HUMAN RIGHTS: HUMAN RIGHTS A little bit of history and reality about HUMAN RIGHTS! Marloes Zanen and Xavi Llaguno Mercader A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY the ancestors of human rights: The first step to the human rights was made in 539 B.C by Cyrus the great the first king of the ancient Persia. He made the Cyrus cilinder a baked-clay cilinder were he wrote the first form of the human rights . A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY the ancestors of human rights The spread of human rights had started!: The next important docs on human right were the magna carta (1215) and the petition of right (1628) The first one was made by the english king John. He had broken several laws and was forced to write it. It’s seen as one of the most important legal docu-ments in the development of modern democracy. The petition of right was written by the English Parliament and sent to Charles I as a statement of civil liberties. It ‘s also considered very important. The spread of human rights had started ! The French Revolution and the shout for independence of the U.S.A: As we already noticed the history is full of the violation of human rights , just like what happened in U.S ( they were repressed by the Britains ). Until the day they started a revolution and years later as an explanation Thomas Jefferson wrote the United States Declaration of Independence. The american revolution was what made the french think and also what inspired them to fight for their rights. Barely had they ruined the Bastille and abolished feudalism that the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen were born. The French Revolution and the shout for independence of the U.S.A The second world war: Then when everything seemed to go in the good direction a man called Adolf Hitler spoiled it all... The world was affected by the situations that took place in the second world war: The cruelties that were being done, the hate that was being spreaded and most of all how had everybody let it go so far? It was a sign, a sign for the whole world to stop and think about a way this would never happen again… The second world war The universal declaration of HUMAN RIGHTS: Then , in 1948 the international Magna Carta for all mankind was created under the supervision of the united nations and especially Eleanor Roosevelt. It had taken many decennia , fights and other documents but finally HUMAN RIGHTS had come an reality . The universal declaration of human rights contains 30 articles and many of these rights, in various forms, are today part of the constitutional laws of democratic nations. The universal declaration of HUMAN RIGHTS HOW ABOUT SPAIN?: HOW ABOUT SPAIN? The despotism of the 18th century In Spain the fight for human rights became serious more or less around the 18th century. At that time Carlos the third was reigning over Spain and the Ancien Régime was losing it’s credibility. It was also a time of new ideas like despotism and thinking what could be the best for the people. I t was a big step, kings and queens were now not only thinking about themselves anymore. Despotism is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power although it also acts in favor of the people. The spanish constitution of 1812: The spanish constitution of 1812 also called ‘ la pepa’ was promulgated 19 march by the cortes generales (general courts ) of Spain. It has a very important historical importance because it was the first constitution of Spain and with a very liberal character for it’s time . It talked about universal male suffrage, national sovereignty , freedom of the press , supported land reform and free enterprise. The spanish constitution of 1812 The promulgation 1812 A copy of the constitution Liberalism and conservatism of the 19th century: Liberalism and conservatism of the 19th century LIBERALISM Liberalism is based on a society that is about the individual. That means that the government has to be able to guarantee rights for everybody. It’s all about the free individual (a citizen) and all of the citizens together they form the nation, who has the power. CONSERVATISM Conservatism is based on the right for people to decide for themselves and to defend their sovereignty. They want to unite nation and government, that means that inside one country they want everybody to work together. The first Spanish republic: The first S panish republic Between 1868 and 1874 Spain tried to convert itself in a democratic country. That meant to overcome the monarchical and conservative period and to start introducing the next democratic principles : universal male suffrage, political rights and broad social reforms to advance equal rights. It was the birth of the first Spanish republic. Although it had few possibilities to survive it was tried, without any success, and was suddenly finished by an political overtake. The second spanish republic and the constitution of 1931: The spanish constitution of 1931 meant the beginning of the second spanish republic. In this period both the head of state and the head of government were democratic. It was a big change from the older times and was supposed to modernisate and innovate Spain. The second spanish republic and the constitution of 1931 The Second Spanish Republic : the political period between the April 14, 1931 (date of proclamation of the republican system as a form of state organization, replacing the monarchy) and 1 April 1939 (date of the end of the Spanish Civil War, which led to the dictatorship of General Franco). The flag of the second republic The constitution of 1978 : The constitution of 1978 The Spanish constitution is the fundamental law of the kingdom of Spain. It was founded after the death of dictator Franco and was part of the transition back to an honest democracy again. In it Spain is defined as a Social and democratic state subject to the rule of law. Although this sounds very nice it isn’t in the full right of the citizens to be claimed before a court or tribunal. Monument made in honor of the constitution CATALONIA, ANOTHER STORY...: CATALONIA, ANOTHER STORY... The Núria Statute (1932) The Núria Statute was the first Statute written up in Catalonia. It was powered by the President of the “ Generalitat de Catalunya ” Francesc Macià and approved by 99 % of the voters. This Statute defined Catalonia as a nation within Spain and gave the Generalitat a broad list of attributions such as the absolute control of education and health and the creation of a Catalan Court. The Franco opposition (1939-1977): The early years of the Franco regime were marked by the repression of the vanquished. In Catalonia, tens of thousands were imprisoned, tortured and murdered because of his political activity. From the beginning of the Franco regime, began the resistance and there were formed armed groups known as “ els maquis ” who expected that the victory of the Allies in the World War II would make the overthrow of the dictatorship easier. The Franco opposition (1939-1977) The Franco opposition (1939-1977): Without support from the Allies after the war, the opponents of the regime had to change its strategy. The armed struggle was abandoned and the opposition was organized in political groups and cultural movements like the Socialist Movement of Catalonia, the CNT, some groups of the Catholic church, the student movement… The Franco opposition (1939-1977) The Statute of the 1979 (Statute of Sau): The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia is an organic law which has become the basic institution of Catalonia, according to the eighth title of the Spanish Constitution of 1978. It defines the rights and obligations of the citizens of Catalonia, the political institutions of the Catalan nationality, their competences and relations with the State and the financing of the Generalitat de Catalunya . The Statute of the 1979 (Statute of Sau ) The Statute of 2006: The new statute sets apart from the initial consideration of Catalonia as a nation, more competences in social welfare, environment, labor relations ... and proposes a new funding system that provides a greater economic capacity to the Generalitat de Catalunya . The Statute of 2006 VIOLATIONS OF OUR RIGHTS TODAY : VIOLATIONS OF OUR RIGHTS TODAY Racism THE KU KLUX KLAN: Is a U.S secret society with a strong racist and xenophobic character. This society has used the terrorism, violence and acts of intimidation such as the burning of crosses in order to oppress their victims Xenophobia : Yet another lasting example of state-imposed racial segregation is the apartheid period of South African history (1948-1994). Blacks were denied citizenship, access to quality healthcare, public services, education and all amenities which had long been declared as basic human rights. Xenophobia Sexism: COVERTURE: U.S. and English Law subscribed until the 20th century to the system of coverture, where "by marriage, the husband and wife are one person in law; the very being or legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage." Not until 1875 when women were legally defined as persons in the U.S. Sexism Homophobia: Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany: Between 1933–1945, an estimated 100,000 men were arrested as homosexuals, of which some 50,000 were officially sentenced. Homophobia The rights of the third generation: The rights of the third generation Still nowadays our rights are violated The right of self-determination of peoples the conflict between Palestine and Israel The rights of the third generation: The rights of the third generation The right of development Many children cannot go to school. The rights of the third generation: The right to healthy environment Nowadays there’s a lot of pollution out there. The rights of the third generation The rights of the third generation: The right to peace The recently civil war in Libya The rights of the third generation It’s not only about rights, humans also have the duty to contribute to society.: It’s not only about rights, humans also have the duty to contribute to society.