Pu b- li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: http://www.dhrs.org/home.htm Or iginal artist: U nkn o wna hr e f//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718 ti tl ewikidata:Q4233718i mg a l twikidata:Q4233718 s r chttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/ Wikidata- logo.svg/20px- Wikidata- logo.svg.png wi d th20 h e i g h t11 s r c se thttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ thumb/f/ff/Wikidata- logo.svg/30px- Wikidata- logo.svg.png 1.5x https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/ Wikidata- logo.svg/40px- Wikidata- logo.svg.png 2x da ta-fi l e-wi d th1050 da ta-fi l e-h e i g h t590 //a File:Allahabad_Railway_Station.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Allahabad_Railway_Station.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Maxwra th File:Ambox_important.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Ambox_important.svg License: Pu b li c d o- m a i n C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k based o ff o f Image:Ambox sc a l e s.s v g Or iginal artist: Ds m ura t ta lk · c o n tri bs File:BSicon_BAHN.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/23/BSicon_BAHN.svg License: CC0 C ontr ibutor s: BSi c o n_TRAIN.s v g Or iginal artist: BSi c o n_TRAIN.s v g : Lam ban o g File:Bangalore- City- Stn.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Bangalore- City- Stn.jpg License: CC BY- SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Rs ri k an th05 File:Bbrailhq.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Bbrailhq.jpg License: Pu b li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: o wn so ur c e Or iginal artist: d e bas i s File:Beyer.Garrett.6594.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Beyer.Garrett.6594.jpg License: CC-BY- SA-3.0 C ontr ibutor s: T ran s f e rr ed f r o m e n.wi ki pedi a to Co mm o n s. Or iginal artist: Nan as ur a t Eng li s h Wi ki pedi a File:Bombay- Thana- train- 1853.png Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Bombay- Thana- train- 1853.png License: Pu b li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: Or iginal artist: File:CC_class_seats_in_Mysore_Shatabdi.JPG Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/CC_class_seats_in_ Mysore_Shatabdi.JPG License: GFDL C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: P ra tee k Karan di k ar File:Commons- logo.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons- logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 C ontr ibu- tor s: Or iginal artist: File:Edit- clear.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f2/Edit- clear.svg License: Pu b li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: Th e T ang o Desktop P r o ject . Or iginal artist: Th e peo p l e f r o m th e T ang o p r o j ec t . An d a c c o r di ng to th e m e ta-da ta i n th e fi l e s pec i fi c a ll y: “An dr e as Ni l sso n an d Ja ku b S te i n e r a l th o u g h mi ni m a ll y.” File:Fastest_train_of_India.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c5/Fastest_train_of_India.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Sa h aArn a b File:Flag_of_India.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg License: Pu b li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: Or iginal artist: File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-b y- sa-3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Or iginal artist: File:Garib_Rath.JPG Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Garib_Rath.JPG License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ib- utor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: KALX999 File:Guwahati_Railway_Station_at_Night.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Guwahati_Railway_ Station_at_Night.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Sura j Kum ar Das File:Habibganj- JabalpurJS.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/70/Habibganj- JabalpurJS.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Sh an.H.F e rn an d e s File:Howrah_Station.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Howrah_Station.jpg License: CC0 C ontr ibu- tor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Lo v edi mp y File:Howrahwap730295.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/Howrahwap730295.jpg License: CC BY- SA 4.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Vi n yS File:Increase2.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Increase2.svg License: Pu b li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Sarang File:India_railways1909a.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/India_railways1909a.jpg License: Pu b li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: Or iginal artist:

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16 17 T E X T AN D I M A G E SO U R C ES C O N T R I B UT O R S AN D LI C E N S ES File:IndianRailways1871b.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/IndianRailways1871b.jpg License: Pu b- li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: Sc ann ed r ed uc ed an d u p l oa d ed f r o m pe rso n a l c o p y b y a hr e fhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Fowler 26fowler c lasse x ti w ti tl een:User:Fowlers pan/s panf o w l e rF o w l e rf o w l e r/aa hr e fhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_ talk:Fowler26fowler c lasse x ti w ti tl een:User talk:Fowlers pan/s panf o w l e r«T a lk»/a 00:53 15 No v e m be r 2009 UT C. T ran s f e rr ed f r o m e n.wi ki pedi a tran s f e rr ed to Co mm o n s b y User:Innotata us i ng Co mm o n sHe l pe r . Or iginal artist: Sa un d e rs Geo gra p h e rs File:Indian_Railway.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/ba/Indian_Railway.svg License: F a i r use C ontr ibutor s: Th e l o g o m a y be o bta i n ed f r o m In di an Ra i l w a y s. Or iginal artist: File:Indian_Railways.ogg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Indian_Railways.ogg License: CC-BY-SA- 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: De ri v a ti v e o f In di an Ra i l w a y s Or iginal artist: Spe a k e r: Am b u j.sax e n a In di an Ra i l w a y s File:Indian_Railways_Headquarters.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Indian_Railways_ Headquarters.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Se lf-p h oto gra p h ed Or iginal artist: User:Deepak File:Indian_Railways_Network_Connectivity_Map_with_cities_and_population_density.png Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Indian_Railways_Network_Connectivity_Map_with_cities_and_population_density.png License: CC BY- SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Plan e m a d File:Indian_sleeper_coach.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2e/Indian_sleeper_coach.jpg License: GFDL C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Df o r e s t File:Inside_a_3- tier_AC_Compartment_Dakshin_Express.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/ Inside_a_3- tier_AC_Compartment_Dakshin_Express.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Aze0098 File:Jabalpur_Station.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Jabalpur_Station.jpg License: CC BY 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Sw a p ni l.Da vi d File:Jaipur_03- 2016_32_Jaipur_railway_station.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/Jaipur_ 03- 2016_32_Jaipur_railway_station.jpg License: F AL C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: A.Sa vi n Wi ki m edi a Co mm o n s · W i k iP hotoSpace File:Kollam_Platform’s_eastern_end.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Kollam_Platform27s_ eastern_end.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: T a k e n b y us i ng m y Ni k o n Coo l p i x P90 c am e ra an d edi ted us i ng Pi c asa Or iginal artist: Arun vrpara vur File:Meter_gauge_tracks_at_Mahesana_Junction.JPG Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Meter_ gauge_tracks_at_Mahesana_Junction.JPG License: CC BY-SA 4.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Ak s h un s File:Mumbai_03- 2016_66_Victoria_Terminus.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Mumbai_ 03- 2016_66_Victoria_Terminus.jpg License: F AL C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: A.Sa vi n Wi ki m edi a Co mm o n s · W i k iP hotoSpace File:Narrow_Gauge_Train_at_Rajim.JPG Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Narrow_Gauge_Train_at_ Rajim.JPG License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: P ank a j Oudhi a File:NewDeli_Mumbai_Rajdhani_AC_2_tier_new_livery.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/ NewDeli_Mumbai_Rajdhani_AC_2_tier_new_livery.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: T ran s f e rr ed f r o m e n.wi ki pedi a to Co mm o n s b y Ra viC us i ng Co mm o n sHe l pe r . Or iginal artist: T a ti ra j u.ri s h a b h a t Eng li s h Wi ki pedi a File:New_Delhi_railway_station_- _Platform_16_entrance.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/ New_Delhi_railway_station_- _Platform_16_entrance.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Su pe rf as t1111 File:Northern_Railway_Headquarters.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Northern_Railway_ Headquarters.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: AAKA SH KHET AN File:PambanBridgeIndianRailways.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b3/PambanBridge 26IndianRailways.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 C ontr ibutor s: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tracyhunter/3406098171/sizes/o/in/photostream/ Or iginal artist: T ra c y Hun te r File:Pantograaf_lichtrail.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Pantograaf_lichtrail.jpg License: CC-BY- SA-3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Or iginal artist: File:Patna_railway_station.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/Patna_railway_station.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: T anm a y T arun File:People_icon.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/People_icon.svg License: CC0 C ontr ibutor s: Ope n- Cli part Or iginal artist: Ope nCli part File:Portal- puzzle.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Portal- puzzle.svg License: Pu b li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: Or iginal artist: File:Question_book- new.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book- new.svg License: Cc-b y-sa-3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Cr e a ted f r o m sc ra tc h i n A d o be Ill us tra to r. Based o n Image:Question boo k.p ng c r e a ted b y User:Equazcion Or iginal artist: Tk g d2007 File:Railway_network_schematic_map_2009.png Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a4/Railway_network_ schematic_map_2009.png License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Or iginal artist: File:Rajdhani_First_AC1.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Rajdhani_First_AC1.jpg License: Pu b- li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: T ran s f e rr ed f r o m e n.wi ki pedi a to Co mm o n s b y Oxym an us i ng Co mm o n sHe l pe r . Or iginal artist: Th e o ri gi n a l u p l oa d e r w as Sa ty a ki ban e r j ee a t Eng li s h Wi ki pedi a

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17.3 C ontent license 17 File:Robert- Maitland- Brereton.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/Robert- Maitland- Brereton.jpg Li- cense: Pu b li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: Or iginal artist: File:Sapt_Kranti_Express_WDP_4B.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/Sapt_Kranti_Express_ WDP_4B.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: T anm a y T arun File:Sapt_Kranti_Express_waiting_for_departure_for_Anand- Vihar_TerminusT_ANVT_at_Muz affarpur_Junction_ MFP.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Sapt_Kranti_Express_waiting_for_departure_for_ Anand- Vihar_Terminus28T29_28ANVT29_at_Muzaffarpur_Junction_28MFP29.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: T anm a y T arun File:Sealdah_Railway_Station_- _Kolkata_2011- 10- 03_030250.JPG Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ b8/Sealdah_Railway_Station_- _Kolkata_2011- 10- 03_030250.JPG License: CC BY 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Bi s w aru p Gangu l y File:Secunderabad_Junction_railway_station_in_2007.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/ Secunderabad_Junction_railway_station_in_2007.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Se lf-p h oto gra p h ed Or iginal artist: Ce p h as 405 a t Eng li s h Wi ki pedi a File:Sound- icon.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Sound- icon.svg License: LGPL C ontr ibutor s: De ri v a ti v e w o r k f r o m Si l so r s v e rs i o Or iginal artist: Cry s ta l SV G i c o n se t File:Southern_Railway_HQ.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Southern_Railway_HQ.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 C ontr ibutor s: http://www.flickr.com/photos/spnjsp/3832243181/sizes/l/in/set- 72157621948279503/ Or iginal artist: http: //www.flickr.com/photos/spnjsp/ File:Steam_eng.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Steam_eng.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 C ontr ibu- tor s: T ran s f e rr ed f r o m e n.wi ki pedi a to Co mm o n s b y Oxym an us i ng Co mm o n sHe l pe r . Or iginal artist: Nan as ur a t Eng li s h Wi ki pedi a File:Symbol_template_class.svg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/5c/Symbol_template_class.svg License: Pu b li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: Or iginal artist: File:The_B.B.__C.I._Railway_Head_Offices.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/The_B.B._26_ C.I._Railway_Head_Offices.jpg License: Pu b li c d o m a i n C ontr ibutor s: http://digital.lib.uh.edu/u/p15195coll29 178 Or iginal artist: In- di a Ill us tra ted File:WAP- 5_at_Bhopal.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/WAP- 5_at_Bhopal.jpg License: CC BY- SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Sh an.H.F e rn an d e s File:WAP- 7_class_electric_locomotive_of_Indian_Railways.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/ WAP- 7_class_electric_locomotive_of_Indian_Railways.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 C ontr ibutor s: Own w o r k Or iginal artist: Sh an.H.F e rn an d e s File:WDP_4- 20012.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/WDP_4- 20012.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.5 C ontr ibutor s: T ran s f e rr ed f r o m e n.wi ki pedi a to Co mm o n s b y Oxym an us i ng Co mm o n sHe l pe r . Or iginal artist: Th e o ri gi n a l u p l oa d e r w as Me tas ur a t Eng li s h Wi ki pedi a File:Western_Railway_HQ.jpg Sour ce: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Western_Railway_HQ.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 C ontr ibutor s: http://www.flickr.com/photos/philopp/3913328848/in/photostream Or iginal artist: Ti ng Ch e n 17.3 Co n te n t li c e n se Cr e a ti v e Co mm o n s A t tri b uti o n-Sh ar e Ali k e 3.0

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