HUMAN RIGHTS IN SPAIN - Mariona Costa, Marloes Zanen and Sara Vazquez

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Original artwork in cover by Rut Ricart and Jana Puiggros

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Mariona Costa, Marloes Zanen and Sara Vázquez Limassol, March 2012

HUMAN RIGHTS IN SPAIN:

HUMAN RIGHTS IN SPAIN

Enlightened Despotism  Charles III (1759-1788):

Enlightened Despotism Charles III (1759-1788) When Charles III was reigning over Spain he decided to reform his government ,and to introduce despotism, where the main features were: the king had total power, but he wanted to act in favor of the people, rationing the administration of the state and an education reform. The slogan was “Everything for the people but without the people” In addition to seeking economic modernization, by the liberalization of ownership and the creation of agricultural and industrial development programs. At the same time, the monarchs defended the royal privileges for the Church. A ll individuals were entitled to an education, art schools were established, and primary education was compulsory.

The Spanish Constitution of 1812:

The S panish Constitution of 1812 The Constitution of 1812 or Constitution of Cadiz was the norm written by the “Cortes of Cadiz” in 1812. The most important point was the division of Power :  hereditary monarchy but not an absolute monarchy  Catholic Religion was the only official religion  Proposal of provincial division  Legislature to the courts  Executive Power by the King  Unicameral parliament elected by indirect voting every 2 years  The right of veto by the King  The King was inviolable  The king appoints the ministers responsible for the courts  Council of State, a sort of royal council consultative  Unification of the civil code throughout the territory  U niformity of teaching

XIX Spanish Liberals and Conservatives :

XIX Spanish Liberals and C onservatives The liberal politicians defended the constitution of a secular society without the influence of the church. They wanted to free the market and implement census suffrage , although the majority vote applied, the vote was tied to the economic status of the individual.

The Six Revolutionary years and the First Spanish Republic (1868-1874):

The Six Revolutionary years and the First Spanish Republic (1868-1874) It had 4 phases and wanted to introduce some democratic principles such as : universal male suffrage political rights broad social reforms to advance equal rights. However it didn’t last and came to its end by a political overtake. In 1874 The Borbon dinasty came back (Alfonso XII)

The Spanish Constitution 1931:

The S panish C onstitution 1931 The Spanish Constitution of 1931 was the first major reform of the government of the Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939 ). It created a new legal framework from which other legitimate reforms originated. These are the main features of the Spanish constitution of 1931 : Popular sovereignty . Universal suffrage ( vote for women was approved now) Unicameral Parliament (Congress ). Fundamental rights: new civil marriage and divorce law , inviolability of domicile, freedom of speech, freedom of association.

Franco’s Regime in Spain:

Franco’s R egime in Spain There were two sides on the war, the right wing (Nationalists) and the left wing (Republicans). The right side fought next to Franco, a dictator, and the left side, fought next to the Republican people. Franco won and the Republicans were punished whereas the right side were given privileges.

Constitution of 1978:

Constitution of 1978 The Spanish constitution is the fundamental law of the kingdom of Spain. It was founded after the death of dictator Franco and was part of the transition back to an honest democracy again . There Spain is defined as a social and democratic state subject to the rule of the law . This is the current constitution in our country nowadays.

HUMAN RIGHTS IN CATALONIA:

HUMAN RIGHTS IN CATALONIA

PowerPoint Presentation:

Catalonia is part of Spain, but most catalan people don’t share that opinion . They have been struggling for years to reach the independence and the struggle continues at this moment. Catalonia has a very different culture : a nother language ( catalan ), other traditions ,... Here’s a little bit of history about our region ! Som-hi! ( let’s go )

Statute of Núria (1932):

Statute of Núria (1932) It was the first statute of autonomy in Catalonia . It was promoted by President Francesc Macià and was approved by a referendum by 99% of voters. One of the main points of the Statute of Núria is that defines Catalonia as a state within the Spanish Republic, this proposal was not well accepted by the rest of Spain and at the end Catalonia remained an autonomous region in the Spanish state.

Opposition against Franco:

Opposition against Franco The R esistance Fighters were a group of rebels who opposed the dictator Francisco Franco. During the dictatorship, the prisons were filled with rebels. As Franco banned the Catalan language, there was a group of people fighting to preserve the Catalan and Catalan culture, among them there were several singers such as Lluis Llach , Maria del Mar Bonet , Raimon and “The Squirrels”, who formed a cultural movement called “The New Song”

1979 Statute:

1979 Statute The first elections since 1936 were held on 15 June 1977. Catalonia was given more political power. The Autonomy Statute of Catalonia recognized Catalonia as a nationality, although in fact Catalonia continues being an autonomous region in Spain . Through this statute of autonomy, Catalonia reached the recognition as a on nation of people with different culture, history and language

Regulations in 2006:

Regulations in 2006 In 2006 the statute of Catalonia was renewed. Catalonia wanted to have legal power to preserve the historical memory, the preservation of their own symbols, etc. When the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia was introduced in 2006 it was submitted to a referendum and the Generalitat approved it. When it was brought to the Spanish Government they removed many items .

HUMAN RIGHTS now:

HUMAN RIGHTS now

PowerPoint Presentation:

In Spain there exist some political parties that are xenophobes . They want to boycott the immigrants’ businesses and they blame immigrants on violence and terrorism.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In Spain, there is still violence against women . Today, Andalucía is the region where there are more cases of violence and Catalonia is the second (they are also the two most populated communities) It’s something very unnoticed because many women are afraid to report that they are being mistreated by their husbands or boyfriends.

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Homosexuality in general is accepted by our society and they have all their rights but they are still considered to be strange. Apparently everything seems ok and great but the truth is there is still a taboo on this subject and many boys and men are scared to come out and show what they really think and feel.

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The law is not racist but some attitudes are still too intolerant P eople are still very racist but that cannot be changed by the law.

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The human rights of the third generation (or Solidarity Rights) aren’t fulfilled nearly anywhere. The right to healthy environment is not accomplished either. For example, many ships dump oil into the sea. These are only examples of the human rights of the third generation which are not fulfilled.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In our opinion there’s still a lot to do, but we’ve also been through a huge change, we’ve been going from having no rights to having a whole list of them. They matter, and it’s in our hands to keep on defending them because it’s not only your future it’s everybodies . Rights that still aren’t accomplished: Article 2: Freedom from Discrimination Article 23 Right to work Article 25: Right to adequate living standard

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